Interflug

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Interflug
Interflug.svg
IATA
IF
ICAO
IFL
Callsign
Interflug
Founded 1958
Ceased operations 1991
Hubs Berlin Schönefeld Airport
Headquarters Schönefeld, East Germany
A Tupolev Tu-134 of Interflug at Amsterdam Airport in 1977

Interflug GmbH (German: Interflug Gesellschaft für internationalen Flugverkehr m.b.H.)[note 1] was the national airline of East Germany from 1963 to 1990. Based in East Berlin, it operated scheduled and chartered flights to European and intercontinental destinations out of its hub at Berlin Schönefeld Airport, focusing on Comecon countries. Following the German reunification, the company was liquidated.

History[edit]

Founding years[edit]

Until 1945, Deutsche Luft Hansa had served as German flag carrier. Following the end of World War II and the subsequent allied occupation of Germany, all aircraft in the country were seized and the airline was liquidated. In 1954, a West German company acquired the Lufthansa trademark. In 1955, Deutsche Lufthansa was founded as rival East German flag carrier. It soon became obvious that the East German airline would likely lose a lawsuit over the use of the Lufthansa branding. As a consequence, Interflug was set up on 18 September 1958 as a "back-up" company, initially intended to complement the East German aviation industry by operating chartered flights. In 1963, the East German Lufthansa was liquidated, officially due to poor profitability (though this step foreclosed the imminent stripping of the Lufthansa name). Its staff, aircraft fleet, and route network was transferred to Interflug, which henceforth served as the East German flag carrier.[1][2]

East German national airline[edit]

An Ilyushin Il-14 of Interflug at Schönefeld Airport in 1961, a time when the terminal building was under construction.
The Interflug office, Haus des Reisens, near Alexanderplatz in central East Berlin (1971)

As a state-owned airline, Interflug with its approximate 8,000 employees was under control of the National Defense Council, which held the supreme command of the East German armed forces. The majority of the pilots of Interflug were reserve officers of the National People's Army (and as such required to be members of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany), and all of its aircraft could have been requisitioned for military purposes at any time.[3] Klaus Henkes, who became General Director of the airline in 1978, had previously served as General of the East German Air Force.[4] Applicants for the job of a flight attendant needed to be approved of by the Stasi, in order to assess their so-called political reliability, minimizing espionage and escape attempts in Western countries. On warning of suspension, Interflug crews were not allowed to associate with employees of airlines from non-socialist countries.[4]

Over the 1960s, the airline saw a significant growth, concerning both its route network and fleet of Soviet-built aircraft. The Ilyushin Il-18 turboprop airliner became the backbone of Interflug's short haul flights during that period. The company had been intended the primary operator of the Baade 152, an early jet airliner constructed in East Germany.[5] The development never went beyond the prototype phase, though, and was abandoned in 1961. In 1969, the Tupolev Tu-134 was introduced, the first jet airliner operated by Interflug. It was operated on the airline's European routes. The long range Il-62 became part of the fleet in 1971. In the same year, the number of annual Interflug passengers reached 1 million.[6]

Following the 1970s energy crisis with its growing fuel prices, Interflug gradually dismantled its domestic route network. The last scheduled flight (from East Berlin to Erfurt) took place in April 1980.[7]

Late 1980s and German reunification[edit]

Over the 1980s, Interflug had to cope with increasing problems due to its ageing fleet: The fuel efficiency proved to be inferior compared to (at that time) modern Western airliners, and noise protection regulations meant that the company had to pay increased landing fees, in some cases even facing bans from operating at certain airports.[4] Western-built airliners (most notably those produced by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas or Airbus) could not be delivered to countries of the Soviet bloc because of the CoCom embargo. Following a deal between Boeing and LOT Polish Airlines for the purchase of six Boeing 767 aircraft and in order to acknowledge the Perestroika movement, commercial airliners were exempted from the trade embargo in 1988. Also Malév Hungarian Airlines bought Boeings in 1988. In the same year, Interflug placed an order for three Airbus A310 long haul aircraft, worth DM 420 million.[8][9][10] The deal was secured with the sponsorship of Franz Josef Strauss, then Minister-President of Bavaria, chairman of the Airbus supervisory board and responsible for West German loans granted to East Germany.

