In Christian eschatology, the intermediate state or interim state refers to a person's "intermediate" existence between one's death and the universal resurrection. In addition, there are beliefs in a Particular judgment right after death and a General judgement or Last judgment after the resurrection.
As long as Christians looked for an imminent end of the world, they had little interest in an interim state between death and resurrection. Later, the Eastern Church came to admit of such an intermediate state, but refrained from defining it, so as not to blur the distinction between the alternative definitive fates of Heaven and Hell. In the West there was much more curiosity about the intermediate state, with evidence from as far back as the Passion of Saints Perpetua and Felicity (203) of the belief that sins can be purged by suffering in an afterlife, and that the purgation can be expedited by the intercession of the living. Eastern Christians too believed that the dead can be assisted by prayer.
East and West, those in the intermediate state have traditionally been the beneficiaries of prayers, such as requiem masses. In the East, the saved are said to rest in light while the wicked are confined in darkness. In the East, prayers are said to benefit even pagans. In the West, Augustine described prayer as useful for those in communion with the church, and implied that every soul's ultimate fate is determined at death. In the West, prayer came to be restricted to souls in purgatory. In the Middle Ages, the Western church offered indulgences for those in purgatory, which evolved out of the earlier practice of canonical remissions. Protestants largely ceased praying for the dead.
Protestants denied the Catholic purgatory. Luther taught mortality of the soul, comparing the sleep of a tired man after a day's work whose soul "sleeps not but is awake" ("non sic dormit, sed vigilat") and can "experience visions and the discourses of the angels and of God", with the sleep of the dead which experience nothing but still "live to God" ("coram Deo vivit"). Calvin depicted the righteous dead as resting in bliss.
The early Hebrews had no notion of resurrection of the dead and thus no intermediate state. As with neighboring groups, they understood death to be the end. Their afterlife, sheol (the pit), was a dark place from which none return. By Jesus' time, however, the Book of Daniel (Daniel 12:1-4) and a prophecy in Isaiah (26:19) had made popular the idea that the dead in sheol would be raised for a last judgment. The intertestamental literature describes in more detail what the dead experience in sheol. According to the Book of Enoch, the righteous and wicked await the resurrection in separate divisions of sheol, a teaching which may have influenced Jesus' parable of Lazarus and Dives.
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In the Septuagint and New Testament the authors used the Greek term Hades for the Hebrew Sheol, but often with Jewish rather than Greek concepts in mind, so that, for example, there is no activity in Hades in Ecclesiastes. An exception to traditional Jewish views of Sheol, Hades is found in the Gospel of Luke parable of the Rich man and Lazarus which describes Hades along the lines of intertestamental Jewish understanding of a Sheol divided between the happy righteous and the miserable wicked. Later Hippolytus of Rome expanded on this parable and described activity in the Bosom of Abraham in Against Plato.
Since Augustine, Christians have believed that the souls of those who die either rest peacefully, in the case of Christians, or are afflicted, in the case of the damned, after death until the resurrection. The Venerable Bede and Saint Boniface both report visions of an afterlife with a four-way division, including pleasant and punishing abodes near heaven and hell to hold souls until judgment day.
In the 12th century, the medieval Catholic church defined purgatory, the intermediate state for the saved who have just punishment yet to suffer. The righteous were said to go direct to heaven, and the wicked direct to hell. All Souls' Day commemorates the souls in purgatory. The church sold indulgences to release the donors' departed loved ones from suffering in purgatory, or the donors themselves.
In the 16th century, Protestant Reformers such as Martin Luther and John Calvin challenged the doctrine of purgatory. Both Calvin and Luther continued to believe in an intermediate state, but Calvin held to a more conscious existence for the souls of the dead than did Luther. For Calvin, believers in the intermediate state enjoyed a blessedness that was incomplete, in anticipation of the resurrection. Reformed theology largely followed Calvin's teaching on the intermediate state.
Foretaste of final state
Some theological traditions, including most Protestants, Anabaptists and Eastern Orthodox, teach that the intermediate state is a disembodied foretaste of the final state. Therefore, those who die in Christ go into the presence of God (or the bosom of Abraham) where they experience joy and rest while they await their resurrection (cf. Luke 23:43). Those who die unrepentant will experience torment (perhaps in hell) while they await final condemnation on the day of judgment (2 Peter 2:9).
I. The bodies of men, after death, return to dust, and see corruption: but their souls, which neither die nor sleep, having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them: the souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God, in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies. And the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day. Beside these two places, for souls separated from their bodies, the Scripture acknowledges none.
— Westminster Confession 1646, chapter XXXII, Of the State of Men after Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead
The neutral historical term for this belief today is usually Mortalism or Christian Mortalism. The terms Soul sleep Psychopannychism are somewhat loaded by their derivation from a tract (1534) by John Calvin, though use of the terms are not necessarily polemic or pejorative. Both terms may be used together.
