|Republic of Mozambique||RENAMO|
The RENAMO insurgency is the ongoing rebellion of the RENAMO party in Mozambique, directed against the government. The insurgency is part of the aftermath of the Mozambican Civil War; it began in mid-2013 and is ongoing, resulting in dozens of deaths. A ceasefire has been announced between the government and the rebels.
Colonial government in Mozambique came to an end with the Marxist revolution led by the FRELIMO party and independence from Portugual in 1975. This revolution was opposed by surrounding states, ruled either by colonial governments or white minority governments left over from colonial rule, such as Rhodesia and South Africa. The RENAMO group opposing the revolutionary government was initially founded with support from these governments, notably the Rhodesian secret service.
RENAMO fought a civil war with the FRELIMO government until the signing of the Rome General Peace Accords in 1992. Foreign support for the rebels had dwindled as surrounding white minority governments fell. In the course of negotiations, the FRELIMO government instituted a new constitution, making Mozambique a multiparty state with periodic elections and guaranteed democratic rights. Since then, support for RENAMO has waned in Mozambique elections, and its leader Afonso Dhlakama in October 2012 began retraining ageing veterans demanding "a new political order". This followed complaints that the political system was not sufficiently inclusive and that the proceeds of economic development were not being shared fairly. RENAMO turned to arms once again, citing fears for the safety of its leader, .
The activity of RENAMO resurged in April 2013, when armed clashes broke out with a RENAMO attack on a police station in Muxungue.
RENAMO participated in two clashes in August 2013, resulting in the deaths of 36 Mozambique soldiers and policemen according to RENAMO announcement; local media figures were put significantly lower in comparison, reporting just 2 deaths.
In January 2014, 1 person was killed and five injured in a Muxungue ambush by RENAMO.
A “unilateral ceasefire”, decreed by its leader Afonso Dhlakama, was announced by RENAMO on May 7, 2014.
On June 2, Antonio Muchanga (the spokesman of the organization) claimed that “As from today, there are no guarantees of movement”. RENAMO’s explanation for scrapping the truce was a claim that the government was massing forces in the Sofala district of Gorongosa in order to assassinate Dhlakama, who was living in a base on the slopes of the Gorongosa mountain range.
On June 4, the RENAMO rebel movement killed 3 people, attacking a convoy of vehicles on the main north-south highway. Earlier that week 7 people were injured at the same location by RENAMO in similar circumstances.
The government and the RENAMO rebels signed a ceasefire on August 25. This followed almost a year of negotiations and the government release of rebels captured in fighting in the week beforehand, coming into effect at 22:00 on that day. Saimon Macuiane, the rebels' chief negotiator, called it an, "important step towards national reconciliation... and a durable peace." The ceasefire was seen as part of a wider attempt to bring peace to the country ahead of elections scheduled for October 2014.
- NSNBC. "With Renamo, both being represented in parliament and having relaunched its armed insurgency, the party is both increasing its political and military campaigns, in what analysts describe as an attempt to cast the country into a new civil war up the October 2014 parliamentary and presidential elections." "Mozambique: Renamo starts killing in Inhambane after reopening Base". nsnbc international.
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