International Society for Krishna Consciousness

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness
ISKCON Logo.png
Logo of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON)
Abbreviation ISKCON
Formation 13 July 1966
Type Religious
Purpose Educational
Religious studies
Spirituality
Headquarters Mayapur, India
Location
  • Worldwide
Region served Worldwide
Founder-Acharya Bhaktivedanta Swami
Main organ Governing Body Commission (GBC)
Affiliations Gaudiya Vaishnavism

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organisation.[1] It was founded in 1966 in New York City by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.[2] Its core beliefs are based on select traditional Hindu scriptures, particularly the Bhagavad-gītā /ˌbɑːɡəˌvɑːdˈɡtə/ and the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam. ISKCON is an authorized branch[who?] that claims to be a direct descendant of Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Vaishnava Sampradaya.[3] The appearance of the movement and its culture come from the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, which has had adherents in India since the late 15th century and Western converts since the early 1900s in America,[4] and in England in the 1930s.[5]

ISKCON was formed to spread the practice of bhakti yoga, in which those involved (bhaktas) dedicate their thoughts and actions towards pleasing the Supreme Lord, Krishna.[6][7] ISKCON today is a worldwide confederation of more than 550 centres, including 60 farm communities, some aiming for self-sufficiency, 50 schools and 90 restaurants.[8] In recent decades the movement's most rapid expansions in terms of numbers of membership have been within Eastern Europe (especially since the collapse of the Soviet Union) and India.[9]

Beliefs and history[edit]

Pancha-Tattva deities: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda, Advaita Acharya, Gadadhara and Srivasa, installed in a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple
ISKCON's Bhajan during Navratri Golu at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
For further information see: Achintya Bheda Abheda and Gaudiya Vaishnavism

ISKCON devotees follow a disciplic line of Gaudiya Bhagavata Vaishnavas and are the largest branch of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[10] Vaishnavism means 'worship of Vishnu', and Gauḍa refers to the area where this particular branch of Vaishnavism originated, in the Gauda region of West Bengal. Gaudiya Vaishnavism has had a following in India, especially West Bengal and Odisha, for the past five hundred years. Bhaktivedanta Swami disseminated Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology in the Western world through extensive writings and translations,[11] including the Bhagavad Gita, Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata Purana), Chaitanya Charitamrita, and other scriptures. These works are now available in more than seventy languages and serve as the canon of ISKCON. Many are available online from a number of websites.[12][13]

Krishna is described as the source of all the avatars of God.[14] Thus ISKCON devotees worship Krishna as the highest form of God, svayam bhagavan, and often refer to Him as "the Supreme Personality of Godhead" in writing, which was a phrase coined by Prabhupada in his books on the subject. To devotees, Radha represents Krishna's divine female counterpart, the original spiritual potency, and the embodiment of divine love. The individual soul is an eternal personal identity which does not ultimately merge into any formless light or void as suggested by the monistic (Advaita) schools of Hinduism. Prabhupada most frequently offers Sanatana-dharma and Varnashrama dharma as more accurate names for the religious system which accepts Vedic authority.[15] It is a monotheistic tradition which has its roots in the theistic Vedanta traditions.[16]

Hare Krishna mantra[edit]

Mahamantra in Bengali script
Main article: Hare Krishna (mantra)

The popular nickname of "Hare Krishnas" for devotees of this movement comes from the mantra that devotees sing aloud (kirtan) or chant quietly (japa) on tulsi mala. This mantra, known also as the Maha Mantra, contains the names of God Krishna and Rama.

The Maha Mantra:

Hare Krishna Hare Krishna
Krishna Krishna Hare Hare
Hare Rama Hare Rama
Rama Rama Hare Hare

Seven purposes of ISKCON[edit]

Deities of Krishna-Balaram at ISKCON Bhubaneswar temple
Ratha Yatra festival in Moscow, Russia.
ISKCON Vrindavan
Public street festivals are a significant part of ISKCONs outreach programmes. Seen here is a Ratha Yatra festival in central London.

