|Full name||F.C. Internazionale Milano S.p.A.|
|Founded||9 March 1908|
|Owner||International Sports Capital|
|Head coach||Roberto Mancini|
|2013–14||Serie A, 5th|
|Website||Club home page|
F.C. Internazionale Milano, commonly referred to as Internazionale (pronounced [internatt͡sjoˈnaːle]) or simply Inter, and colloquially known as Inter Milan outside of Italy, is a professional Italian football club based in Milan, Lombardy. They are the only club to have spent their entire history in the top flight of Italian football, known as Serie A, which started in 1929–30.
Internazionale have won 30 domestic trophies, including the league 18 times, the Coppa Italia seven times and the Supercoppa Italiana five times. From 2006 to 2010, the club won five successive league titles, equalling the all-time record. They have won the Champions League three times: two back-to-back in 1964 and 1965 and then another in 2010, the last completed an unprecedented (for an Italian team) continental treble with the Coppa Italia and the Scudetto. The club has also won three UEFA Cups, two Intercontinental Cups and one FIFA Club World Cup.
Inter's home games are played at San Siro, also known as the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza. The stadium, which is shared with rivals Milan, is the largest in Italian football, with a total capacity of 80,018. Milan are considered one of their biggest rivals, and matches between the two teams are called Derby della Madonnina, which is one of the most followed derbies in football. As of 2010, Inter is the second-most supported team in Italy, and the eighth most supported team in Europe.[nb 1] The club is one of the most valuable in Italian and world football. It was a founding member of the now-defunct G-14 group of Europe's leading football clubs.
- 1 History
- 2 Colours and badge
- 3 Stadium
- 4 Supporters and rivalries
- 5 Players
- 6 Technical staff
- 7 Presidents and managers
- 8 Honours
- 9 Club statistics and records
- 10 FC Internazionale Milano as a company
- 11 Kit manufacturers & shirt sponsors
- 12 Affiliated clubs
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
||This section may not properly summarize its corresponding main article.|
Foundation and early years (1908–1960)
The club was founded on 9 March 1908 as Football Club Internazionale, following a "schism" from the Milan Cricket and Football Club (now A.C. Milan). The name of the club derives from the wish of its founding members to accept foreign players as well as Italians.
In 1922 Inter remained in the top league after winning two play-offs. Six years later, during the Fascist era, the club was forced to merge with the Unione Sportiva Milanese and was renamed Società Sportiva Ambrosiana. They wore white shirts around this time with a red cross emblazoned on it. This shirt design was inspired by the flag and coat of arms of the city of Milan, which in turn derives from the flag of the patron saint of Milan, St. Ambrose and dates back to the 4th century AD. The new upcoming President Oreste Simonotti decided to change name to Associazione Sportiva Ambrosiana in 1929. However, supporters continued to call the team Inter, and in 1931 new president Pozzani caved to shareholder pressure and changed the name to Associazione Sportiva Ambrosiana-Inter.
Their first Coppa Italia (Italian Cup) was won in 1938–39, led by the great legend Giuseppe Meazza, for whom the San Siro stadium is officially named, and a fifth league championship followed in 1940, despite an injury to Meazza. After the end of World War II the club re-emerged under their original name. Following the war, Inter won its sixth championship in 1953 and the seventh in 1954.
Grande Inter (1960–1968)
In 1960, manager Helenio Herrera joined Internazionale from Barcelona, bringing with him his midfield general Luis Suárez, who won the European Footballer of the Year in the same year for his role in Barcelona's La Liga/Fairs Cup double. He would transform Internazionale into one of the greatest teams in Europe. He modified a 5–3–2 tactic known as the Verrou (door bolt) to include larger flexibility for counterattacks. The Catenaccio system was invented by an Austrian coach named Karl Rappan. Rappan's original system was implemented with 4 fixed defenders, playing a strict man-to-man marking system, plus a playmaker in the middle of the field who plays the ball together with two midfield wings. Herrera would modify it by adding a fifth defenders, the sweeper or libero behind the two centre backs. The sweeper or libero who acted as the free man would deal with any attackers who went through the two centre backs. Internazionale finished 3rd in Serie A his first season, 2nd the next year and first in his 3rd season. And then followed a back-to-back European Cup victory in 1964 and 1965. Herrera earned the title ll Mago, which meant the magician. The code of Herrera's team was the fullbacks Tarcisio Burgnich and Giacinto Facchetti, Armando Picchi the sweeper, Suárez the playmaker, Jair the winger, Mario Corso the left midfielder, and Sandro Mazzola who played the inside-right.
