International Falls, Minnesota
|International Falls, Minnesota|
|— City —|
|Nickname(s): Icebox of the Nation,
|• Total||6.53 sq mi (16.91 km2)|
|• Land||6.42 sq mi (16.63 km2)|
|• Water||0.11 sq mi (0.28 km2)|
|Elevation||1,122 ft (342 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||6,357|
|• Density||1,000.6/sq mi (386.3/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||0645435|
International Falls is located on the Rainy River directly across from Fort Frances, Ontario, Canada. The two cities are connected by the Fort Frances – International Falls International Bridge. Voyageurs National Park is located 11 miles east of International Falls. There is a major U.S. Customs and Border Protection Port of Entry on the International Falls side of the toll bridge, and a Canadian Customs entry point on the north side of the bridge.
According to Forbes magazine, it is the coldest city in the continental United States.
Although the International Falls area was well known to explorers, missionaries, and voyagers as early as the 17th century, it was not until April 1895 the community was platted by a teacher and preacher L. A. Ogaard for the Koochiching Company and named the community Koochiching. The word "Koochiching" comes from either Ojibwe word Gojijiing or Cree Kocicīhk, both meaning "at the place of inlets," referring to the neighboring Rainy Lake and River. The European inhabitants gave the names Rainy Lake and Rainy River to the nearby bodies of water because of the mist-like rain present at the falls where the lake flowed into the river.
On August 10, 1901, the village was incorporated and two years later its name was changed to International Falls in recognition of the river's role as a border between the United States and Canada. It was incorporated as a city in 1909.
Realizing the potential for water power and mills in the area, industrialist E.W. Backus, president of the Minnesota and Ontario Paper Company in the early 20th century, built a dam on the Rainy River to power the company's mills. Purchased by Boise Cascade Corporation in 1965, and sold to an investment group in 2003, the company remains the largest business and employer in the area.
International Falls, with its relatively central position in the North American continent, has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), with long, bitterly cold winters and humid and warm summers. January averages 2.7 °F (−16.3 °C), and lows are 0 °F (−17.8 °C) or below on approximately 64 nights per season. Highs only reach the freezing point 12–13 days from December to February, and in combination with a seasonal snowfall of 68 inches (173 cm), snow cover is thick and long−lasting. Spring, and more especially autumn, are short but mild transition seasons. Average summer highs peak at 79 °F (26.1 °C) in July and August, with relatively cool nights. Precipitation averages nearly 24 inches (610 mm) per year, and is concentrated in the warmer months. The all−time record high temperature is 103 °F (39.4 °C), while the all−time record low is −55 °F (−48.3 °C), a range of 158 °F or 87.7 °C.
|Climate data for International Falls, Minnesota (1981-2010)|
|Record high °F (°C)||49
|Average high °F (°C)||15.5
|Daily mean °F (°C)||4.9
|Average low °F (°C)||−5.6
|Record low °F (°C)||−55
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.61
|Snowfall inches (cm)||15.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.3||7.9||8.8||8.7||12.4||13.7||11.9||11.0||11.9||11.7||10.0||10.7||127.9|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||12.7||10.0||7.7||3.4||0.6||0||0||0||0.2||2.4||9.5||12.7||59.1|
|Source: NOAA (normals), The Weather Channel (records)|
Icebox of the Nation
International Falls has long promoted itself as the "Icebox of the Nation"; however, the trademark for the slogan has been challenged on several occasions by the small town of Fraser, Colorado. Officials from Fraser claimed usage since 1956, International Falls since 1948. The two towns came to an agreement in 1986, when International Falls paid Fraser $2,000 to relinquish its "official" claim. However, in 1996, International Falls inadvertently failed to renew its federal trademark, although it had kept its state trademark up to date. Fraser then filed to gain the federal trademark. International Falls submitted photographic proof that its 1955 Pee Wee hockey team traveled to Boston, Massachusetts with the slogan.[dead link] After several years of legal battles, the United States Patent and Trademark Office officially registered the slogan with International Falls on January 29, 2008, Registration Number 3375139. Only a few days after announcing its success in the trademark battle, International Falls had a daily record low temperature of −40°F (−40°C), beating a previous record of −37°F (−38.3°C) in 1967.[dead link]
Besides Fraser, there are still many towns that are smaller and annually overall colder than International Falls, many of these being mountain communities in the Rockies, as well as several in northern Minnesota. International Falls is still called the "Icebox of the Nation" after winning the claim against Fraser in court.[dead link] One thing that does help or hinder International Falls is that Fraser is located within the Rocky Mountains, which would help to depress low temperatures while International Falls is located on relatively flat land, which takes longer to cool on warm summer nights. It should also be noted that while sub−freezing temperatures are very common at high elevation, valley sites in the Rockies during the winter, maximum temperatures that remain sub−freezing are quite rare, while at International Falls and much of the upper (Northern) Midwest they are of relatively frequent occurrence. This is reflected by the average monthly temperatures during the winter months.