An Interflug Airbus A310 at Schönefeld Airport (1990).

The first Airbus A310 was delivered to Interflug on 26 June 1989.[11] The East German crews for the new aircraft type were trained in West Germany, where any maintenance work was carried out, too. The A310 allowed for non-stop flights to Cuba (previously, flights had needed a fuel stop at Gander International Airport in Canada).[3]

Following the Fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989 and the subsequent political changes in East Germany, several foreign airlines expressed intentions to take over parts of the highly unprofitable company, in order to get a grip on the German air traffic market, especially concerning Berlin.[4] In early March 1990, Lufthansa signed a letter of intent to acquire 26 percent in Interflug,[12] but the offer was blocked by the Federal Cartel Office.[13] Plans for a take-over by British Airways[14] did not materialize, either (instead, Deutsche BA was formed in 1992). On 1 July 1990, Interflug became a member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA).[15]

As a consequence of the German reunification on 3 October 1990, Interflug came under the administration of the Treuhandanstalt, along with all other state-owned property of East Germany. As no investors could be found, it was announced on 7 February 1991 that Interflug with its then 2,900 employees and 20 aircraft would be liquidated.[13] Subsequently, the airline was dismantled. The last commercial flight (on the Berlin-Vienna-Berlin route using a Tu-134) took place on 30 April 1991.[16]

Legacy[edit]

Following the liquidation, a group of former Interflug employees acquired five of the company's Ilyushin Il-18 airliners and set up Il-18 Air Cargo, which soon became known as Berline, operating chartered cargo and leisure flights out of Schönefeld Airport.[17]

The three Airbus A310 purchased by Interflug in 1988 were handed over from Treuhandanstalt to the property of the Federal Republic of Germany. Henceforth, they were operated by the German Air Force,[18] also being used for the representative VIP transport of high ranking politicians like the German president or chancellor.

Several former Interflug aircraft have been preserved in different places in Germany.[19]

Route network[edit]

As the national airline of East Germany from 1963 to 1991, Interflug operated scheduled passenger flights to the following destinations.[note 2]