A minority of Christians, including William Tyndale, Martin Luther some Anglicans such as E. W. Bullinger, and churches/groups such as Seventh-day Adventists, Christadelphians and others, deny the conscious existence of the soul after death, believing the intermediate state of the dead to be unconscious "sleep". Jehovah's Witnesses also believe this with the exception of the 144,000. In this case, the person is not conscious of any time or activity and would not be aware even if centuries elapsed between their death and their resurrection. They would, upon their death, cease consciousness, and gain it again at the time of the resurrection having experienced no time lapse. For them, time would thus be suspended, as if they moved immediately from death to resurrection and the General Judgment of the Judgment Day.
- John Milton De doctrina christiana 1:13
- Thomas Hobbes Leviathan ch.38,44,46
- Richard Overton Mans Mortalitie (1644)
The Roman Catholic Church teaches that all who die in God's grace and friendship, but still imperfectly purified, undergo purification so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven, a final purification to which it gives the name "purgatory".
Roman Catholic theologians had given the name "limbo" to a theory on the possible fate of infants who die without baptism. The just who died before Jesus Christ are also spoken of as having been in limbo until he had won salvation for them.
Similar concepts in non-Christian religions
In Islamic eschatology, Barzakh (Arabic: برزخ) is the intermediate state in which the soul of the deceased is transferred across the boundaries of the mortal realm into a kind of "cold sleep" where the soul will rest until the Qiyamah or End Time (Judgement Day). The term appears in the Qur'an Surah 23, Ayat 100.
Barzakh is a sequence that happens after death, in which the soul will separate from the body. Three events make up barzakh:
- The separation of the soul and the body, in which the soul separates and hovers over the body.
- Self-review of one's actions and deeds in one's life.
- The soul rests in an interspace in which one will experience a manifestation of one's soul resulting in a cold sleep state, awaiting the Day of Judgement.
In Islam all human beings go through four steps of age:
- The age in the womb is where the body acquires its soul. The fetus is imbued with a soul from God. The soul however, is completely innocent and totally lacking of any worldly knowledge, which is reflected by a baby's helplessness.
- The age in the mortal world is the stage of life from the moment of birth from the womb to the moment of death.
- The age of the grave is the stage after death in the mortal world, where the soul is stored in Barzakh (midst) which results in a cold sleep state, awaiting the Day of Judgement.
- The age of the hereafter or rest of eternity is the final stage commencing after the Day of Judgement and all of humanity has received their judgement from God. If they were righteous and did good deeds based on their own circumstances, regardless of professed religion, they go to Jannah (heaven) and if they have attained little in life, and were unrighteous in their actions—or were despite all evidence shown to them, bent on denying the truth of life once it was presented to them based on their own circumstances they shall go to Jahannam (a spiritual state of suffering). This stage of life commences officially after the embodiment of Death is brought up and is slain, thus Death dies literally, and no one will ever experience or behold the concept of Death everafter. Based on the verdict received which is brought upon by each person's individual deeds, actions, and circumstances in life, the Day of Judgement on which everyone is judged with the utmost sense of justice, each human will spend this stage of life in heaven or hell (which will be a place for purification of the soul so that one realizes the wrongs committed in life). However, those in hell are eligible to go to the state of heaven after being purified by that state described as hell if they "had an atom's worth of faith in them" and the soul is repentful.
Indigenous Indonesian beliefs
According to the native Indonesian beliefs, the soul of a dead person will stay on the earth for 40 days after the death. When the ties aren't released after 40 days, the body is said to jump out from the grave to warn people that the soul need the bonds to be released. Because of the tie under the feet, the ghost can't walk. This causes the pocong to hop. After the ties are released, the soul will leave the earth and never show up anymore.
In Taoism a newly deceased person may return (回魂) to his home at some nights, sometimes one week (頭七) after his death and the seven po souls would disappear one by one every 7 days after death. They may return home as a ghost, an insect, bat or bird and people avoid hurting such things.
- Nakir and Munkar
- Particular judgment
- Prayer for the dead
- Spirit world (Latter Day Saints)
- some current questions in eschatology
- Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article purgatory
- "Dead, prayer for the." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- "Indulgences." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Differunt tamen somnus sive quies hujus vitae et futurae. Homon enim in hac vita defatigatus diurno labore, sub noctem intrat in cubiculum suum tanquam in pace, ut ibi dormiat, et ea nocte fruitur quiete, neque quicquam scit de ullo malo sive incendii, sive caedis. Anima autem non sic dormit, sed vigilat, et patitur visiones loquelas Angelorum et Dei. Ideo somnus in futura vita profundior est quam in hac vita et tamen anima coram Deo vivit. Hac similitudine, quam habeo a somno viventia.
- J Fritschel : Denn dass Luther mit den Worten "anima non sic dormit, sed vigilat et patitur visiones, loquelas Angelorum et Dei" nicht dasjenige leugnen will, was er an allen andern Stellen seiner Schriften vortragt.." Luther und offene Fragen;", Zeitschrift für die gesammte lutherische Theologie und Kirche 1867 p657
- "Salomon judgeth that the dead are a sleepe, and feele nothing at all. For the dead lye there accompting neyther dayes nor yeares, but when they are awoken, they shall seeme to haue slept scarce one minute." - Martin Luther, An Exposition of Salomon's Booke, called Ecclesiastes or the Preacher (translation 1573). "It is certain that to this day Abraham is serving God, just as Abel, Noah are serving God. And this we should carefully note; for it is divine truth that Abraham is living, serving God, and ruling with Him. But what sort of life that may be, whether he is asleep or awake, is another question. How the soul is resting we are not to know, but it is certain that it is living." - E.M. Plass, What Luther Says, Vol. 1. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950. p. 385.
