International Committee for Information Technology Standards
INCITS technical standard groups and technical committees have provided many popular standards, among them:
The forum was established in 1960 as the 'Accredited Standards Committee X3, Information Technology' and is sponsored by Information Technology Industry Council (ITI), a trade association representing providers of information technology products and services then known as the Business Equipment Manufacturers' Association (BEMA) and later renamed the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers' Association (CBEMA). The first organizational meeting was in February 1961 with ITI (CBEMA then) taking Secretariat responsibility. X3 was established under American National Standards Institute (ANSI) procedures. The forum was renamed Accredited Standards Committee NCITS, National Committee for Information Technology Standards (NCITS) in 1997, and the current name was approved in 2001.
In the 1970s, CBEMA (pronounced "sah-bee-mah") developed one of the most frequently employed power acceptability curves as a guideline for the organization's members' design of their power supplies. Basically, the CBEMA curve was originally derived to describe the tolerance of mainframe computer business equipment to the magnitude and duration of voltage variations on the power system. It eventually became a standard design target for sensitive equipment to be applied on the power system and a common format for reporting power quality variation data.
The CBEMA curve basically states that the voltage needs to remain within the upper and lower curves. These curves create what is known as the tolerance envelope. The amount of voltage allowed is dependent on its duration and the curves approach steady state values of 87% and 106%. The CBEMA curve was derived from experimental and historical data taken from mainframe computers. The best scientific interpretation of the curve can be given in terms of a voltage standard applied to the DC bus voltage of a rectifier load.
The envelope that is plotted on the curve serves as a guide of allowable and unacceptable voltage excursions. That reference is important in the electrical industry since utilities know what is necessary before problems occur with customer loads. It is also vital to designers and manufacturers of machines to ensure that the machine won't crash or malfunction within the envelope. Within the envelope, the device must be sturdy enough to tolerate acceptable voltage excursions.
If there is a voltage spike and it's quick enough, there won't be any physical damage since the large current associated with momentary overvoltage will not have enough time to overheat components and damage them. If the voltage is significantly reduced but it occurs relatively fast, the device will continue to function. Basically, too much voltage for too long will cause components to overheat and damage the machine. Voltage values above the envelope are supposed to cause malfunctions such as insulation failure, overexcitation, and overvoltage trip. In addition, too little voltage for too long of a period of time will lead to the device shutting off. A solution to prepare for low voltage would be for valuable equipment to have a backup battery. The problem with this is that although this is reasonable for light electronics, it gets to be expensive for large machines.
A working group of the CBEMA formed the Information Technology Industry Council (ITI) in 1994. They developed the ITI curve (revised in 2000), which has replaced the CBEMA curve in general usage for single-phase 120 V 60 Hz systems.
Compared to the original CBEMA curve, the general envelope shape of the ITI curve remains the same except its boundaries are more defined. Also, the steady state values increased to 90% and 110%. In addition, the ITI curve also has an expanded acceptable power area or operating region.
INCITS' technical committees span a wide range of information technology areas. The full list of these committees is shown below:
- Languages / Database
- Data Management (DM32)
- Computer Graphics & Image Processing (H3)
- Programming Languages (PL22)
- Security / ID
- Identification Cards and Related Devices (B10)
- Cyber Security (CS1)
- Biometrics (M1)
- Optical Digital Data Disks (B11)
- SCSI Storage Interfaces (T10)
- Fibre Channel Interfaces (T11)
- ATA Storage Interface (T13)
- Media / Education
- Coding of Audio, Picture, Multimedia, and Hypermedia Information (L3)
- Open Distributed Processing (ODP) (T3)
- Information Technology Access Interfaces (V2)
- Information Services / Office / Text
- Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (L1)
- Character Sets and Internationalization (L2)
- Text Processing: Office and Publishing Systems Interface (V1)
- Office Equipment (W1)
- Other INCITS Technical Committees
- Corporate Governance of IT (CGIT1)
- Distributed Application Platforms and Services (DAPS38)
- Sensor Networks (SN1)
- IT Sustainability (ITS39)
- "About SCSI — T10 & Specifications".
- "CBEMA CURVE - THE POWER ACCEPTABILITY CURVE FOR COMPUTER BUSINESS EQUIPMENT".
- CBEMA CURVE - THE POWER ACCEPTABILITY CURVE FOR COMPUTER BUSINESS EQUIPMENT
- "ITIC CURVE - POWER ACCEPTABILITY CURVE FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EQUIPMENT".
- Homepage of INCITS, includes a list of INCITS standards
- Technical Committee T1 (ATIS, Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
- Technical Committee T10 (SCSI)
- Technical Committee T11 (Fibre Channel)
- Technical Committee T13 (AT Attachment)*
- ANSI Accredited Standards Developers (ANSI Accredited SDO )
- Charles A. Phillips Papers, 1959-1985 (Historical reference to BEMA)