City State Airport Commenced Ceased
Tirana Albania Tirana Airport
1963[20]
Algiers Algeria Maison Blanche Airport
ca. 1966[21]
Vienna Austria Vienna International Airport
ca. 1970[6]
1991[22]
Brussels Belgium Brussels Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Burgas Bulgaria Burgas Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Sofia Bulgaria Sofia Airport
1963[20]
1991[22]
Varna Bulgaria Varna Airport
ca. 1982[23]
1991[22]
Beijing China Beijing Capital International Airport
1989[9][4]
1991[22]
Havana Cuba José Martí International Airport
ca. 1975[7]
1991[22]
Larnaca Cyprus Larnaca International Airport
1991[22]
Nicosia Cyprus Nicosia International Airport
ca. 1966[21]
Bratislava Czechoslovakia Bratislava Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Poprad Czechoslovakia Poprad-Tatry Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Prague Czechoslovakia Ruzyně Airport
1963[20]
1991[22]
Copenhagen Denmark Copenhagen Airport
ca. 1970[6]
1991[22]
Cairo Egypt Cairo International Airport
ca. 1966[21]
1991[22]
Helsinki Finland Helsinki Airport
ca. 1982[23]
1991[22]
Barth East Germany Barth Airport
1963[24]
1977[7]
East Berlin East Germany Schönefeld Airport (hub)
1963[20]
1991[22]
Dresden East Germany Klotzsche Airport
1963[24]
1990[25]
ca. 1975[7]
1991
Erfurt East Germany Erfurt Airport
1963[24]
1980[7]
Heringsdorf East Germany Heringsdorf Airport
1963[24]
1979[7]
Leipzig East Germany Schkeuditz Airport
1963[20]
1991[22]
Cologne West Germany Cologne Bonn Airport
1990[25]
Düsseldorf West Germany Düsseldorf International Airport
1989[3]
Hamburg West Germany Hamburg Airport
1990[25]
Athens Greece Ellinikon International Airport
1979[26]
1991[22]
Conakry Guinea Conakry International Airport
ca. 1966[21]
Budapest Hungary Ferihegy Airport
1963[20]
Baghdad Iraq Baghdad International Airport
1963[20]
Tel Aviv Israel Ben Gurion Airport
1991[22]
Milan Italy Linate Airport
ca. 1980[26]
1991[22]
Rome Italy Fiumicino Airport
ca. 1980[26]
1991[22]
Beirut Lebanon Beirut International Airport
1963[20]
Tripoli Libya Tripoli International Airport
ca. 1982[23]
1991[22]
Bamako Mali
ca. 1966[21]
Valletta Malta Malta International Airport
1991[22]
Maputo Mozambique Maputo International Airport
ca. 1975[7]
Amsterdam Netherlands Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
ca. 1980[27]
1991[22]
Lagos Nigeria Murtala Muhammed International Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Karachi Pakistan Jinnah International Airport 1970s
Warsaw Poland Okęcie Airport
1963[20]
1991[22]
Bucharest Romania Băneasa Airport
1963[20]
1991[22]
Singapore Singapore Singapore Changi Airport
1988[9][4]
Kiev Soviet Union Boryspil International Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Leningrad Soviet Union Pulkovo Airport
ca. 1982[23]
1991[22]
Minsk Soviet Union Minsk National Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Moscow Soviet Union Vnukovo Airport
Sheremetyevo Airport
1963[20]
1991[22]
Stockholm Sweden Stockholm Arlanda Airport
ca. 1982[23]
1991[22]
Damascus Syria Damascus Airport
ca. 1966[21]
Bangkok Thailand Don Muang Airport
1989[4]
1991[22]
Monastir Tunisia Monastir Airport
1991[22]
Tunis Tunisia Tunis–Carthage International Airport
ca. 1982[23]
1991[22]
Istanbul Turkey Istanbul Atatürk Airport
ca. 1980[23][4]
1991[22]
Dubai United Arab Emirates Dubai International Airport
1991[22]
Hanoi Vietnam Noi Bai International Airport
ca. 1975[7]
1991[22]
Belgrade Yugoslavia Belgrade Airport
1963[20]
Ljubljana Yugoslavia Brnik Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Split Yugoslavia Split Airport
ca. 1982[23]
Zagreb Yugoslavia Zagreb Airport
ca. 1966[21]

Flights to Western countries[edit]

An Interflug Ilyushin Il-18 during a chartered service at Gatwick Airport, United Kingdom (1985).
A map showing the border crossings between West and East Berlin. The checkpoint at Waltersdorfer Chaussee could only be used by West Germans travelling to and from nearby Schönefeld Airport (click to enlarge).

As a state-owned company of East Germany, Interflug had the important role to secure foreign exchanges, as the national East German mark was considered a weak currency. For most of its existence, Interflug was not a member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), and therefore could significantly undercut ticket prices of other European carriers.[26] From the 1970s, an increased effort was put on operating chartered flights to Mediterranean and Black Sea holiday resorts, many of which specifically catered for West Germans (as travel restrictions applied for East Germans). From the 1970s, Interflug gained traffic rights to several destinations in Western Europe.[6] All of these flights could be booked at travel agencies in West Berlin and West Germany, which had signed sale contracts with Interflug. To simplify the transfer from passengers from West Berlin to and from Schönefeld Airport, a dedicated border crossing checkpoint was inaugurated at Waltersdorfer Chaussee, and scheduled shuttle busses were operated from the Central Bus Terminal in the Westend locality.[26]