When Srila Prabhupada first incorporated ISKCON in 1966, he gave it seven purposes:[17]

  1. To systematically propagate spiritual knowledge to society at large and to educate all people in the techniques of spiritual life in order to check the imbalance of values in life and to achieve real unity and peace in the world.
  2. To propagate a consciousness of Krishna, as it is revealed in the Bhagavad-gita and the Srimad-Bhagavatam. The principle of reincarnation is accepted.
  3. To bring the members of the Society together with each other and nearer to Krishna, the prime entity, thus to develop the idea within the members, and humanity at large, that each soul is part and parcel of the quality of Godhead (Krishna).
  4. To teach and encourage the sankirtana movement, congregational chanting of the holy names of God as revealed in the teachings of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
  5. To erect for the members, and for society at large, a holy place of transcendental pastimes, dedicated to the personality of Krishna.
  6. To bring the members closer together for the purpose of teaching a simpler and more natural way of life.
  7. With a view towards achieving the aforementioned purposes, to publish and distribute periodicals, magazines, books and other writings.

Four regulative principles[edit]

Bhaktivedanta Swami prescribed four regulative principles, in relation to the four legs of dharma,[18] as the basis of the spiritual life:

  • No eating of meat (including fish) or eggs.
  • No illicit sex: only between married couples and only for the procreation of children;[19]
  • No gambling.
  • No intoxicants (including alcohol, caffeine, tobacco and other recreational drugs.[20]).

The four legs of Dharma are:[18]

Preaching activities[edit]

ISKCON advocates preaching.[citation needed] Members try to spread Krishna consciousness, primarily by singing the Hare Krishna mantra in public places and by selling books written by Bhaktivedanta Swami.[21] Both of these activities are known within the movement as Sankirtan. A study conducted by E. Burke Rochford Jr. at the University of California found that there are four types of contact between those in ISKCON and prospective members. Those include: individually motivated contact, contact made with members in public arenas, contact made through personal connections, and contact with sympathizers of the movement who strongly sway people to join.[22] According to the doctrine of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, one does not need to be born in a Hindu family to take up the practice of Vaishnavism. There are ISKCON communities around the world with schools, restaurants and farms. In general, funds collected by ISKCON are treated as communal property and used to support the community as a whole and to promote the preaching mission.[23] Many temples also have programs (like Food for Life) to provide meals for the needy. Also, ISKCON has recently brought the academic study of Krishna into eastern academia as Krishnology.

Educational activities and youth[edit]

The ISKCON Ministry of Education regulates educational activities within ISKCON, and oversees the operation of primary, secondary, tertiary, and seminary schools and centres of education.

The Ministry of Education also oversees education for religious and sastric study, developed and monitored by the UK-based Vaisnava Training and Education organisation.

A move away from boarding schools or asrama /ˈæʃrəm/ education in ISKCON has given way to an increase in community-run primary schools and home education. These ventures have had mixed results and some have been short-lived. However the ISKCON temples in Alachua, Florida and in Hertfordshire, England have established, successful primary schools on-site which form an important part of the community and are often spoken of positively by youth who attended them. A shift in emphasis has been seen in ISKCON schools with less focus on scriptural study and more emphasis placed on following the national curriculum, although worship of Krishna, celebrating devotional festivals and learning to play devotional instruments are still an important part of school life. The creation of free schools in the UK also meant that government funding allowed the UK's first Hindu primary school to be opened by the I-Foundation in the north London borough of Harrow. Avanti House, a Hindu secondary school with free school status, founded by the I-Foundation was opened in September 2012 in Harrow.

Early unsuccessful attempts at education within ISKCON led to some of the youth becoming disengaged, having completed their education with few or no formal qualifications. Perceptions of the importance and value of education are now much greater and participation rates in formal education, including at university level have significantly increased. It is not uncommon for children to attend a community-run primary school attached to a temple, before progressing to a state school for their post-primary education.

