International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
IUPAC.svg
Abbreviation IUPAC
Motto Advancing Chemistry Worldwide
Formation 1919
Type International chemistry standards organization
Headquarters Zürich, Kanton Zürich, Switzerland
Region served Worldwide
Official language English
President Kazuyuki Tatsumi
Website www.iupac.org

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), on lowercase letters: iupac, /ˈjuːpæk/ EYE-ew-pak or /ˈjuːpæk/ EW-pak) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU).[1] The international headquarters of IUPAC is located in Zürich, Switzerland. The administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States. This administrative office is headed by the IUPAC executive director.[2] As of 1 August 2012, the Executive Director is Dr. John D. Petersen.[3]

IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry. Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists. There are fifty-four National Adhering Organizations and three Associate National Adhering Organizations.[1] IUPAC's Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature) is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds. Since its creation, IUPAC has been run by many different committees with different responsibilities.[4] These committees run different projects which include standardizing nomenclature,[5] finding ways to bring chemistry to the world,[6] and publishing works.[7][8][9]

IUPAC is best known for its works standardizing nomenclature in chemistry and other fields of science, but IUPAC has publications in many fields including chemistry, biology and physics.[10] Some important work IUPAC has done in these fields includes standardizing nucleotide base sequence code names; publishing books for environmental scientists, chemists, and physicists; and leading the way in improving education in science.[10][11] IUPAC is also known for standardizing the atomic weights of the elements through one of its oldest standing committees, the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.

Creation and history[edit]

A black and white image of a bald man in a dark outfit, with a bushy white beard and moustache
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz

The need for an international standard for chemistry was first addressed in 1860 by a committee headed by German scientist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz. This committee was the first international conference to create an international naming system for organic compounds.[10] The ideas that were formulated in that conference evolved into the official IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry.[10] The IUPAC stands as a legacy of this meeting, making it one of the most important historical international collaborations of chemistry societies.[10] Since this time, IUPAC has been the official organization held with the responsibility of updating and maintaining official organic nomenclature.[12] IUPAC as such was established in 1919.[13] One notable country excluded from this early IUPAC was Germany. Germany's exclusion was a result of prejudice towards Germans by the allied powers after World War I.[14] Germany was finally admitted into IUPAC during 1929. However, Nazi Germany was removed from IUPAC during World War II.

During World War II, IUPAC was affiliated with the Allied powers, but had little involvement during the war effort itself. After the war, West Germany was allowed back into IUPAC.[14] Since World War II, IUPAC has been focused on standardizing nomenclature and methods in science without interruption.

Committees and governance[edit]

IUPAC is governed by several committees that all have different responsibilities. The committees are as follows: Bureau, CHEMRAWN (Chem Research Applied to World Needs) Committee, Committee on Chemistry Education, Committee on Chemistry and Industry, Committee on Printed and Electronic Publications, Evaluation Committee, Executive Committee, Finance Committee, Interdivisional Committee on Terminology, Nomenclature and Symbols, Project Committee, Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board.[4] Each committee is made from members of different National Adhering Organizations from different countries.[1]

The steering committee hierarchy for IUPAC is as follows:[15]

  1. All committees have an allotted budget that they must adhere to
  2. Any committee may start a project.
  3. If a project's spending becomes too much for a committee to continue funding, it must take the issue to the Project Committee.
  4. The project committee either increases the budget or decides on an external funding plan.
  5. The Bureau and Executive Committee oversee operations of the other committees
Committees Table
Committee name (abbreviation) Responsibilities
Bureau
  • Discusses and makes changes to which committee has authority over a specific project
  • Controls finances for all other committees and IUPAC as a whole
  • Discusses general governance of IUPAC [16]
Physical and Biophysical Chemistry Division (Division I)
  • Organize and promote the international collaboration between scientists in physical and biophysical chemistry and related fields.
Inorganic Chemistry Division (Division II)
  • Inorganic and inorganic materials chemistry, Isotopes and atomic weights, Periodic Table
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division (Division III)
  • Promote the goals of IUPAC in the field of organic and biomolecular chemistry in the broadest sense.
Polymer Division (Division IV)
  • Science and technology of macromolecules and polymers.
Analytical Chemistry Division (Division V)
  • General aspects of analytical chemistry, separation methods, spectrochemical methods, electrochemical methods, nuclear chemistry methods, applications to human health and the environment.
Chemistry and the Environment Division (Division VI)
  • To provide unbiased and timely authoritative reviews on the behavior of chemical compounds in food and the environment.
Chemistry and Human Health Division (Division VII)
  • Medicinal and clinical chemistry

Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division (Division VIII)

  • Maintains and develops standard systems for designating chemical structures, including both conventional nomenclature and computer-based systems.
CHEMRAWN Committee (Chem Research Applied to World Needs)
  • Discusses different ways chemistry can and should be used to help the world[6]
Committee on Chemistry Education (CCE)
  • Coordinates IUPAC chemistry research with the educational systems of the world[17]
Committee on Chemistry and Industry (COCI)
Committee on Electronic and Printed Publications (CPEP)
  • Designs and implements IUPAC publications
  • Heads the Subcommittee on Spectroscopic Data Standards[19]
Evaluation Committee (EvC)
  • Evaluates every project
  • Reports back to Executive committee on every project[9]
Executive Committee (EC)
  • Plans and discusses IUPAC events
  • Discusses IUPAC fundraising
  • Reviews other committees work[20]

Current Officers of Executive Committee:

  • President: Moreau, Nicole J.
  • Vice President: Tatsumi, Kazuyuki
  • Treasurer: Corish, John
  • Secretary General: Black, David StC.[21]
Finance Committee (FC)
  • Helps other committees properly manage their budget
  • Advises Union officers on investments [22]
Interdivisional Committee on Terminology (ICTNS)
  • Manages IUPAC Nomenclature
  • Works through many projects to standardize nomenclature
  • Standardizes measurements
  • Discusses atomic weight standardization[5]
Project Committee (PC)
  • Manages funds that are under the jurisdiction of multiple projects
  • Judges if a project is too large for its funding
  • Recommends sources of external funding for projects
  • Decides how to fund meetings in developing countries and countries in crisis[8]
Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board (PAC-EAB)

Nomenclature[edit]

The IUPAC committee has a long history of officially naming organic and inorganic compounds as mentioned in the Creation and History section. IUPAC nomenclature is developed so that any compound can be named under one set of standard rules to avoid repeat names. The first publication, which is information from the International Congress of Applied Chemistry,[23] is on IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds can be found from the early 20th century in A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (1900).

Organic nomenclature[edit]

IUPAC organic nomenclature has three basic parts: the substituents, carbon chain length and chemical ending.[12] The substituents are any functional groups attached to the main carbon chain. The main carbon chain is the longest possible continuous chain. The chemical ending denotes what type of molecule it is. For example, the ending "ane" denotes a single bonded carbon chain, as in "hexane" (C
6
H
14
).[24]

Another example of IUPAC organic nomenclature is cyclohexanol:

Cyclohexanol
  • The substituent name for a ring compound is "cyclo".
  • The indication (substituent name) for a six carbon chain is "hex".
  • The chemical ending for a single bonded carbon chain is "ane"
  • The chemical ending for an alcohol is "ol"
  • The two chemical endings are combined for an ending of "anol" indicating a single bonded carbon chain with an alcohol attached to it.[12][24][25]

Inorganic nomenclature[edit]

Basic IUPAC inorganic nomenclature has two main parts: the cation and the anion. The cation is the name for the positively charged ion and the anion is the name for the negatively charged ion.[12]

An example of IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is potassium chlorate (KClO3):

Potassium chlorate

Amino acid and nucleotide base codes[edit]

IUPAC also has a system for giving codes to identify amino acids and nucleotide bases. IUPAC needed a coding system that represented long sequences of amino acids. This would allow for these sequences to be compared to try to find homologies.[26] These codes can consist of either a one letter code or a three letter code. For example:

  • Alanine: Single letter code: A, Three letter code: Ala

These codes make it easier and shorter to write down the amino acid sequences that make up proteins. The nucleotide bases are made up of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (cytosine and thymine or uracil). These nucleotide bases make up DNA and RNA. These nucleotide base codes make the genome of an organism much smaller and easier to read.[27]

Publications[edit]

Non-series books[edit]

Book Name Description
Principles and Practices of Method Validation

Principles and Practices of Method Validation is a book entailing methods on validating and analyzing a many analytes taken from a single aliquot.[28] Also, this book goes over techniques for analyzing many samples at once. Some methods discussed include: chromatographic methods, estimation of effects, matrix induced effects, and the effect of an equipment setup on an experiment.[28]