By the early 1980s, the low Interflug ticket prices had resulted in a considerable impact on Berlin Tegel Airport in West Berlin, which experienced a severe decline of holiday flights. Reportedly, pilots of Pan American World Airways, which had a hub at Tegel, considered operating flights to Greece without payments, in order to allow the airline to compete with Interflug.[26]

With Turkish Airlines, Interflug had signed an agreement, by which the two airlines were established as the only ones to offer dedicated flights for Turkish Gastarbeiter to and from West Germany and West Berlin.[4] With KLM, Interflug set up a partnership for a joint operation on the East Berlin-Amsterdam route during the 1980s. Of the six weekly flights, two were operated by KLM's Fokker F28 Fellowships, and four by Interflug's Tu-134s. As neither airline was entitled to cross the intra-German border,[note 3] the KLM flights were routed via Denmark, and Interflug chose a southern routing over Czechoslovakia.[27]

During the annual Leipzig Trade Fair, which at that time was considered the most important meeting place for businessmen and politicians on both sides of the Iron Curtain, Lufthansa and Interflug were granted special permits to operate flights between Leipzig and West Germany. In 1986, Lufthansa and Interflug applied for joint traffic rights for year-round scheduled intra-German flights over the Iron Curtain, which was initially rejected by the Western Allies (probably due to concerns that their unique market position for flights to and from Berlin might be weakened),[28] and only granted in August 1989. As a consequence, Interflug launched flights on the Leipzig-Düsseldorf route, with Lufthansa serving Frankfurt-Leipzig.[3] In 1990, Interflug flights from Dresden to Hamburg and Cologne were added.[25]

Fleet[edit]

Interior view of a preserved Ilyushin Il-14 once operated by Interflug (2008).

Over the years, Interflug operated the following aircraft types on its commercial flights:[note 4][29][11][2]

Aircraft Introduced Retired
Aero Ae-45
1956
1961
Airbus A310
1989
1991
Antonov An-2
1957
1962
Antonov An-24
1966
1975
Dash 8-100[note 5]
1990
1991
Ilyushin Il-14
1955
1967
Ilyushin Il-18
1961
1991
Ilyushin Il-62
1970
1991
Tupolev Tu-134
1969
1991

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Fatal[edit]

  • On 26 July 1964, an Interflug Antonov An-2 (registered DM-SKS) crashed near Magdeburg, killing the two occupants.[30]
  • To date, the Königs Wusterhausen air disaster with 156 fatalities was the worst aviation accident in Germany (at that time the second-deadliest air crash in the world, only surpassed by All Nippon Airways Flight 58). It occurred on 14 August 1972, when an Interflug Ilyushin Il-62 (registered DM-SEA) then one of the world's largest passenger jets, crashed during an emergency landing attempt near Schönefeld Airport. DM-SEA had been the first such plane operated by Interflug. Shortly into the Berlin-Burgas flight, the pilots had encoutered problems with the elevators which was due to a fire in the cargo bay which destroyed part of the rear fuselage, and subsequently tried to return to the airport, ultimately sending the airplane in an uncontrolled descent.[31][6]
  • On 1 September 1975, an Interflug Tupolev Tu-134 (registered DM-SCD) crashed during approach into Leipzig/Halle Airport, killing 27 of the 34 people on board (three crew and four passengers survived). The aircraft had been travelling from Stuttgart, West Germany to Leipzig (such flights were only operated during the Leipzig Trade Fair). It was determined that the pilots had not properly checked the height the aircraft was flying at, which led to a descend below the glide slope, ultimately colliding with an antenna mast.[32]
  • On 26 March 1979, a cargo-configured Interflug Ilyushin Il-18 (registered DM-STL) overshot the runway at Luanda Airport, Angola following an engine failure during the take-off run. The aircraft broke up and erupted into flames, killing the ten people on board.[33][34]
  • On 17 June 1989, an Interflug Ilyushin Il-62 (registered DDR-SEW) overshot the runway during a take-off attempt at Schönefeld Airport and caught fire, killing 21 of the 103 passengers that had been on the flight to Moscow (all ten crew members survived). There was one additional ground casualty. The accident was caused by a jammed rudder after a locking tab had been left in place during maintenance. When instructed to apply reverse thrust, the flight engineer mistakenly switched the engines off. Due to the anniversary of the 1953 East German uprising and the at that time tensed atmosphere within the GDR, initially an act of sabotage was suspected, which led to a delayed medical assistance for the injured.[35]

