International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots
|Full name||International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots|
|Head union||International Longshoremen's Association|
|Key people||Donald J. Marcus, president|
|Office location||Baltimore, Maryland|
The International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots or MM&P is a United States labor union representing licensed mariners. It is the marine division of the International Longshoremen's Association.
MM&P describes itself as a "Union of Maritime Professionals" and organizes licensed deck officers on U.S.-flag commercial vessels sailing offshore, on the inland waterways and on civilian-crewed ships in the government fleet; state pilots; marine engineers; unlicensed seafarers; and maritime industry shore side clerical and service workers. In addition, it operates two training facilities: the Maritime Institute of Technology & Graduate Studies near Baltimore, Maryland; and the Pacific Northwest Maritime Institute, in Seattle, Washington. It operates 22 hiring halls in port cities across the continental United States, Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
MM&P's historical roots lie in a frustration felt by steamship pilots who were held accountable in marine casualties, but had no voice in safety policy. Banding together in New York in 1887, they formed the first local of the American Brotherhood of Steamship pilots. As more locals began to spring up, ship's masters expressed interest in joining. Accommodating this desire, in 1891, the fledgling union changed its name to the American Association of Masters and Pilots of Steam Vessels. In 1900, it further expanded to encompass all deck officers, and changed its name to the American Association of Masters, Mates, and Pilots of Steam Vessels.
MM&P was active in the 1934 West Coast waterfront strike, joining the strike along with the Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association on 19 May 1934. The two unions continued together to join the Maritime Federation of the Pacific (MFP) in 1937. The alliance, however, was short-lived. In July 1938, MM&P, along with the Sailor's Union of the Pacific, and the Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders, and Wipers of the Pacific Coast Union withdrew from the MFP.
Buffeted by the historical battle between the American Federation of Labor's (AFL) Seafarer's International Union on one side and the Congress of Industrial Organizations's (CIO) National Maritime Union (NMU) on the other, MM&P removed itself from the battleground by becoming a branch of the International Longshoremen's Association in 1971. The link has sometimes been tenuous: some 17 years later, when NMU joined MEBA, MM&P very nearly followed suit.
- American Maritime Officers
- National Maritime Union
- Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association
- International Ship Masters' Association
- Sailors' Union of the Pacific
- United States Merchant Marine
- De La Pedraja Tomán, 1994, p. 375.
- De La Pedraja Tomán, 1994, p. 377.
- De La Pedraja Tomán, René (1994). A Historical Dictionary of the U. S. Merchant Marine and Shipping Industry: Since the Introduction of Steam. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 768. ISBN 0-313-27225-5.