Fundamental Toxicology

Fundamental Toxicology is a textbook that proposes a curriculum for toxicology courses.[29] Fundamental Toxicology is based on the book Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists.[30] Fundamental Toxicology is enhanced through many revisions and updates. New information added in the revisions includes: risk assessment and management; reproductive toxicology; behavioral toxicology; and ecotoxicology.[30] This book is relatively well received as being useful for reviewing chemical toxicology.[29]

Macromolecular Symposia

Macromolecular Symposia is a journal that publishes fourteen issues a year. This journal includes contributions to the macromolecular chemistry and physics field. The meetings of the IUPAC are included in this journal along with the European Polymer Federation, the American Chemical Society, and the Society of Polymer Science in Japan.[31]

Experimental Thermodynamics book series[edit]

The Experimental Thermodynamics books series covers many topics in the fields of thermodynamics.

Book Description
Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids

Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids is a book that is published by Blackwell Science Inc. The topics that are included in this book are low and high temperature measurements, secondary coefficients, diffusion coefficients, light scattering, transient methods for thermal conductivity, methods for thermal conductivity, falling-body viscometers, and vibrating viscometers.[32]

Solution Calorimetry

Solution Calorimetry is a book that gives background information on thermal analysis and calorimetry. Thermoanalytical and calorimetric techniques along with thermodynamic and kinetic properties are discussed in this book. Later volumes of this book discusses the applications and principles of these thermodynamic and kinetic methods.[33]

Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I

Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I is a book that gives up to date equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. This book covers all ways to develop equations of state. It gives the strengths and weaknesses of each equation. Some equations discussed include: virial equation of state cubic equations; generalized Van der Waals equations; integral equations; perturbation theory; and stating and mixing rules. Other things that Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I goes over are: associating fluids, polymer systems, polydisperse fluids, self-assembled systems, ionic fluids, and fluids near their critical points.[34]

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases is a book that gives an overview of techniques for measuring the thermodynamic quantities of single phases. It also goes into experimental techniques to test many different thermodynamic states precisely and accurately. Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases was written for people interested in measuring thermodynamic properties.[35]

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases is a book that includes multiple techniques that are used to study multiple phases of pure component systems. Also included in this book are the measurement techniques to obtain activity coefficients, interfacial tension, and critical parameters. This book was written for researchers and graduate students as a reference source.[36]

Series of books on analytical and physical chemistry of environmental systems[edit]

Book Name Description
Atmospheric Particles

Atmospheric Particles is a book that delves into aerosol science. This book is aimed as a reference for graduate students and atmospheric researchers. Atmospheric Particles goes in depth on the properties of aerosols in the atmosphere and their effect. Topics covered in this book are: acid rain; heavy metal pollution; global warming; and photochemical smog. Atmospheric Particles also covers techniques to analyze the atmosphere and ways to take atmospheric samples.[37]

Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation

Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation is a book that discusses environmental colloids and current information available on them. This book focuses on environmental colloids and particles in aquatic systems and soils. It also goes over techniques such as: techniques for sampling environmental colloids, size fractionation, and how to characterize of colloids and particles. Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation also delves into how these colloids and particles interact.[38]

Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems

Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems is meant to give an overview of a technique based on fractal geometry and the processes of environmental systems. This book gives ideas on how to use fractal geometry to compare and contrast different ecosystems. It also gives an overview of the knowledge needed to solve environmental problems. Finally, Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems shows how to use the fractal approach to understand the reactivity of flocs, sediments, soils, microorganisms and humic substances.[39]

Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem

Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is meant to be read by chemists and biologists that study environmental systems. Also, this book should be used as a reference for earth scientists, environmental geologists, environmental engineers, and professionals in microbiology and ecology. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is about how minerals, microorganisms, and organic components work together to affect terrestrial systems. This book identifies that there are many different techniques and theories about minerals, microorganisms, and organic components individually, but they aren't often associated with each other. It further goes on to discuss how these components of soil work together to affect terrestrial life. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem gives techniques to analyze minerals, microorganisms, and organic components together. This book also gives a large sections on why environmental scientists working in the specific fields of minerals, microorganisms, and organic components of soil should work together and how they should do so.[40]

The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater

The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater is a book that describes how low concentrations of iron in Antarctica and the Pacific Oceans are a result of reduced chlorophyll for phytoplankton production.[41] It does this by reviewing information from research in the 1990s. This book goes in depth about: chemical speciation; analytical techniques; transformation of iron; how iron limits the development of High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll areas in the pacific ocean[42]