Non-fatal[edit]

  • On 22 November 1977, an Interflug Tu-134 (registered DM-SCM) was damaged beyond repair in a landing accident at Schönefeld Airport. The aircraft with 74 people on board had been on approach of the airport completing a flight from Moscow, when it crashed into the runway because of an excessive sink rate (which had occurred due to a wrong handling of the autopilot).[36]
  • On 11 February 1991, Interflug's scheduled Berlin-Moscow flight was involved in a go-around incident at Sheremetyevo Airport. The captain of the Airbus A310 (registered D-AOAC) disagreed with the flight computer settings for the go-around, and the resultant opposite control inputs from the flight computer caused a total of four stalls, including one that pitched up the aircraft to 88 degrees (nearly vertical). The pilots eventually recovered control and landed the aircraft. Along with the crash of an Airbus A320 during a 1988 demonstration flight, this incident demonstrates the dangers resultant from flight crews inadvertently or deliberately countermanding the automatic safety protocols built into some modern jetliners.[37][38]

Criminal occurrences[edit]

  • On 10 March 1970, a hijacking attempt occurred on board a flight from East Berlin to Leipzig. A man and a woman demanded the pilot to fly the AN24 to Hanover in West Germany in an attempt for their escape over the Iron Curtain.[39] The pilot claimed to have not enough fuel and it was agreed to fly to Templehof airport in West Berlin instead.[40] The plane landed at Schönefeld Airport, though, which prompted the hijackers to commit suicide.
  • A similar attempt failed during an Interflug flight from Erfurt to East Berlin on 30 January 1980.[41]
  • On 20 December 1980, Flight 320 from East Berlin to Budapest became the subject of a bomb threat. En route, a hand-written notice was discovered claiming that there was a bomb hidden on board the Tupolev Tu-134, which would be triggered once the aircraft descended below 600 metres. The crew decided to divert to Poprad Airport (located at an elevation of 718 metres). There, a rucksack was found which did not belong to any of the passengers. No information was released about its contents.[42]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The East German TV series Treffpunkt Flughafen was produced between 1985 and 1986. In eight episodes, it deals with the fictional crew of an Interflug Ilyushin Il-62, and their (often negative) experiences and adventures in foreign countries, which the average East German citizen could either not afford or was not allowed to travel to.[43][3]
  • The intentional landing of a discharged Interflug Ilyushin Il-62 on a 900 metres long strip on a field in Gollenberg on 23 October 1989 received widespread media attention. The aircraft was commandeered by Heinz-Dieter Kallbach and has been preserved on the scene ever since, in order to commemorate aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal.[44]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Even though being state-owned, Interflug was not organized as a VEB.
  2. ^ This list does not include chartered flights to holiday destinations or to airports in West Germany for the annual Leipzig Trade Fair, as well as cargo operations.
  3. ^ The three air corridors crossing the border between East and West Germany could only be used by airlines of the Western Allies (the United States, United Kingdom, and France) as well as by LOT.
  4. ^ This list does not include aircraft and helicopter types operated for agricultural and military purposes by the East German state, some of which had been painted in Interflug colors.
  5. ^ One single aircraft of that type had been leased from Tyrolean Airways.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Breiler, Klaus (2007). Das große Buch der Interflug (in German). Berlin: Das Neue. ISBN 978-3-360-01904-2. 
