International Affective Picture System

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The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a database of pictures used to elicit a range of emotions. The IAPS was developed by the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. There are currently over 1,000 colored pictures in the database. These pictures are representative of daily experiences such as household furniture to extreme encounters such as a mutilated body. The familiarity of the human experience is what evokes such an array of emotions. IAPS is widely used in experiments studying emotion and attention.[1]

Normative Rating Procedure[edit]

Adults[edit]

A sample of 100 participants, 50 female and 50 male, rated 20 picture sets, each IAPS picture set consisted of 60 pictures. Each picture was presented for 6 seconds, immediately after participants were given 15 seconds to rate the picture using a Self-Assessment Manikin Scale. Pictures were rated in 3 dimensions, valence, arousal, and control/dominance.[2]

Children[edit]

Children ages 7–9 years, 10-12, and 13-14 rated IAPS pictures in the same procedure with a few minor changes. Children were in a different experiment setting, given different instructions, and they were allotted 20 seconds to rate each picture instead of 15.[3]

IAPS pictures use[edit]

IAPS pictures have been used in accordance with a number of physiological and neurological measurements. Studies have used the following methods while viewing IAPS pictures: fMRI,[4] EEG,[5] magnetoencephalography, skin conductance,[6] and heart rate, electromyography.[7]

Access to the IAPS database[edit]

The IAPS images themselves are not typically shown in any media outlet, publications and reports. This is to maintain the novelty and efficacy of the stimuli set within research experiments. To gain access to the IAPS, a form that can be found here must be filled out. Requests from students without a faculty advisor will not be accepted. Only requests from degree-granting academic, not-for-profit research at recognized educational institutions are accepted.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bradley, M. M. & Lang, P. J. (2007). The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in the study of emotion and attention. In J. A. Coan and J. J. B. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment (pp. 29-46). Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008). International affective picture System (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
  3. ^ Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008). International affective picture System (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
  4. ^ Caria, A., Sitaram, R., Veit, R., Begliomini, C., & Birbaumer, N. (2010). Volitional control of anterior insula activity modulates the response to aversive stimuli. A real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological psychiatry, 68(5), 425–32. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.04.020
  5. ^ Hajcak, G., & Dennis, T. A. (2009). Brain potentials during affective picture processing in children. Biological Psychology, 80(3), 333-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.11.006
  6. ^ D'Hondt, F., Lassonde, M., Collignon, O., Dubarry, A.-S., Robert, M., Rigoulot, S., . . . Sequeira, H. (2010). Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4(33). http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2010.00033
  7. ^ Baglioni, C., Lombardo, C., Bux, E., Hansen, S., Salveta, C., Biello, S., . . . Espie, C. A. (2010). Psychophysiological reactivity to sleep-related emotional stimuli in primary insomnia. Behavior Research and Therapy, 48(6), 467-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.01.008,
  8. ^ Bradley, M. M., Ph.D., & Lang, P. J., Ph.D. (n.d.). IAPS message. Retrieved from The Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention website: http://csea.phhp.ufl.edu/media/iapsmessage.html

See also[edit]