In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation

In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is a book that discusses techniques and devices to monitor aquatic systems and how new devices and techniques can be developed. This book emphasizes the future us of micro-analytical monitoring techniques and microtechnology. In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is aimed at researchers and laboratories that analyze aquatic systems such as rivers, lakes, and oceans.[43]

Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles

Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is a book about soil structures and the molecular processes that occur in soil. Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is aimed at any researcher researching soil or someone in the field of anthropology. It goes in depth on topics such as: fractal analysis of particle dimensions; computer modeling of the structure; reactivity of humics; applications of atomic force microscopy; and advanced instrumentation for analysis of soil particles.[44]

Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3

Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3 is a book about the effect of trace metals on aquatic life.[45] This book is considered a specialty book for researchers interested in observing the effect of trace metals in the water supply. This book includes techniques to assess how bioassays can be used to evaluate how an organism is affected by trace metals. Also, Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3 looks at the limitations of the use of bioassays to observe the effects of trace metals on organisms.

Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces

Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces is a book created to aid environmental scientists in field work. The book gives an overview of chemical mechanisms, transport, kinetics, and interactions that occur in environmental systems. Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces continues from where Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems leaves off.[46]

Colored cover book and website series (nomenclature)[edit]

IUPAC color codes their books in order to make each publication distinguishable.[10]

Title Description
Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature

One extensive book on almost all nomenclature written (IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry and IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry) by the IUPAC committee is Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature – The Orange Book, 1st edition (1978)[47] This book was revised in 1987. The second edition has many revisions that come from reports on nomenclature between 1976 and 1984.[48] In 1992, the second edition went through many different revisions which led to the third edition.[48]

Pure and Applied Chemistry (journal)

Pure and Applied Chemistry is the official monthly journal of IUPAC. This journal debuted in 1960. The goal statement for Pure and Applied Chemistry is to "publish highly topical and credible works at the forefront of all aspects of pure and applied chemistry."[49] The Journal itself is available by subscription, but older issues are available in the archive on the IUPAC website.

Pure and Applied Chemistry was created as a central way to publish IUPAC endorsed articles.[50] Before its creation, IUPAC didn't have a quick, official way to distribute new chemistry information.

Its creation was first suggested at The Paris IUPAC Meeting of 1957.[50] During this meeting the commercial publisher of the Journal was discussed and decided on. In 1959, the IUPAC Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board was created put in charge of the journal. The idea of one journal being a definitive place for a vast amount of chemistry was difficult for the committee to grasp at first.[50] However, it was decided that the journal would reprint old journal editions to keep all chemistry knowledge available.

Compendium of Chemical Terminology

The Compendium of Chemical Terminology, also known as The Gold Book, was originally worked on by Victor Gold. This book is a collection of names and terms already discussed in Pure and Applied Chemistry.[51] Compendium of Chemical Terminology was first published in 1987.[10] The first edition of this book contains no original material, but is meant to be a compilation of other IUPAC works.

The second edition of this book was published in 1997.[25] This book made large changes to the first edition of the Compendium of Chemical Terminology. These changes included updated material and an expansion of the book to include over seven thousand terms.[25] The second edition was the topic of an IUPAC XML project. This project made an XML version of the book that includes over seven thousand terms. The XML version of the book includes an open editing policy, which allows users to add excerpts of the written version.[25]

IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (online publication) IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, also known as The Blue Book, is a website published by Advanced Chemistry Department Incorporated with the permission of IUPAC. This site is a compilation of the books A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds and Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry.[52]

International Year of Chemistry[edit]

A red square behind an orange square, which is behind a blue square that says "2011 C Chemistry" on it. Under this, there are the words "International Year of Chemistry 2011".
International Year of Chemistry Logo

IUPAC and UNESCO are the lead organizations coordinating events for the International Year of Chemistry, which took place in 2011.[53][54] The International Year of Chemistry was originally proposed by IUPAC at the General Assembly in Turin, Italy.[55] This motion was adopted by UNESCO at a meeting in 2008.[55] The main objectives of the International Year of Chemistry is to increase public appreciation of chemistry and gain more interest in the world of chemistry. This event is also being held to encourage young people to get involved and contribute to chemistry. A further reason for this event being held is to honour how chemistry has made improvements to everyone's way of life.[11]

