International Control Commission
The International Control Commission (ICC), formally called the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam (ICSC), was an international force established in 1954 that oversaw the implementation of the Geneva Accords that ended the First Indochina War with the Partition of Vietnam. It reported on the progress of the ceasefires and any violations against them. The force comprised troops and officers from Canada, Poland, and India representing the non-communist, communist, and non-aligned blocs respectively.
Although supposedly neutral, the members of the ICC often took sides in the Vietnam War (Second Indochina War) and even offered aid to both sides. Canadian personnel were known to have done intelligence work for the United States during their bombing of North Vietnam. Actions such as these often led members of the ICC to become targets with several members losing their lives. Even with admissions from Hanoi, the North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong are believed to have killed ICC members. The ICC was criticized for doing too little to prevent mass reprisals against Vietnamese who had collaborated with the French.
With the signing of the Paris Peace Accords of 1973, the ICC was dissolved and replaced with the International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS).
- Moise, Edwin E. (2009-2-9 (rev)). "The International Commissions: ICC (ICSC) and ICCS". Vietnam War Bibliography. Clemson University. Retrieved 2010-02-09. Check date values in:
- "Vietnam War". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-09-20.
- "International Commission for Supervision and Control for Vietnam (p.762-781)". Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Retrieved 2007-09-20.[dead link]
- Nutt, Anita Lauve. "On the Question of Communist Reprisals in Vietnam." RAND Corporation. August 1970.
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