Intercolumniation

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Illustration from The Four Books of Architecture by Andrea Palladio, translation by Thomas Ware published in London, 1738

In architecture, intercolumniation is the spacing between columns in a colonnade, as measured at the bottom of their shafts.[1] In classical, Renaissance, and Baroque architecture, intercolumniation was determined by a system devised by the 1st century BC Roman architect Vitruvius.[2] Vitruvius compiled standard intercolumniations for the three classical Greek orders, expressed in terms of the column diameter,[1] twice the Vitruvian module, and he warned that when columns are placed three column-diameters apart or more, stone architraves break.[3]

Standard intercolumniations[edit]

The standard intercolumniations are:[4]

Pycnostyle 
One and a half diameters
Systyle 
Two diameters
Eustyle 
Two and a quarter diameters, considered by Vitruvius to be the best proportion[5]
Diastyle 
Three diameters
Araeostyle 
Four or more diameters, requiring a wooden architrave rather than one of stone
Araeosystyle 
Alternating araeostyle and systyle

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Intercolumniation". The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  2. ^ "Intercolumniation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  3. ^ Vitruvius, De architectura iii.3.4
  4. ^ "Intercolumniation". Webster's Dictionary, 1913. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  5. ^ Vitruvius, De architectura, iii.3.6.