- "But the soul does not sleep in the same manner It is awake. It experiences visions and the discourses of the angels and of God. Therefore the sleep in the future life is deeper than it is in this life. Nevertheless, the soul lives before God." - J Pelikan, ed., Luther's Works, Vol. 4. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1964. p. 313 (cf. misquoted "(like a person on earth.)" and misread in Harold A. Schewe: What Happens to the Soul after Death?).
- John Calvin, Psychopannychia, @ lgmarshall.org
- Belief in the resurrection "first became prevalent in Judaism during the time of the Maccabees, after 168 BCE." Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. p. 415
- Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
- New Bible Dictionary 3rd edition, IVP Leicester 1996. "Sheol".
- Ecclesiastes 9:10 πάντα ὅσα ἂν εὕρῃ ἡ χείρ σου τοῦ ποιῆσαι ὡς ἡ δύναμίς σου ποίησον ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ποίημα καὶ λογισμὸς καὶ γνῶσις καὶ σοφία ἐν ᾅδῃ ὅπου σὺ πορεύῃ ἐκεῖ
- George W. E. Nickelsburg Resurrection, immortality, and eternal life in intertestamental Judaism and Early Christianity Harvard Theological Studies
- Hippolytus of Rome, Against Plato, on the Cause of the Universe, §1. As to the state of the righteous, he writes, "And there the righteous from the beginning dwell, not ruled by necessity, but enjoying always the contemplation of the blessings which are in their view, and delighting themselves with the expectation of others ever new, and deeming those ever better than these. And that place brings no toils to them. There, there is neither fierce heat, nor cold, nor thorn; but the face of the fathers and the righteous is seen to be always smiling, as they wait for the rest and eternal revival in heaven which succeed this location. And we call it by the name Abraham's bosom."
- Hoekema, Anthony A (1994). The Bible and the Future. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 92.
- Norman T. Burns Christian mortalism from Tyndale to Milton 1967, 1972
- Albert C. Labriola Milton Studies, Volume 45 2005 p17.
- Ann Thomson Bodies of Thought: Science, Religion, and the Soul in the Early Enlightenment 2008 p43
- Douglas Kries Piety and humanity: essays on religion and early modern political philosophy 1997 p101
- Millard J. Erickson Christian theology 1998 p1182 "In the case of the Adventists, however, the phrase "soul sleep" is somewhat misleading. Anthony Hoekema suggests instead "soul-extinction," since.."
- Laurence Urdang, Anne Ryle Dictionary of uncommon words: a Wynwood lexicon 1991 p750
- Wulfert De Greef The writings of John Calvin: an introductory guide 2008 p152
- G. C. Berkouwer Man: The Image of God 1962 p272 "against the idea of soul-sleep, in Calvin's sharp attack, Psychopannychia"
- Glenn S. Sunshine, Ron Hill The Reformation for Armchair Theologians 2005 Page 123 "In 1534 he resigned his benefices; that same year he also wrote his first theological work, the Psychopannychia, an attack on the doctrine of soul sleep"
- George Huntston Williams The Radical Reformation 1962 p105
- Daniel Garber, Michael Ayers The Cambridge history of seventeenth-century philosophy, Volume 2 2003 p85
- Dr Bryan W. Ball The Soul Sleepers: Christian Mortalism from Wycliffe to Priestley 2008
- "Christian Song Latin and German, for Use at Funerals", 1542, in Works of Luther (1932), vol. 6, pp. 287, 288
- 28 fundamental beliefs of Seventh-day Adventists, adventist.org, number 26 "Death and Resurrection".
- From Paradise Lost to Paradise Regained Watchtower Society 1st Ed. 1958. "After Jesus died and was resurrected men and women could be set aside to become the `little flock' of 144,000 persons who make up the heavenly, spiritual nation of God, and who are to rule with Christ in the new heavens." "Their resurrection is also a `resurrection of life' because they `did good things' on earth. However, the resurrection of the 144,000 members of the spiritual nation is a resurrection to spirit life in the heavens." "Has this spiritual resurrection taken place? Yes, back in chapter 26 we learned that it took place when Christ came to Jehovah's temple in 1918" (p. 231). "Those of this spiritual nation who died before the spiritual resurrection began in 1918 slept in death until that year. But the others who were still alive on earth have continued to live out their regular lives." "And now when the earthly life of one of such persons ends he is resurrected at once to spirit life. He is changed in a moment from being a human creature to being a spirit creature in heaven with Jesus Christ." "But only 144,000 persons will be a part of the new heavens with Jesus Christ" (Ibid, p. 232).
- Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1030-1031
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