Interacting boson model

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The interacting boson model (IBM) is a model in nuclear physics in which nucleons (protons or neutrons) pair up, essentially acting as a single particle with boson properties, with integral spin of 0, 2 or 4.

The IBM-I treats both types of nucleons the same and considers only pairs of nucleons coupled to total angular momentum 0 and 2, called respectively, s and d bosons. The IBM-II treats protons and neutrons separately.


This model was invented by Akito Arima and Francesco Iachello.

See also[edit]


  • Arima, Iachello Collective nuclear states as representations of a SU(6) Group, Physical Review Letters 35, 1069–1072 (1975).
  • Arima, Iachello The interacting boson model, Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Arima, Iachello Interacting boson model of collective states, Part 1 (the vibrational limit) Annals of Physics 99, 253-317 (1976), Part 2 (the rotational limit) ibid. 111, 201-238 (1978), Part 3 (the transition from SU (5) to SU (3)), ibid. 115, 325-366 (1978), Part 4 (the O(6) limit) ibid. 123, 468-492 (1979).
  • Arima, Iachello The Interacting Boson Model, Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science 31, 75 (1981).
  • Talmi Simple Models of Complex Nuclei: The Shell Model and the Interacting Boson Model (1993) Harwood Academic Publishers