IL-25 is a cytokine that shares the sequence similarity with IL17. This cytokine can induce NF-κB activation, and stimulate the production of IL8. Both this cytokine and IL17B are ligands for the cytokine receptor IL17RB. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this cytokine may be a proinflammatory cytokine favoring Th2-type immune response. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.
Further, the IL-25 gene has been identified in a chromosomal region associated with autoimmune diseases of the gut such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although no direct evidence suggests that IL-25 plays any role in this disease.
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Pan G, French D, Mao W, et al. (2002). "Forced expression of murine IL-17E induces growth retardation, jaundice, a Th2-biased response, and multiorgan inflammation in mice". J. Immunol.167 (11): 6559–67. PMID11714825.
Kim MR, Manoukian R, Yeh R, et al. (2002). "Transgenic overexpression of human IL-17E results in eosinophilia, B-lymphocyte hyperplasia, and altered antibody production". Blood100 (7): 2330–40. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-01-0012. PMID12239140.
Létuvé S, Lajoie-Kadoch S, Audusseau S, et al. (2006). "IL-17E upregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in lung fibroblasts". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.117 (3): 590–6. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.025. PMID16522458.
Tamachi T, Maezawa Y, Ikeda K, et al. (2006). "IL-25 enhances allergic airway inflammation by amplifying a TH2 cell-dependent pathway in mice". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.118 (3): 606–14. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.04.051. PMID16950278.