International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors is a set of documents produced by a group of semiconductor industry experts. These experts are representative of the sponsoring organisations which include the Semiconductor Industry Associations of the United States, Europe, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
The documents produced carry this disclaimer: "The ITRS is devised and intended for technology assessment only and is without regard to any commercial considerations pertaining to individual products or equipment".
The documents represent best opinion on the directions of research into the following areas of technology, including time-lines up to about 15 years into the future:
- System Drivers/Design
- Test & Test Equipment
- Front End Processes
- Process Integration, Devices and Structures
- Radio Frequency and Analog/Mixed-Signal Technologies
- Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
- IC Interconnects
- Factory Integration
- Assembly & Packaging
- Environment, Safety & Health
- Yield Enhancement
- Modeling & Simulation
- Emerging Research Devices
- Emerging Research Materials
Constructing an integrated circuit, or any semiconductor device, requires a series of operations - photolithography, etching, metal deposition, and so on. As the industry evolved, each of these operations were typically performed by specialized machines built by a variety of commercial companies. This specialization may potentially make it difficult for the industry to advance, since in many cases it does no good for one company to introduce a new product if the other needed steps are not available around the same time. A technology roadmap can help this by giving an idea when a certain capability will be needed. Then each supplier can target this date for their piece of the puzzle.
With the progressive externalization of production tools to the suppliers of specialized equipment, the need arose for a clear roadmap to anticipate the evolution of the market and to plan and control the technological needs of IC production. For several years, the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) gave this responsibility of coordination to the United States, which led to the creation of an American style roadmap, the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS).
In 1998, the SIA became closer to its European, Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese counterparts by creating the first global roadmap: The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). This international group has (as of the 2003 edition) 936 companies which were affiliated with working groups within the ITRS.
- Gargini, P. (2000). "The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS): Past, present and future". 22nd Annual Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuit (GaAs IC) Symposium. IEEE. pp. 3–5. doi:10.1109/GAAS.2000.906261.
- Schaller, R.R. (2004). Technological innovation in the semiconductor industry: a case study of the international technology roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS) (Ph.D.). George Mason University.
- Schaller, R. (2001). "Technological innovation in the semiconductor industry: a case study of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS)". Management of Engineering and Technology, 2001. PICMET'01. Portland International Conference on 1. IEEE. p. 195. doi:10.1109/PICMET.2001.951917. Article summarizing thesis of the same name.
- Spencer, W.J. and Seidel, T.E. (1995). "National technology roadmaps: the US semiconductor experience". Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology, 1995 4th International Conference on. IEEE. pp. 211–220. doi:10.1109/ICSICT.1995.500069.
- Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2007). Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: ISTE. pp. 50–53. ISBN 1-84704-002-0.
Bennett, Herbert S. (January–February 2007). "Will Future Measurement Needs of the Semiconductor Industry be Met?". Journal of Research of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology 112 (1): 25–38.
Esmaeilzadeh, Hadi, Emily R. Blem, Renée St. Amant, Karthikeyan Sankaralingam, Doug Burger (2011). "Dark silicon and the end of multicore scaling.". Proceedings of ISCA'2011: 365–376.