In 1964, Internazionale reached the European Cup Final by beating Borussia Dortmund in the semifinal and FK Partizan in the quarterfinal. In the Final, they met Real Madrid, a team that had reached seven out of the nine finals to date. Mazzols scored two goals in a 3–1 victory, and then the team won the Intercontinental Cup against Independiente. A year later, Inter repeated the feat by beating two-time winner S.L. Benfica in the final held at home, from a Jair goal, and then again beat Independiente in the Intercontinental Cup.
In 1967, with Jair gone and Suárez injured, Inter lost the European Cup Final 2–1 to Celtic. The same year, the club changed its name to Football Club Internazionale Milano.
After Helenio Herrera era (1968–1990)
Following the golden era of the 1960s, Inter managed to win their eleventh league title in 1971 and their twelfth in 1980. Inter were defeated for the second time in five years in the final of the European Cup, going down 0–2 to Johan Cruijff's Ajax Amsterdam in 1972. During the 1970s and the 1980s, Inter also added two to its Coppa Italia tally, in 1977–78 and 1981–82.
Led by the German duo of Andreas Brehme and Lothar Matthäus, and Argentine Ramón Díaz, Inter captured the 1989 Serie A championship. Fellow German Jürgen Klinsmann and the Italian Supercup were added the following season but to little avail as Inter were unable to defend their title.
The 1990s was a period of disappointment. While their great rivals, Milan and Juventus, were achieving success both domestically and in Europe, Inter were left behind, with repeated mediocre results in the domestic league standings, their worst coming in 1993–94 when they finished just 1-point out of the relegation zone. Nevertheless, they achieved some European success with 3 UEFA Cup victories in 1991, 1994 and 1998.
With Massimo Moratti's takeover from Ernesto Pellegrini in 1995, Inter twice broke the world record transfer fee in this period (£19.5 million for Ronaldo from Barcelona in 1997 and £31 million for Christian Vieri from Lazio two years later). However, the 1990s remained a decade of disappointment, and is the only decade in Inter's history in which they did not win a single Italian Serie A championship. For Inter fans it was difficult to find who in particular was to blame for the troubled times and this led to some icy relations between them and the president, the managers and even some individual players.
Moratti later became a target of the fans, especially when he sacked the much-loved coach Luigi Simoni after only a few games into the 1998–99 season, after having just received Italian manager of the year award 1998 the day before being dismissed. That season Inter failed to qualify for any European competition for the first time in almost 10 years, finishing in eighth place.
The following season, Moratti appointed former Juventus manager Marcello Lippi, and signed players such as Angelo Peruzzi and Laurent Blanc together with other former Juventus players Vieri and Vladimir Jugović. The team came close to their first domestic success since 1989 when they reached the Coppa Italia final only to be defeated by Lazio.
The following season another disaster struck. Inter impressed in the Supercoppa Italiana match against Lazio and took the lead through new signing Robbie Keane and Hakan Şükür—however, they lost 4–3. They were eliminated in the preliminary round of the Champions League by Swedish club Helsingborgs IF, Álvaro Recoba missing a crucial late penalty. Lippi was sacked after only a single game of the new season following Inter's first ever Serie A defeat to Reggina. Marco Tardelli, chosen to replace Lippi, failed to improve results, and is remembered by Inter fans as the manager that lost 6–0 the city derby to Milan in the 2000–01 season. Other members of the Inter "family" during this period that suffered were the likes of Vieri and Fabio Cannavaro, both of whom had their restaurants in Milan vandalised after defeats against Milan.
In 2002, not only did Inter manage to make it to the UEFA Cup semi-finals, they were also only 45 minutes away from capturing the Scudetto, when they needed to maintain a one-goal advantage away at over Lazio. Inter were 2–1 up after only 24 minutes. Lazio equalised during first half injury time and then scored two more goals in the second half to clinch victory that eventually saw Juventus win the championship. The next season, Inter finished as league runners-up and also managed to make it to the 2002–03 Champions League semi-finals against Milan, losing on the away goals rule.