Gaudiya Vaisnava teachings state that being born in a Vaisnava family is a privileged blessing and an indication of good karma, or having completed good deeds in a previous life. This belief has at times caused friction between parents and their children, who may be disappointed by a lack of interest in Krishna-related activities on their children's behalf. Many parents prefer that their children are educated at a community-run temple school, and in the absence thereof, may opt for home education, seeing enrollment in a state school as an undesirable but not an uncommon last resort. Although parents from many different faiths would prefer their children to attend a faith school, Hare Krishna parents express concerns about their children accidentally eating non-vegetarian food or being exposed to ideas threatening their religious beliefs. Some may fear attack of beliefs from both peers and teachers. It is worth noting that the education system has changed considerably since these parents themselves attended school and the UK is now a richly multicultural society. A clear agenda to promote equality and inclusion, celebrate cultural diversity and show sensitivity toward different faiths is present in English schools. These points makes up some of the main criteria which must be demonstrated by trainee teachers.

Huge variety in degrees of belief and devotional practice exist among Hare Krishna youth. Few live in temples as their parents did, but this may in part be due to a general shift in ISKCON from an effectively monastic tradition to a family-oriented, congregational one where people live in their own houses and visit the temple. Many youth take up employment outside of ISKCON but many prefer to socialise within ISKCON circles, even if they profess openly hold few religious beliefs. Many report having felt like a misfit outside of ISKCON circles and struggling with cultural differences, such as being unable to eat with a knife and fork or sharing very few common cultural references with peers. A humorous view is often taken of these experiences and many accept feeling like an outsider as they view the religious beliefs they were raised with as the truth which will result in salvation. Greater levels of resentment and rejection of beliefs can generally be seen among youth who did not grow up in a vibrant community, surrounded by large numbers of other children. These youth may feel that they grew up with all the disadvantages and few of the benefits of a Hare Krishna upbringing. They may also feel they have little choice but to abandon much of their cultural identity so as to fit in with their peers and form meaningful friendships due to the absence of a sizable community.

The vast majority of ISKCON youth, even those for whom ISKCON is primarily a social rather than religious setting, seek a spouse from within the Hare Krishna community, often travelling to festivals in America, Poland or India attended by devotees from all over the world to meet a potential partner. It is not uncommon to maintain a long-distance relationship before one person re-locates, often before getting married in a traditional Vedic ceremony. All but very few of the youth remain vegetarian even if they see little value in following the other three regulative principles (see section above). Most report to believe in God, karma and reincarnation and will give their own children Sanskrit names. Another common feature of the youth is their enthusiasm for bhajans or kirtan and many show considerable musical aptitude, often of a higher standard than their parents' generation. It is not uncommon to be proficient in singing, playing the harmonium, two-headed mrdanga drum and kartels or cymbals. Older members of the movement have been known to criticise youth for turning kirtan into a performance rather than a communal religious ritual. In spite of this many people enjoy listening to youth kirtans at events within and outside temples.

Bhaktivedanta Institute[edit]

The Bhaktivedanta Institute (BI) is the scientific research branch of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Founded in 1976 by Bhaktivedanta Swami and Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami (Dr. T.D. Singh), it aims to advance the study of the nature and origin of life, utilising Vedic insights into consciousness, the self, and the origin of the universe. The institute's motto in the Sanskrit language is: "Athato brahma jijnasa" "One should inquire into the Supreme." Under the directorship of Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami, the Bhaktivedanta Institute organized four international conferences and hundreds of panel discussions and talks, and published over thirty books. Currently there are a number of branches of BI, with one of the main branches in Kolkata. The director of BI Kolkata is Vrajapati Das. Currently Ravi Gomatam is the Director of BI Berkeley.