  2. ^ a b Erfurth, Helmut (2004). Das große Buch der DDR-Luftfahrt (in German). Munich: GeraMond. ISBN 3-7654-7216-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Kern, Ingolf (23 June 2008). "50 Jahre Interflug: Was von der DDR-Staatsfluggesellschaft blieb". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rosen, Björn (21 September 2008). "50 Jahre Interflug: Linientreu". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "East Germany and the BB.152". Flight: 426. 27 March 1959. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Stotterndes Geheul". Der Spiegel (in German): 58–59. 21 August 1972. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Idyllische Ruhe". Der Spiegel (in German): 123. 28 April 1980. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Zwei Airbus-Jets für die DDR". Der Spiegel (in German): 130. 2 May 1988. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c "Sehr, sehr hoher Preis". Der Spiegel (in German): 75–76. 25 June 1988. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "Airbus Sale to East". The New York Times. 25 June 1988. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "Interflug fleet details". airfleets.net. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  12. ^ "Lufthansa Buying Stake in Interflug". The New York Times. 9 March 1990. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  13. ^ a b East German Airline Closed. 9 February 1991. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  14. ^ Prokesch, Steven (18 December 1990). "Airline is Pursuing 2 Hubs on Continent". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  15. ^ "East German Air Move". The New York Times. 22 May 1990. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  16. ^ "Mit einer Tupolev ging die Interflug-Ära zu Bruch". Die Welt (in German). 30 April 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  17. ^ "Küken nach Teheran". Der Spiegel: 101–103. 23 December 1991. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "German Air Force fleet details". airfleets.net. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  19. ^ "Übersichtstabelle zum Verbleib aller Maschinen" (in German). if-interflug.de. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "International timetable". timetableimages.com: Deutsche Lufthansa. 1 April 1963. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "Leipzig Fair timetable". timetableimages.com: Interflug. 3 March 1967. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "1991 routemap". timetableimages.com: Interflug. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Airlines and Aircraft Serving Berlin-Schönefeld Effective July 1, 1983". departedflights.com. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Timetable: 1 April-31 October 1964". timetableimages.com: Interflug. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Travel Advisory: Two Germanys Expand Ties". The New York Times. 2 September 1990. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Volkseigener Köder". Der Spiegel (in German): 74–76. 17 December 1981. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "Dumm Da". Der Spiegel (in German): 30–31. 13 January 1986. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  28. ^ "Wirklich absurd". Der Spiegel (in German): 59. 17 March 1986. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  29. ^ "Profile for: Interflug". Aero Transport Data Bank. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  30. ^ "Accident description escription of Interflug's 1964 Antonov crash". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  31. ^ "Accident description of the Königs Wusterhausen disaster". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  32. ^ "Accident description of the 1975 Interflug crash". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  33. ^ 1979 crash at the Aviation Safety Network
  34. ^ "Accident description of the 1979 Interflug crash". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  35. ^ "Accident description of the 1989 Interflug crash". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  36. ^ "Accident description of the 1977 Interflug crash". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  37. ^ "Description of Interflug's 1991 Airbus incident". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  38. ^ "Black Box, Episode 1: Blaming the Pilot". youtube.com. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  39. ^ "Description of the 1970 Interflug hijacking". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  40. ^ http://www.berliner-mauer-gedenkstaette.de/en/1970-318,412,2.html
  41. ^ "Description of the 1980 Interflug hijacking". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  42. ^ "Bombe bei Interflug". Der Spiegel (in German): 17. 12 January 1981. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  43. ^ ""Treffpunkt Flughafen"" (in German). Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  44. ^ "ARD report commemorating the landing of an Interflug Il-62 in a field" (in German). youtube.com. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 

External Links[edit]