Resurrection and recent history (2004–present)
On 1 July 2004, Inter appointed former Lazio boss Roberto Mancini as new head coach. In his first season the team collected 72 points from 18 wins, 18 draws and only 2 losses, as well as winning the Coppa Italia and later the Supercoppa Italiana. On 11 May 2006, Inter retained their Coppa Italia trophy by once again, defeating Roma with a 4–1 aggregate victory (a 1–1 scoreline in Rome and a 3–1 win at the San Siro).
Inter were awarded the 2005–06 Serie A championship after points were stripped from Juventus and Milan due to the match fixing scandal that year. During the following season, Inter went on a record-breaking run of 17 consecutive victories in Serie A, starting on 25 September 2006 with a 4–1 home victory over Livorno, and ending on 28 February 2007, after a 1–1 draw at home to Udinese. On 22 April 2007 Inter won their second consecutive scudetto—and first on the field since 1989—when they defeated Siena 2–1 at Stadio Artemio Franchi. Italian World Cup-winning defender Marco Materazzi scored both goals.
Inter started the 2007–08 season with the goal of winning both Serie A and UEFA Champions League. The team started well in the league, topping the table from the first round of matches, and also managed to qualify for the Champions League knockout stage; however, a late collapse leading to a 2–0 defeat with 10 men away to Liverpool on 19 February in the Champions League threw into question manager Roberto Mancini's future at Inter, and domestic form took a sharp turn of fortune with the team failing to win in the three following Serie A games. After being eliminated by Liverpool in the Champions League, Mancini then announced his intention to leave his job, only to change his mind the following day. On the final day of the 2007–08 Serie A season, Inter played Parma away, and two goals from Zlatan Ibrahimović sealed their 3rd consecutive championship. Mancini was sacked soon after due to his previous declaration of leaving the club.
Recent history (2008–present)
On 2 June 2008, Inter appointed former Porto and Chelsea boss José Mourinho as new head coach. In his first season as Inter head coach, the Nerazzurri won an Italian Super Cup and a fourth consecutive title, being, however, also eliminated from the Champions League in the first knockout round for a third consecutive time, losing to Manchester United. In winning the league title for the fourth consecutive time, Inter joined Torino and Juventus as the only teams to do this and the first to accomplish this feat in the last 60 years.
Inter enjoyed more luck in the 2009–10 Champions League, defeating incumbent champions Barcelona in the semi-final, and then defeating Bayern Munich 2–0 in the final with two goals from Diego Milito. Inter also won the 2009–10 Serie A title by two points over Roma, and the 2010 Coppa Italia by defeating the same side 1–0 in the final. This made Inter the first Italian team to win The Treble, but Mourinho left for Real Madrid at the end of the season,. to be replaced by Rafael Benítez.
On 21 August 2010, Inter defeated Roma 3–1 and won the 2010 Supercoppa Italiana, the fourth trophy of the year. In December 2010, they claimed the FIFA Club World Cup for the first time after a 3–0 win against TP Mazembe in the final. Internazionale completed the Quintuple, becoming the fourth team in the world after Liverpool in 2001, Al-Ahly in 2006 and Barcelona in 2009. However, after this win, on 23 December 2010, due to his poor performance in Serie A and separated by 13 points from the leader Milan (although Inter played two games less, because of the FIFA Club World Cup appointment), the team announced Benítez's departure. He was replaced by Leonardo the following day.
Leonardo started with 30 points from 12 games, with an average of 2.5 points per game, better than his predecessors Benítez and Mourinho. On 6 March 2011 Leonardo set a new Italian Serie A record by collecting 33 points in 13 games, the previous record was 32 points in 13 games made by Fabio Capello in the 2004–05 season. He took the club to the quarter finals of the Champions League before losing against Schalke 04, and also won the Coppa Italia. He resigned at the end of the season and was followed by not so successful new managers Gian Piero Gasperini, Claudio Ranieri, and Andrea Stramaccioni.