Food for Life[edit]

Member of Food for Life Russia giving food

ISKCON has inspired, and sometimes sponsored, a project called Food for Life. The goal of the project is to "liberally distribute pure vegetarian meals (prasadam) throughout the world", as inspired by Bhaktivedanta Swami's instruction, given to his disciples in 1974, "No one within ten miles of a temple should go hungry . . . I want you to immediately begin serving food".[24] The international headquarters known as Food for Life Global site, established by Paul Rodney Turner (ref) and Mukunda Goswami,[25] coordinates the project. Food for Life is currently active in over sixty countries and serves up to 2 million free meals every day.[25] Its welfare achievements have been noted by The New York Times and other media worldwide.[26][27][28][29]

Management structure[edit]

Bhaktivedanta Swami spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution of ISKCON. As a charismatic leader, Bhaktivedanta Swami's personality and management had been responsible for much of the growth of ISKCON and the reach of his mission.[30][31]

The Governing Body Commission (or GBC) was created by Bhaktivedanta Swami in 1970.[32] In a document Direction of Management written on 28 July 1970 Prabhupada appointed the following members to the commission, all of them non sannyasi:[30]

  1. Sriman Rupanuga Das Adhikary
  2. Sriman Bhagavan Das Adhikary
  3. Sriman Syamsundar Das Adhikary
  4. Sriman Satsvarupa Das Adhikary
  5. Sriman Karandhar Das Adhikary
  6. Sriman Hansadutta Das Adhikary
  7. Sriman Tamala Krsna Das Adhikary
  8. Sriman Sudama Das Adhikary
  9. Sriman Bali Mardan Das Brahmacary
  10. Sriman Jagadisa Das Adhikary
  11. Sriman Hayagriva Das Adhikary
  12. Sriman Kṛṣṇadas Adhikary

The letter outlined the following purposes of the commission: 1) improving the standard of temple management, 2) the spread of Krishna consciousness, 3) the distribution of books and literature, 4) the opening of new centers, 5) the education of the devotees. GBC has since grown in size to include 48 senior members from the movement who make decisions based on consensus of opinion rather than any one person having ultimate authority.[30][33] It has continued to manage affairs since Prabhupada's passing in 1977 although it is currently a self-elected organisation and does not follow the provision where Srila Prabhupada instructs that members be elected by temple presidents.

The Guru and the Parampara[edit]

ISKCON adheres to the traditional system of paramparā, or disciplic succession, in which teachings upheld by scriptures are handed down from master to disciple, generation after generation.[34] A minority of people who express faith in Srila Prabhupada's teachings say that Srila Prabhupada, in contrast to the tradition, intended that after his physical demise he would continue to initiate disciples through ceremonial priests, called ritviks.[35] One version of this idea is espoused by a group calling itself the ISKCON Revival Movement.[36] ISKCON's Governing Body Commission has rejected all such ideas.[37]

Influential leaders since 1977[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi with Soviet Hare Krishna devotees in New Delhi (1989).
See also: Principal disciples of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami.

Before his death, Prabhupada "deputed"[38] or appointed the following eleven of his disciples to serve as gurus[39][40] or to continue to direct the organisation:[41] Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami,[42][43] Jayapataka Swami,[44] Hridayananda Dasa Goswami, Tamal Krishna Goswami,[45] Bhavananda Goswami, Hansadutta Swami, Ramesvara Swami, Harikesa Swami, Bhagavan Dasa, Kirtanananda Swami, and Jayatirtha Dasa. These eleven "Western Gurus were selected as spiritual heads" of the ISKCON after 1977, however "many problems followed from their appointment and the movement had since veered away from investing absolute authority in a few, fallible, human teachers",[46] however of these eleven, the first three have remained prominent leaders within the movement, as was Tamal Krishna Goswami until his death in a car accident in March 2002. Bhavananda no longer holds the post of an initiating guru. Ramesvara, Bhagavan and Harikesa resigned as spiritual leaders in 1985, 1987 and 1999 respectively and the remaining three were all expelled from the movement by the Governing Body Commission during the 1980s.[47] Of Prabhupada's disciples, who number 4,734 in total,[48] approximately 70 are now acting as diksha gurus within ISKCON. As of April 2011, ISKCON had a total of 100 sannyasis, most of whom were acting as gurus (see List of International Society for Krishna Consciousness sannyasis).

