Intercession of saints
Intercession of the saints is a doctrine held by the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, many Anglicans and some Lutherans that saints may be asked to intercede (or pray) for others. The doctrine of requesting intercession from saints can be found in Christian writings from the 3rd century AD. The 4th-century Apostles' Creed states belief in the communion of saints which certain Christian churches interpret as supporting the intercession of saints. Following the stream of Judaic-Christian tradition, Judaism allows for the petition of the "saints".
Advocates of the doctrine say that Jesus' parable of The Rich Man and Lazarus in Luke 16:19–31 indicates the ability of the dead to pray for the living. On the basis of Christ's intercession for believers, who is present at the Right hand of God (Romans 8:34;Hebrews 7:25), it is argued by extension that other people who have died but are alive in Christ may be able to intercede on behalf of the petitioner(John 11:25;Romans 8:38–39). According to St. Jerome, "If the Apostles and Martyrs, while still in the body, can pray for others, at a time when they must still be anxious for themselves, how much more after their crowns, victories, and triumphs are won!"
On the basis of other texts (Hebrews 2:11;Hebrews 10:10; 1 Timothy 2:1–5) it is argued that if those living here on earth can intercede on behalf of each other, then those already glorified in Heaven, and even closer "in Christ", are made holy as "one" unified through him (the mediator between God and men – on earth and heaven) by his sacrifice, can certainly intercede for those on earth as well.[clarification needed]
Catholic and Orthodox views
Roman Catholic Church doctrine supports intercessory prayer to saints. Intercessory prayer to saints also plays an important role in the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches. Also some Anglo-Catholics believe in saintly intercession. This practice is an application of the Catholic doctrine of the Communion of Saints, in which prayer to Mary is a prime part. It is understood that some of the early basis for this was the belief that martyrs passed immediately into the presence of God, and could obtain graces and blessings for others. A further reinforcement, of the same idea, was derived from the cult of the angels, which, while pre-Christian in its origin, was heartily embraced by the faithful of the sub-Apostolic age.
Catholics who seek to derive support from the Bible may point to such Scriptural passages as Tobit 12:12–15, Revelation 5:8, or Revelation 8:3–4, which depict heavenly beings offering the prayers of mortals before God, and in addition to James 5:16 (where all those in heaven can be presumed to be living righteously), which states the prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective. Both those for and against the intercession of saints quote Job 5:1.
Intercessory prayer to saintly persons who have not yet been canonized is also practiced, and evidence of miracles produced as a result of such prayer is very commonly produced during the formal process of beatification and canonization.
Many Protestant churches strongly reject all saintly intercession, which they believe is contrary to Bible verses 1 Timothy 2:1–5and Deuteronomy 18:10-11. They also say there are no examples in the Bible of anyone requesting the intercession of the dead—Jesus Christ being the lone exception because he is alive and resurrected and because he is both human and divine.
The first Anglican articles of faith, the Ten Articles (1536), defended the practice of praying to saints, while the King's Book, the official statement of religion produced in 1543, devotes an entire section to the importance of the Ave Maria ("Hail Mary") prayer.
The Thirty-Nine Articles (1563) however condemned the "invocation of saints" as "a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God" (Article XXII). However, some within the Anglican Communion make a clear distinction between a "Romish" and a "Patristic" doctrine concerning the invocation of saints, permitting the latter, but forbidding the former. The Oxford Movement saw a revival of the Patristic practice, which is now found among High Church Anglicans and especially Anglo-Catholics. William Tyndale had been an early opponent of the practice.
Traditional Lutheran belief accounts that saints pray for the Church in general, but are not mediators of redemption. Martin Luther, the founder of Lutheranism, approved honouring the saints  by saying they are honoured in three ways: firstly by thanking God for examples of His mercy ; secondly by using the saints as example for strengthening our faith, and thirdly by imitating their faith and other virtues.
Parallels in other religions
There is some evidence of a Jewish belief in intercession, both in the form of the paternal blessings passed down from Abraham to his children, and 2 Maccabees, where Judas Maccabaeus sees the dead Onias and Jeremiah giving blessing to the Jewish army. There are also opposing views in that to God alone only prayers may be offered.