Colours and badge
One of the founders of Inter, a painter named Giorgio Muggiani, was responsible for the design of the first Inter logo in 1908. The first design incorporated the letters 'FCIM' in the center of a series of circles that formed the badge of the club. The basic elements of the design have remained constant even as finer details have been modified over the years. Starting at the 1999/00 season, the original club crest was reduced in size, to give place for the addition of the club's name and foundation year at the upper and lower part of the logo respectively.
In 2007, the logo was returned to the pre-1999/2000 era. It was given a more modern look with smaller Scudetto star and lighter color scheme. This version was used until July 2014, when the club decided to undertake a rebranding. The most significant difference between the current and the previous logo is the omission of the star from other media except match kits.
Since its founding in 1908, Inter have worn black and blue stripes. It is rumoured that black was chosen to represent night and blue was chosen to represent the sky. Aside from a short period during World War II, Inter continued to wear the black and blue stripes, earning them the nickname Nerazzurri. For a period of time, however, Inter was forced to abandon their black and blue uniforms. In 1928, Inter's name and philosophy made the ruling Fascist Party uneasy. As a result, during the same year the 20-year-old club was merged with Unione Sportiva Milanese. The new club was named Società Sportiva Ambrosiana after the patron saint of Milan. The flag of Milan (the red cross on white background) replaced the traditional black and blue. After World War II when the Fascists had fallen from power the club reverted to their original name and colours. In 2008, Inter celebrated their centenary with a red cross on their away shirt. The cross is reminiscent of the flag of their city, and they continue to use the pattern on their third kit.
Animals are often used to represent football clubs in Italy, the grass snake, called Il biscione or Serpente representing Inter. The snake is an important symbol for the city of Milan, appearing often in Milanese heraldry as a coiled viper with a man in its jaws. The symbol is famous for its presence on the coat of arms of the House of Sforza (who ruled over Italy from Milan during the Renaissance period), the city of Milan, the historical Duchy of Milan (a 400-year state of the Holy Roman Empire), and Insubria (a historical region the city of Milan falls within). For the 2010–11 season Inter's away kit featured the serpent.
The team's stadium is the 80,018 seat San Siro, officially known as Stadio Giuseppe Meazza after the former player who represented both Milan and Inter. The more commonly used name, San Siro, is the name of the district where it's located. San Siro has been the home of Milan since 1926, when it was privately built by funding from Milan's president at the time, Piero Pirelli. Construction was performed by 120 workers, and took 13 and a half months to complete. The stadium was owned by the club until it was sold to the city council in 1935, and since 1947 it has been shared with Internazionale, when they were accepted as joint tenant.
The first game played at the stadium was on 19 September 1926, when Inter beat Milan 6–3 in a friendly match. Milan played its first league game in San Siro on 19 September 1926, losing 1–2 to Sampierdarenese. From an initial capacity of 35,000 spectators, the stadium has undergone several major renovations, most recently in preparation for the 1990 FIFA World Cup when its capacity was set to 85,700, all covered with a polycarbonate roof. In the summer of 2008, its capacity was reduced to 80,018 to meet the new standards set by UEFA.
Based on the English model for stadiums, San Siro is specifically designed for football matches, as opposed to many multi-purpose stadiums used in Serie A. It is therefore renowned in Italy for its fantastic atmosphere during matches, thanks to the closeness of the stands to the pitch. The frequent use of flares by supporters contributes to the atmosphere but the practice has occasionally caused problems.
Supporters and rivalries
Inter is one of the most supported clubs in Italy, according to an August 2007 research by Italian newspaper La Repubblica. Historically, the largest section of Inter fans from the city of Milan were the middle-class bourgeoisie Milanese, while Milan fans were typically working-class.
The traditional ultras group of Inter is Boys San; they hold a significant place in the history of the ultras scene in general due to the fact that they are one of the oldest, being founded in 1969. Politically, the ultras of Inter are usually considered right-wing and they have good relationships with the Lazio ultras. As well as the main group of Boys San, there are four more significant groups: Viking, Irriducibili, Ultras, and Brianza Alcoolica.
Inter's most vocal fans are known to gather in the Curva Nord, or north curve of the Giuseppe Meazza stadium. This longstanding tradition has led to the Curva Nord being synonymous with the club's most die-hard supporters, who unfurl banners and wave flags in support of their team.