Litigation[edit]

Child Abuse Cases[edit]

A suit for $400m was filed in Texas State Court by alleged victims of abuse in the temples' schools in the 1970s and '80s, saying they suffered rape, sexual abuse, physical torture and emotional terror.[49][50] ISKCON had to later file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[51] Known as the Turley Case, the eventual 2008 settlement was $15 million.[52]

Murder Cases[edit]

Kirtananda Swami, or Swami Bhaktipada, a leader of ISKCON, pleaded guilty before his 1996 retrial to one count of racketeering and after serving 8 years of a 20-year prison sentence was subsequently released in 2004. Previously in 1991 the jury failed to reach a verdict on charges of conspiracy to commit the murders-for-hire of two devotees, but found him guilty of racketeering and mail fraud. These convictions were later overturned on appeal, only to result in the later retrial. [53][54][55]

Brainwashing Cases[edit]

ISKCON lost a brainwashing lawsuit to an Orange County mother and daughter in 1984. After a drawn-out legal battle of numerous appeals the original $32.5 million award was subsequently reduced to $9.7m, later $2.9m, and eventually to $500,000 plus interest in the 110-page decision handed down in 1992 4th District Court of Appeals in San Diego. [56][57][58]

Internal problems and controversy[edit]

In the years following Bhaktivedanta Swami's death in November 1977, a controversies arose involving abuses committed by a number of his Guru successors:.[59]

Rasika-bhakti[edit]

The elder sannyasi Bhaktivedanta Narayana Goswami was a disciple of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami's sannyasa guru and was long a well-wisher of ISKCON. A small group of prominent ISKCON leaders were closer to his association and Bhaktivedanta Narayana made no effort to conceal his relationship with them, which as time went on became increasingly intimate. His emphasis on gopi-bhava, the mood of Krishna's cowherd lovers, particularly disturbed his ISKCON audiences since Bhaktivedanta Swami had stressed that the path of spontaneous devotion was only for liberated souls. At the annual GBC meeting in 1993, members questioned their affiliation with Bhaktivedanta Narayana. Those involved minimised the seriousness of the relationship, though for some it had been going on for as long as five years. By the next annual meeting, the GBC forced the involved members to promise to greatly restrict further association with their new teacher. Though adhering externally, their sympathies for Bhaktivedanta Narayana's teachings were unabated. In 1995 GBC position was firm and the controversy was first on the 1995 annual meeting's agenda. A week of thorough investigation brought the implicated members in line. Asked to suggest what they might do to make amends, the leaders involved with the controversy tendered their resignations, which the GBC promptly refused. They further volunteered to refrain from initiating new disciples or visiting Vrindavana until their case could be reassessed the following year and at the March 1996 meeting GBC insisted on maintaining most of the restrictions.[59]

While the capitulation of the GBC members previously following Bhaktivedanta Narayana has certainly demonstrated GBC solidarity it was insufficient to prevent a continued exodus of devotees who feel unable to repose full faith in the ISKCON Governing Body Commission authority.[59]

Other controversial issues within the society[edit]

ISKCON also experienced a number of significant internal problems, the majority of which occurred from the late seventies onwards, and especially within the decade following Prabhupada's death.[60]

In 1976 a case involving allegations of "brainwashing" involving a minor named Robin George and her parents went all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1983, a California jury awarded the family more than $32 million in damages for false imprisonment and other charges, which was reduced to $485,000 in 1993.[61][62]

ISKCON has also been a subject matter of discussion in some anti-cult movements.[63][64][65]

In popular culture[edit]

Krishna Vally temple near Melbourne
Iskcon temple in Andhra Pradesh, India
Eco-house – promoting sustainable living at Krishna Vally near Melbourne
Prabhupada's Palace of Gold at New Vrindaban community near Moundsville, West Virginia.

The Hare Krishna mantra appears in a number of famous songs, notably those sung by The Beatles (and solo works of John Lennon, George Harrison, notably on his hit "My Sweet Lord", and Ringo Starr). There is a reference to singing kirtan of Hare Krishna mantra in The Beatles' "I Am the Walrus" (the line "Elementary penguins singing Hare Krishna"). Ringo Starr's song "It Don't Come Easy" contains the words "Hare Krishna!" and was written with the help of George Harrison. Later Paul McCartney produced a single with a picture of Krishna riding on a swan on the cover, although there was not any chanting of Krishna's names inside. Of the four Beatles members, only Harrison was actually a member of ISKCON, and after he posthumously received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2009, his son Dhani Harrison uttered the phrase "Hare Krishna" during the ceremony.[66] The contemporary Broadway Musical Hair also included a song (credited as "Be-In") that included the mantra.

