The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces. It was established in 1913 as a successor to the Commission Internationale de Photométrie and is today based in Vienna, Austria.
In 1964 the 10° CIE standard observer and its corresponding colour matching functions as well as the new standard daylight illuminant D6500 were added, as well as a method for calculating daylight illuminants at correlated colour temperatures other than 6500 kelvin.
In 1976, the commission developed the CIELAB and CIELUV colour spaces, which are widely used today.
Based on CIELAB, colour difference formulas CIEDE94 and CIEDE2000 were recommended in the corresponding years.
^Troland, L. T. (August 1922). "Report of Committee on Colorimetry for 1920–21". Journal of the Optical Society of America6 (6): 527–96. doi:10.1364/JOSA.6.000527. The report defined colour as follows: "Colour is the general name for all sensations arising from the activity of the retina of the eye and its attached nervous mechanisms, this activity being, in nearly every case in the normal individual, a specific response to radiant energy of certain wave-lengths and intensities."