Interim Government of Iran

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Interim Government of Iran
دولت موقت ايران
Dowlat-e Movaghat-e Irân

1979
Flag National Emblem
Motto
Allaho Akbar
الله اکبر
"God is the Greatest"
Anthem
Ey Iran
ای ایران
"Oh Iran"
The Interim Government of Iran in 1979.
Capital Tehran
Languages Persian
Religion Shia Islam
Government Provisional Government
Prime Minister
 -  1979 Mehdi Bazargan
Legislature Council
Historical era Cold War
 -  End of Iranian Revolution 11 February 1979
 -  Iranian hostage crisis 4 November 1979
Currency Iranian rial
History of Iran
History of Iran
ANCIENT PERIOD
Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE
Elam 2700–539 BCE
Mannaeans 850–616 BCE
IMPERIAL PERIOD
Median Empire 678–550 BCE
  (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE
Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE
Parthian Empire 247 BCE – 224 CE
Sasanian Empire 224–651
MEDIEVAL (EARLY ISLAMIC) PERIOD
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
  Minor dynasties of northern Iran
Dabuyids 642–760 Bavandids 651–1349
Masmughans
of Damavand
651–760
Paduspanids 665–1598
Justanids 791–974
Alids of northern Iran 864–14th century
  Iranian Intermezzo 821–1062
Tahirid dynasty
821–873
Samanid dynasty
819–999
Saffarid dynasty
861–1002
Ziyarid dynasty
930–1090
Sallarid dynasty
919–1062
Sajid dynasty
889/890–929
Buyid dynasty
934–1062
Ilyasids
932–968
Ghaznavid Empire 977–1186
Kakuyids 1008–1141
Ghurid dynasty 1011–1215
Nasrids 1029–1236
Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Mihrabanids 1236–1537
Kurt dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid dynasty
1335–1357
Muzaffarid dynasty
1335–1393
Jalayirid dynasty
1336–1432
Sarbadars
1337–1376
Injuids 1335–1357
Afrasiyab dynasty 1349–1504
Marashis 1359–1596
Timurid Empire 1370–1405
Qara Qoyunlu
1406–1468
Timurid dynasty
1405–1507
Agh Qoyunlu
1468–1508
Kia'i dynasty 1389–1592
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Safavid Empire 1501–1736
  (Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729)
Afsharid Empire 1736–1747
Zand dynasty
1750–1794
Afsharid dynasty
1747–1796
Qajar dynasty 1785–1925
MODERN PERIOD
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic 1980–present

The Interim Government of Iran (Persian: دولت موقت ايران, Dowlat-e Movaghat-e Irân), was the first government established in Iran after the Iranian Revolution. The government was headed by Mehdi Bazargan and formed on the order of Ruhollah Khomeini (known as the Ayatollah Khomeini) on 4 February 1979, in competition with Shapour Bakhtiar, the Shah's last Prime Minister, who was still claiming power. Mehdi Bazargan was the prime minister of the interim government and introduced a seven-member cabinet on 14 February 1979.

The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 24 October 1979. Before it could come into force on 3 December 1979, however, the government resigned on 6 November soon after the taking over of the American embassy,[1] an act the government opposed but revolutionary leader Khomeini supported. The Council of the Islamic Revolution then served as the country's government until the formation of the first parliament on 12 August 1980.

Khomeini's decree appointing Bazargan[edit]

On 4 February 1979, Ruhollah Khomeini issued a decree appointing Bazargan as the prime minister of "The Provisional Islamic Revolutionary Government".

His decree stated:

"Based on the proposal of the Revolutionary Council and in accordance with the canonical and legal rights which originated from the vote of overwhelming majority of Iranian nation for leadership of the movement which has been represented in the vast gatherings and wide and numerous demonstrations across Iran and because of my utmost trust on your firm belief in the holy tenets of Islam and my knowledge of your precedent in Islamic and national struggles, I appoint you the authority to establish the interim government without consideration of any affiliation to any parties or dependence on any factional groups, for formation of temporary government to arrange organizing of country affairs and especially perform a referendum and refer to public vote of nation about turning the country into Islamic republic and formation of "The Council of the Founders" from the representatives of people to approve of constitution of new regime and to hold elections of representatives of parliament of nation on the basis of the new constitution. It is necessary that you appoint and introduce the members of the temporary government as soon as possible in concordance with the conditions I have clarified. All public offices, the army, and citizens shall furnish their utmost cooperation with your interim government so as to attain the high and holy goals of this Islamic revolution and to restore order and function to the affairs of the nation. I pray to God for the success of you and your interim government in this sensitive juncture of our nation's history.’’ — Ruhollah Al-Musavi al-Khomeini."[2]

Elaborating further on his decree, Khomeini made it clear Iranians were commanded to obey Bazargan and that this was a religious duty.