One song from 1969 by the Radha Krishna Temple, simply titled "Hare Krishna Mantra" reached no. 12 in the UK music chart and appeared on the music show Top of the Pops. It made the no. 3 slot in German and no. 1 in Czechoslovakian music charts. Less well-known but equally relevant to fans of pop music culture are recordings of the Hare Krishna mantra by The Fugs on their 1968 album Tenderness Junction (featuring poet Allen Ginsberg) and by Nina Hagen.[67]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 4
  2. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 6
  3. ^ Klostermaier, Klaus (1998). A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-175-2. 
  4. ^ Bharati, Baba Premanand. Hinduism.enacademic.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  5. ^ Sadananda.com dedicated to direct western disciples of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Sadananda.com
  6. ^ srimadbhagavatam.com, Bhag.Purana 1.3.28, "All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead."
  7. ^ Guy Beck 2005, p. 39, page 39 'According to Orthodox Gaudiya. Krishna's svarupa, or true form manifests in three ways. His svayam-rupa or transcendent form is self-existent, not dependent on anything. His tadekatma rupa is identical in essence to his true form, though it differs in appearance (and would include such forms of Krishna as Narayana and Vasudeva). His avesa form has Krishna appearing though in varying degrees of possession'
  8. ^ "Directory of ISKCON". Directory.krishna.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  9. ^ Cole Dwayer 2007, p. 38
  10. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 34
  11. ^ A Hinduism, Page 8, Lynne Gibson, 2002
  12. ^ Vedabase.net
  13. ^ "Srila Prabhupada's books from Veda Encyclopedia". Veda.harekrsna.cz. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  14. ^ Gibson 2002, p. 18
  15. ^ Brzezinski, J. "Vol 6, No 2 December 1998 ICJ". www.iskcon.com. 
  16. ^ Laderman, Gary (2003). "ISKCON". Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-238-X. 
  17. ^ Satsvarupa, Dasa Goswami (1981,2002). Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 1. BBT. p. 1133. ISBN 0892133570. 
  18. ^ a b "The Four Legs of Dharma". Vedabase.net. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  19. ^ http://www.christianlibrary.org.au/cel/documents/cults/13.html
  20. ^ Shrimad Bhagavatam, Canto-10, Part-3: The rasa dance
  21. ^ Krishna Consciousness in the West – David G. Bromley, Prof. Larry D. Shinn, 1989, Page 149
  22. ^ Rochford, E Burke, Jr.Recruitment Strategies, Ideology, and Organization in he Hare Krishna Movement Social Problems Vol.29, No 4 1982
  23. ^ Hare Krishna Transformed, E. Burke Rochford, 2007. Page 67
  24. ^ "History of Food for Life". ffl.org. 12 December 1995. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  25. ^ a b "About Food for Life Global". Ffl.org. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  26. ^ "New York Times, Dec 1995". Ffl.org. Retrieved 2009-10-01. [dead link]
  27. ^ "The Hindu: A meal from Lord Krishna". Thehindujobs.com. 21 November 2002. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  28. ^ "European Vegetarian and Animal News Agency". EVANA. 2 January 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  29. ^ "AHN Global News". Allheadlinenews.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  30. ^ a b c Das Goswami, S. (1982). Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, Vol 4: In Every Town and Village, Around the World, 1968–71. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. 
  31. ^ Knot, Kim "Insider and Outsider Perceptions of Prabhupada" in ISKCON Communications Journal Vol. 5, No 1, June 1997: "In an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON. He noted that 'Prabhupada profited from two intertwined sources of authority' (1987:40), the traditional authority of the disciplic lineage, parampara, inherited from his own guru, and his own charismatic authority, derived from his spiritual attainment and presence...(49) Shinn offered an analysis based on sociological rather than spiritual (Vaishnava) authority in order to make sense of the role of guru in ISKCON and the unique qualities of Prabhupada." See also Larry D. Shinn (1987), The Dark Lord: Cult Images and the Hare Krishnas in America. Philadelphia: The Westview Press.available online