Inter have several rivalries, two of which are highly significant in Italian football; firstly, they participate in the intra city Derby della Madonnina with Milan; the rivalry has existed ever since Inter splintered off from Milan in 1908. The name of the derby refers to the Blessed Virgin Mary, whose statue atop the Milan Cathedral is one of the city's main attractions. The match usually creates a lively atmosphere, with numerous (often humorous or offensive) banners unfolded before the match. Flares are commonly present, but they also led to the abandonment of the second leg of the 2004–05 Champions League quarter-final matchup between Milan and Inter on 12 April after a flare thrown from the crowd by an Inter supporter struck Milan keeper Dida on the shoulder.
The other most significant rivalry is with Juventus; the two participate in the Derby d'Italia. Up until the 2006 Italian football scandal, which saw Juventus relegated, the two were the only Italian clubs to have never played below Serie A. In recent years, post-Calciopoli, Inter have developed a rivalry with Roma, having finished runners-up to Inter in all but one of Inter's five Scudetto winning seasons between 2005 and 2010. The two sides have also contested in 5 Coppa Italia finals and four Supercoppa Italiana finals since 2006. Other clubs, such as Atalanta and Napoli, are also considered amongst their rivals.
First team squad
- As of 20 January 2015.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Current Primavera players with first-team appearances
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|No.||Player||Nationality||Position||Inter debut||Last match|
|1||Piero Campelli||Italy||Goalkeeper||30 January 1910||9 November 1924|
|2||Ermanno Aebi||Italy||Forward||10 April 1910||12 November 1922|
|3||Armando Castellazzi||Italy||Midfielder||24 February 1924||8 March 1936|
|4||Giacinto Facchetti||Italy||Left-back||3 May 1961||7 May 1978|
|5||Sandro Mazzola||Italy||Attacking midfielder, inside forward||10 June 1961||8 November 1977|
|6||Giuseppe Bergomi||Italy||Right-back, centre-back||30 January 1980||23 May 1999|
3 – Giacinto Facchetti, left back, 1960–1978 (posthumous honour). The number was retired on 8 September 2006. The last player to wear the shirt was Argentinian center back Nicolás Burdisso, who took on the number 16 shirt for the rest of the season.
4 - Javier Zanetti, defensive midfielder, played 858 games for Inter between 1995 and his retirement in the summer of 2014. Club president Erick Thohir confirmed that Zanetti's number 4 was to be retired out of respect.
- As of 15 January 2015
|Vice coach||Giulio Nuciari|
|Technical assistant||Fausto Salsano|
|Technical assistant||José Duqué|
|Goalkeeper coach||Adriano Bonaiuti|
|Match analyst||Michele Salzarulo|
|Chief of medical staff||Piero Volpi|
|Head fitness coaches||Ivan Carminati|
|Fitness coach||Andrea Scanavino|
|Rehabilitation coach responsible||Giannicola Bisciotti|
|Rehabilitation coach||Massimiliano Marchesi|
|Chief of physiotherapists||Marco Dellacasa|
Presidents and managers
Below is a list of Inter presidents from 1908 until the present day.
Below is a list of Inter coaches from 1909 until the present day.
Internazionale have won 30 domestic trophies, including the league eighteen times, the Coppa Italia seven and the Supercoppa Italiana five. From 2006 to 2010 the club won five successive league titles, equalling the all-time record. They have won the Champions League three times: two back-to-back in 1964 and 1965 and then another in 2010; the last completed an unprecedented Italian treble with the Coppa Italia and the Scudetto. The club has also won three UEFA Cups, two Intercontinental Cups and one FIFA Club World Cup.
- Winners (18): 1909–10, 1919–20, 1929–30, 1937–38, 1939–40, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1962–63, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1970–71, 1979–80, 1988–89, 2005–06,[nb 2] 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2009–10
- Winners (1): 2010
Club statistics and records
Giuseppe Meazza is Inter's all-time top goalscorer, scoring 284 goals for the club in 408 games. He is followed in second place by Alessandro Altobelli with 209 goals in 466 games, and Roberto Boninsegna in third place, who has scored 171 goals in 281 games.
