Internal passport of Russia
|Internal Passport of the Russian Federation
(Russian: Паспорт гражданина Российской Федерации)
An example of Internal Passport
|Eligibility requirements||14 years of age
legal permanent residence status
|Expiration||Renewed at age 20 and 45|
In 1992, passports — or other photo identification documents — became necessary to board a train. Train tickets started to bear passenger names, allegedly, as an effort to combat speculative reselling of the tickets.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union invoked the need to distinguish Russian citizens among the citizens of the former Union.
On 9 December 1992, special leaves were introduced which were affixed in Soviet passports, certifying that the bearer of the passport was a citizen of Russia. These leaves were optional unless travelling to the other former Soviet republics which continued to accept Soviet passports; for other occasions, other proofs of citizenship were accepted as well. Issuance of the leaves continued until the end of 2002.
On 8 July 1997, the currently-used design of the Russian internal passport was introduced. Unlike the Soviet passports, which had three photo pages, the new passports only have one. A passport is first issued at the age of 14, and then replaced upon reaching the ages of 20 and 45. The text in the passports is in Russian. Passports issued in autonomous entities may, on the bearer's request, contain an additional leaf duplicating all data in one of the official local languages.
A passport exchange was begun; the deadline was initially set at end of 2001, but then prolonged several times and finally set at 30 June 2004. The government had first regulated that having failed to exchange one's passport would constitute a punishable violation. However, the Supreme Court ruled to the effect that citizens cannot be obliged to exchange their passports. The Soviet passports ceased to be valid as means of personal identification since mid-2004, but it is still legal (though barely practicable) to have one.
The propiska was formally abandoned soon after adoption of the current Constitution in 1993, and replaced with "residency registration" which, in principle, was simply notification of one's place of residence.
Nevertheless, under the new regulations, permanent registration records are stamped in citizens' internal passports just as were propiskas. This has led to the widespread misconception that registration was just a new name for the propiska; many continue to call it a "propiska". This misconception is partly reinforced by the fact that the existing rules for registration make it an onerous process, dependent on the consent of landlords, which effectively prevents tenants of flats from registering.
As of October 2012 this information has been confirmed. Starting from the 1st January 2013, so called Universal Electronic Cards (Russian: Универсальная электронная карта) are being issued. By the year 2015 they are to fully replace old internal passports.
- Identity Card of the Russian Armed Forces
- Visa requirements for Russian citizens
- Russian passport
- Passport system in the Soviet Union
- Migration card
- Propiska in the Soviet Union
- Wolf ticket (Russia)
- 101st kilometre
- Closed cities
- "BBC Russian - Россия - Россия упрощает регистрацию и хочет отменить паспорта". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- "Russian Domestic Passports to Be Replaced by Smart Cards". russiaSLAM. Retrieved 23 January 2013.