  32. ^ Cole, Richard; Dwyer, Graham (2007). The Hare Krishna Movement: Forty Years of Chant and Change. London: I. B. Tauris. pp. 181–183; p.30. ISBN 1-84511-407-8. "Out of some of his most committed disciples, Srila Prabhupada created ISKCON's international Governing Body Commission (GBC)" 
  33. ^ Maria Ekstrand; Bryant, Edwin H. (2004). The Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-231-12256-X. A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Letter of 28 July 1970. "As we have increased our volume of activities, now I think a Governing Body Commission (hereinafter referred to as the G.B.C.) should be established. I am getting old, 75 years old, therefore at any time I may be out of the scene, therefore I think it is necessary to give instruction to my disciples how they shall manage the whole institution. They are already managing individual centers represented by one president, one secretary and one treasurer, and in my opinion they are doing nice. But we want still more improvement in the standard of Temple management, propaganda for Krishna consciousness, distribution of books and literatures, opening of new centers and educating devotees to the right standard."
  34. ^ See the brief essay From Master to Disciple by Jayadvaita Swami.
  35. ^ ISKCON Truth
  36. ^ "IRM article 'The Final Order'". Iskconirm.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  37. ^ Iskcon.com, The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement, Part 2 by Tamal Krishna Goswami.
  38. ^ AC Bhaktivedanta Swami (1977). Room conversation October 18, 1977. Vrindavana, India: Bhaktivedanta Archives. "Prabhupāda: ...One Bengali gentleman has come from New York? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Mr. Sukamal Roy Chowdury. Prabhupāda: So I have deputed some of you to initiate. Hm? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Actually... Yes, Śrīla Prabhupāda. Prabhupāda: So I think Jayapatākā can do that if he likes. I have already deputed. Tell him. Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Prabhupāda: So, deputies, Jayapatākā's name was there? Bhagavān: It is already on there, Śrīla Prabhupāda. His name was on that list. Prabhupāda: So I depute him to do this at Māyāpura, and you may go with him. I stop for the time being. Is that all right? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Stopped doing what, Śrīla Prabhupāda? Prabhupāda: This initiation. I have deputed the, my disciples. Is it clear or not? Girirāja: It's clear." 
  39. ^ Smith, Huston; Harry Oldmeadow (2004). Journeys East: 20th century Western encounters with Eastern religious traditions. Bloomington, Ind: World Wisdom. p. 272. ISBN 0-941532-57-7. "Before his death Prabhupada appointed eleven American devotees as gurus." 
  40. ^ Rochford, E. Burke (1985). Hare Krishna in America. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0-8135-1114-3. "In the months preceding his death Srila Prabhupada appointed eleven of his closest disciples to act as initiating gurus for ISKCON" 
  41. ^ Ron Rhodes (2001). Challenge of the Cults and New Religions. Zondervan. p. 179. ISBN 0-310-23217-1. "Before Prabhupada died in 1977, he selected senior devotees who would continue to direct the organization." 
  42. ^ Rodney Stark (1985). Religious movements. Paragon House Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 0-913757-43-8. "Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, one of the eleven initiating gurus Bhaktivedanta appointed to succeed him..." 
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  44. ^ Jayapataka Swami
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  47. ^ The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna Movement by Tamal Krishna Goswami
  48. ^ "Srila Prabhupada Disciple Database". Prabhupada.com. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  49. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1809847.stm
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  51. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2002/feb/09/local/me-chbrief9.2
  52. ^ http://surrealist.org/gurukula/timeline/lawsuit.html
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  61. ^ Court Case details[dead link]
  62. ^ AP (18 June 1983). ""Krishna Group Loses Brainwashing Lawsuit", New York Times, June 18, 1983". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
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  67. ^ Radha Krsna Temple.

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