As a man who, though the guardianship [Velayat] that I have from the holy lawgiver [the Prophet], I hereby pronounce Bazargan as the Ruler, and since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed. The nation must obey him. This is not an ordinary government. It is a government based on the sharia. Opposing this government means opposing the sharia of Islam ... Revolt against God's government is a revolt against God. Revolt against God is blasphemy.[3]

Khomeini's announcement came days before the army's official statement announcing the army's (Bakhtiar's last hope) neutrality in conflicts between Khomeini's and Bakhtiar's supporters. Bakhtiar fled on the same day, 11 February, the day that is officially named as Islamic Revolution's Victory Day.

The PRG is often described as "subordinate" to the Revolutionary Council, and having had difficulties reigning in the numerous committees which were competing with its authority.[4]

Members of the cabinet[edit]

The cabinet was made up of two main frictions, moderates and radicals.[5]

Bazargan reshuffled his cabinet several times because of resignation of ministers that were unable to cope with parallel sources of power. In several cases a ministry was supervised by an acting minister or Bazargan himself.

List of members of Bazargan's cabinet was as follows:

Ministry Minister
Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan
Deputy Prime Minister Abbas Amir-Entezam
Agricultural Ali-Mohammad Ezadi
Commerce Reza Sadr
Post Mohammad-Hassan Eslami
Culture and Higher Education Abbas Dozdorani
Hassan Habibi
Defense and Armed Forces Logistics Ahmad Madani
Mostafa Chamran
Economy Ali Ardalan
Education Gholam-Hossein Shokhohi
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Energy Abbas Taj
Foreign Affairs Karim Sanjabi
Mehdi Bazargan
Ebrahim Yazdi
Health Kazem Sami
Housing and Urban Mostafa Katirabi
Industries Mahmoud Ahmadzadeh
Interior Ahmad Sayyed Javadi
Hashem Sabbaghian
Justice Assadollah Mobasheri
Ahmad Sayyed Javadi
Labour and Social Affairs Dariush Forouhar
Petroleum and Oil Ali Akbar Moinfar
Roads Yousef Taheri
Science Ali Shariatmadari
Tourism Nasser Minachi

Resignation[edit]

The Prime Minister and all members of his cabinet resigned en masse on 6 November 1979 after American Embassy officials were taken hostage two days earlier on 4 November 1979. In his letter to Khomeini, Bazargan stated that "...repeated interferences, inconveniences, objections and disputes have made my colleagues and me unable to continue [meeting] our duties ...".

Power then passed into the hands of the Revolutionary Council. Bazargan had been a supporter of the original revolutionary draft constitution rather than theocracy by Islamic jurist, and his resignation was received by Khomeini without protest, saying "Mr. Bazargan ... was a little tired and preferred to stay on the sidelines for a while." Khomeini later described his appointment of Bazargan as a "mistake".[6] Bazargan, on the other hand, described the government as a "knife without blade."[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nikou, Semira N. "Timeline of Iran's Political Events". United States Institution of Peace. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  2. ^ چرا و چگونه بازرگان به نخست وزیری رسید؟ The commandment of Ayatollah Khomeini for Bazargan and his sermon on 5 February
  3. ^ Khomeini, Sahifeh-ye Nur, vol. 5, p. 31, translated by Baqer Moin in Khomeini (2000), p. 204
  4. ^ Arjomand, Turban for the Crown, (1988) p.135)
  5. ^ Ataie, Mohammad (Summer 2013). "Revolutionary Iran’s 1979 endeavor in Lebanon". Middle East Policy XX (2). Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Moin, Khomeini,(2000), p. 222
  7. ^ Lynn Berat (26 May 1995). Between States: Interim Governments in Democratic Transitions. Cambridge University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-521-48498-5. Retrieved 10 August 2013.