As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $29,908, and the median income for a family was $41,458. Males had a median income of $41,584 versus $20,053 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,171. About 10.0% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 6,424 people, 2,903 households, and 1,645 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,000.6 inhabitants per square mile (386.3 /km2). There were 3,157 housing units at an average density of 491.7 per square mile (189.8 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 93.3% White, 1.0% African American, 2.5% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population.
There were 2,903 households of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.3% were non-families. 37.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.80.
The median age in the city was 42.4 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.4% were from 25 to 44; 27.3% were from 45 to 64; and 19.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female.
International Falls is home to two commercial radio stations; KGHS (1230 AM) and KSDM (104.1 FM), owned and operated by Red Rock Radio. Two non-commercial radio stations in International Falls; KBHW (99.5 FM) and KXBR (91.9 FM), owned and operated by Heartland Christian Broadcasters, Inc. Two Minnesota Public Radio stations from Bemidji; KNBJ (88.1 FM; News) and KCRB-FM (97.7 FM; Classical). The local Icebox Radio Theater produces radio drama broadcasts on 106.9 FM, with a power output one watt. CFOB-FM (93.1 FM) also serves International Falls, and is licensed to Fort Frances, Ontario.
International Falls is part of the Duluth television market, and is served by the following repeaters:
- K39GT channel 39 (repeating 3ABN, via satellite)
- K45JD channel 45, repeating KQDS-TV (Fox)
- K47NW-D channel 47, PSIP 11, repeating KRII (NBC / The CW / CBS (from KDLH) / MyNetworkTV)
- K49BU-D channel 49, PSIP 13, repeating WIRT-DT (ABC)
- K51CM-D channel 51, PSIP 31, repeating WRPT (PBS)
Local cable television service is offered by Midcontinent Communications.
The local newspaper is The Daily Journal.
- Icebox Radio Theater
Falls International Airport (IATA: INL, ICAO: KINL) is a public airport located just south of the city. The airport has two runways. It is mostly used for general aviation but is also served by one commercial airline: Delta Air Lines' Delta Connection, with two daily flights to Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport.
The town is served by City Cab. It is a local cab and van service, providing transportation to the region.
The following routes are located within the city of International Falls.
Reference in pop culture
A Sears Diehard car battery commercial was filmed here in the 1970s, playing on the city's extremely cold winter climate to promote the longevity and effectiveness of the product. It led to a parody ad - aired several times in the first (1975) season of Saturday Night Live - promoting a geriatric product.
The town was referenced in an episode of Family Matters. Also, the fictional Minnesota small town of Frostbite Falls, which was the hometown of cartoon characters Rocket "Rocky" J. Squirrel and Bullwinkle J. Moose of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, was a spoof of the real-life International Falls. The fictional town was located in Koochiching County as well.
Setting for Robert Coover short story collection Pricksongs and Descants I
Notable natives and residents
- Dick Dougherty Minnesota Gopher Hall of Fame Hockey, Silver Medal 1956 Olympic Games
- Edward Wellington Backus industrialist
- Ernest Oberholtzer explorer, author, conservationist
- Kevin Constantine hockey coach, NHL IHL
- Dean Blais hockey coach, University of Nebraska, Omaha, WCHA
- Tammy Faye Bakker Messner, PTL The 700 Club
- Jim Crotty pro football NFL Washington Redskins
- Neil Sheehy, hockey player Calgary Flames
- Gary Sampson hockey player Washington Capitals
- Bob Mason, Goalie NHL 1984-1991. Coach Minnesota Wild
- Timothy Sheehy World Hockey Association
- Frank Youso, NFL New York Giants Oakland Raiders
- Arlys Johnson-Maxwell weightlifter Senior World Champion 1987
- Bronko Nagurski, football player, member of the College Football Hall of Fame and the Pro Football Hall of Fame
- Mike "Lefty" Curran, Hockey Player, 1972 Winter Olympics Silver Medal
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- "Monthly Averages for International Falls, MN – Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2010−05−21.
- Two Towns Feud Over Icebox Title, Associated Press, January 13, 2008.[dead link]
- Curt Brown, International Falls says it loud: We're cold, and we're proud, Star Tribune, February 8, 2008.
- Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS), United States Patent and Trademark Office, Accessed February 11, 2008.
- Nation's 'Icebox' hits record 40 below zero, Associated Press, February 11, 2008.
- Riccardi, Nicholas. "Dueling for ‘Icebox of Nation’." Journal Gazette. March 5, 2007. Retrieved on March 5, 2007.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: International Falls, Minnesota|
- International Falls city homepage
- International Falls Chamber of Commerce
- Convention and Visitors Bureau