In modern times one of the greatest divisions in Jewish theology (hashkafa) is over the issue of whether one can beseech the help of a tzadik – an extremely righteous individual. The main conflict is over a practice of beseeching a tzadik who has already died to make intercession before the Almighty. This practice is common mainly among Chasidic Jews, but also found in varying degrees among other usually Chareidi communities. It strongest opposition is found largely among sectors of Modern Orthodox Judaism, Dor Daim and Talmide haRambam, and among aspects of the Litvish Chareidi community. Those who oppose this practice usually do so over the problem of idolatry, as Jewish Law strictly prohibits making use of a mediator (melitz) or agent (sarsur) between oneself and the Almighty.
The perspectives of those Jewish groups opposed to the use of intercessors is usually softer in regard to beseeching the Almighty alone merely in the "merit" (skhut) of a tzadik.
Those Jews who support the use of intercessors claim that their beseeching of the tzadik is not prayer or worship. The conflict between the groups is essentially over what constitutes prayer, worship, a mediator (melitz), and an agent (sarsur).
Tawassul is the practice of using someone as a means or an intermediary in a supplication directed towards God. An example of this would be such: "O my Lord, help me with [such and such need] due to the love I have for Your Prophet."
Shia Some Shia practice seeking intercession from saints, particular the son-in-law of Muhammad, 'Ali and 'Ali's son, the martyred Husayn. A well-known Persian Shi'i hymn reads 'Z bandegi-ye 'Ali na-ajab bashar be-khoda rasad' ('It's not strange that man, through servitude to 'Ali, will reach God'). Sunni authorities consider this to be polytheism, but the practice of seeking intercession through Sufi saints is widespread, from North Africa to Pakistan. By the early twentieth century, the vast majority of Muslims were members of Sufi brotherhoods, taking part in pilgrimages and rituals to create an i Citing verses of the Qur'an such as: intensity of devotion and intention that would bring them into contact with intercessory ideas and persons, including dead saints through ziyarat, a form of pilgrimage unrelated to the central hajj pilgrimage to Mecca.
Such practices conflict with many verses from the Qur'an, such as:
"And do not call on anyone besides God, which will not harm you or benefit you." -Surat Yunus (10) Verse 106
"Say: Will ye worship besides God, something which has no power either to harm you or benefit you? But God, He it is that heareth and knoweth all things." -Surat Al-Maida  Verse 76
“Those whom they invoke against God have not created anything, but are themselves created.“ -Surat An-Nahl  verse 20
In the religion of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, some of their ancient dead are canonized as Holy Saints, called Pangool in the Serer language. These ancient ancestors act as interceders between the living world and their supreme deity Roog.
- Patron saint
- Intercession of the Theotokos
- Efficacy of prayer
- Intercession of the Spirit
- Intercession of Christ
- On the Birthday of Saint John the Baptist, Sermon 293B:5:1. “Against superstitious midsummer rituals.” Augustine’s Works, Sermons on the Saints, (1994), Sermons 273–305, John E. Rotelle, ed., Edmund Hill, Trans., ISBN 1-56548-060-0 ISBN 9781565480605 p. 165.  Editor's comment (ibid., note 16, p. 167): “So does ‘his grace’ mean John’s grace? Clearly not in the ordinary understanding of such a phrase, as though John were the source of the grace. But in the sense that John’s grace is the grace of being the friend of the bridegroom, and that that is the grace we are asking him to obtain for us too, yes, it does mean John’s grace.”
- Examples of saintly intercession in the early church are listed at the end of the following article: http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/invocationofsaints.aspx
- The following article has some other examples from the early church: http://www.catholic.com/library/Intercession_of_the_Saints.asp
- Scannell, Thomas. "Intercession (Mediation)." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 29 Jan. 2013
- "Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary," The Catholic Encyclopedia
- Schofield, John (2006). Philip Melanchthon and the English Reformation, Ashgate Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7546-5567-1
- A Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for Any Christian Man Set forth by the King’s Majesty of England, &c.. (1543)
- Goldrick 1979
- Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 9
- Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 14–30
- Augsburg Confession XXI 1
- Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 4–7
- Lutheran teaching
- "Is it okay to ask a deceased tzaddik to pray on my behalf?" at Chabad.org
- Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation sereer", vol. II : Pangool, Nouvelles éditions africaines, Dakar, 1990, pp 305-402
- Church Fathers on the Intercession of the Saints
- Catholic Prayers to Saints
- Salatul Istisqa, Islamic prayer for rain ceremony
- The performance of the Salatul Istisqa, the Islamic prayer for rain, in the parched bed of the Goulburn River in Denman, in the Hunter Valley, Sydney, Australia, 2003.
- Hadith Proofs for Tawassul through the Prophet