Helenio Herrera had the longest reign as Internazionale coach, with nine years (eight consecutive) in charge, and is the most successful coach in Inter history with three Scudetti, two European Cups, and two Intercontinental Cup wins. José Mourinho, who was appointed on 2 June 2008, and completed his first season in Italy by winning the Serie A league title and the Supercoppa Italiana, in the second season he won the first "treble" in Italian history, the Serie A league title, Coppa Italia and the UEFA Champions League in the season 2009–2010.
FC Internazionale Milano as a company
|Total assets||€455,690,888 (2010–11)|
|Total equity||(€24,179,237) (2010–11)|
|Owner||Erick Thohir (70.00%)
Massimo Moratti (28.17%)
|Parent||Internazionale Holding (98.2%)|
|Subsidiaries||Inter Brand (100%)
Inter Futura (100%)
Consorzio San Siro 2000 (joint venture)
According to the Deloitte Football Money League, Inter recorded revenues of €196.5 million (£167.4 million) in the 2008–09 season to rank in 9th place, one behind Juventus in 8th place, and ahead of city rivals Milan in 10th place. The club beat their previous season earnings of €172.9 million (£136.9 million), and for the first time since The Football Money League's inception, Inter overtook Milan in the rankings.
Revenue percentages were divided up between matchday (14%, €28.2 million), broadcasting (59%, €115.7 million, +7%, +€8 million) and commercial (27%, €52.6 million, +43%, €15.8 million). Kit sponsors Nike and Pirelli contributed €18.1 million and €9.3 million respectively to commercial revenues, while broadcasting revenues were boosted €1.6 million (6%) by Champions League distribution.
For the 2010–11 season, Serie A clubs started negotiating club TV rights collectively rather than individually. This is predicted to result in lower broadcasting revenues for Inter, with smaller clubs gaining from the loss.
Inter's matchday revenues amounted to only €1.1 million per home game, compared to €2.6 million among the top six earners.
Deloitte expressed the idea that issues in Italian football, particularly matchday revenue issues were holding Inter back compared to other European giants, and developing their own stadia would result in Serie A clubs being more competitive on the world stage.
Inter also has one of the biggest financial "black-holes" among the Italian clubs, which in 2006–07 had a net loss of €206 million (€112 million extraordinary basis, due to the change in accounting standard for amortisation of transfer fee, covered by proposed capital increases of €99 million), 2007–08 a net loss of €148,271,266, 2008–09 a net loss of €154,423,469 (covered by a proposed capital increase of 70 million), later increased to €90 million 2009–10 €69,045,804 (covered by a proposed capital increase of €40 million and €30 million during the 2011–12 season) It was contributed by the sales of Ibrahimović, the treble and the release clause of coach José Mourinho. The most recent result was a net loss of €86,813,786, which already included an extraordinary income of €13 million from RAI. Another re-capitalisation of €40 million was proposed, to cover the negative equity of €24,179,237 on 30 June 2011.
Kit manufacturers & shirt sponsors
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt sponsor|
|1986–1988||Le Coq Sportif|
- Persib Bandung - Affiliation due to Erick Thohir ownership.
- D.C. United - Affiliation due to Erick Thohir ownership.
- List of Italian club competition winners
- List of Italian football champions
- List of UEFA club competition winners
- List of world club champions
Records and recognitions
- Football records in Italy
- IFFHS Best European Clubs of the 20th Century
- UEFA club competition records
- Deloitte's list of the highest earning football clubs in the world
- Forbes' list of the most valuable football clubs in the world
- Ranking of European teams supporters: Barcelona first with 57.8 million, followed by Real Madrid (31.3 million), Manchester United (30.6 million), Chelsea (21.4 million), Bayern Munich (20.7 million) and Milan (18.4 million).
- This title was awarded through the courts following the Calciopoli scandal.
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- FC Internazionale Milano SpA Report and Accounts on 30 June 2008 (Italian)
- FC Internazionale Milano Spa 2009–10 Bilancio. FC Internazionale Milano (in Italian) (Registro Imprese & C.C.I.A.A.). ca. January 2011. Check date values in:
- "Assemblea Soci Inter: approvato il bilancio". FC Internazionale Milano (in Italian) (inter.it). 26 October 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
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