Current projects[edit]

IUPAC current project list[edit]

  • Project Number 2009-012-2-200: Coordination polymers and metal organic frameworks: terminology and nomenclature guidelines [56]
    • The objectives of this project are (1) to produce guidelines for terminology (glossary of terms) and nomenclature (concerning topology, not naming of individual substances) in the area of coordination polymers, (2) to ensure that these guidelines are accepted by a large group of leading researchers in the field, and (3) to have these guidelines implemented or referred to in the instructions to authors of leading general and inorganic chemistry journals.[57]
  • Project Number 2009-032-1-100: Categorizing Halogen Bonding and Other Noncovalent Interactions Involving Halogen Atoms[56]
  • Project Number 2009-048-1-600: Guidance for substance-related environmental monitoring strategies regarding soil and surface water[56]
    • The objective of this project is to identify new pollutants and their hazards and to monitor less investigated pollutants. Also, this project will provide strategies for how pollutants should be monitored. The advantages and disadvantages of each monitoring technique will be discussed.[59]
  • Project Number 2009-034-2-700: Risk Assessment of Effects of Cadmium on Human Health[56]
    • The objective of this project is to identify the risks and effects of exposure of humans to Cadmium, which is classified as a carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Also, the objective includes researching how Cadmium enters into the human body.[60]
  • Project Number 2009-019-2-400: Data Treatment in SEC and Other Techniques of Polymer Characterization. Correction for Band Broadening and Other Sources of Error.[56]
    • The objective of this project is to provide practical alternatives for improving the accuracy of polymer characterization and measurements. This would allow manufacturers of equipment, such as size exclusive chromatography (SEC) and other polymer characterization techniques, to sell a product that is more accurate and precise.[56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "IUPAC National Adhering Organizations". Iupac.org. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  2. ^ "IUPAC Council Agenda Book 2009". IUPAC. 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010. 
  3. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: John D. Petersen Appointed IUPAC Executive Director. IUPAC. Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
  4. ^ a b IUPAC Committees list retrieved 15 April 2010
  5. ^ a b Interdivisional Committee on Terminology web page retrieved 15 April 2010
  6. ^ a b Chemdrawn retrieved 15 April 2010
  7. ^ a b Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board web page retrieved 15 April 2010
  8. ^ a b "Project Committee web page". Iupac.org. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Evaluation Committee page retrieved 15 April 2010
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Fennel, R.W. (1994). History of IUPAC, 1919–1987. Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-86542-878-6. 
  11. ^ a b IYC: Introduction. 9 July 2009. Retrieved on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010
  12. ^ a b c d e Brown, Theodore L.; H. Eugene LeMay Jr, Bruce E Bursten (2006). Chemistry The Central Science Tenth Edition. Pearson Books. ISBN 0-13-109686-9. 
  13. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: About. IUPAC. Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
  14. ^ a b Kaderas, Brigitte (2002). Wissenschaften und Wissenschaftspolitik: Bestandsaufnahmen zu Formationen, Brüchen und Kontinuitäten im Deutschland des 20. Jahrhunderts (in German). Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-08111-9. 
  15. ^ IUPAC Project Committee retrieved 15 April 2010
  16. ^ IUPAC news and references retrieved 15 April 2010
  17. ^ Chemistry Education retrieved 15 April 2010
  18. ^ Chemistry and Industry retrieved 15 April 2010
  19. ^ Committee on Electronic and Printed Publications webpage retrieved 15 April 2010
  20. ^ Executive Committee meeting retrieved 15 April 2010
  21. ^ Executive Committee Page retrieved 15 April 2010
  22. ^ Finance Committee web page retrieved 15 April 2010
  23. ^ IUPAC Publications List retrieved 15 April 2010
  24. ^ a b Klein, David R. (2008). Organic Chemistry I As a Second Language: Translating the Basic Concepts Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-0-470-12929-6. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Gold Book web page". Old.iupac.org. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  26. ^ Amino Acid Codes retrieved 15 April 2010
  27. ^ Amino Acid and Nucleotide Base Codes retrieved 15 April 2010
  28. ^ a b Flipkart Review of Principles and Practices of Method Validation retrieved 15 April 2010
  29. ^ a b Fundamental Toxicology review on amazon retrieved 15 April 2010
  30. ^ a b Fundamental Toxicology review on rsc.org retrieved 15 April 2010
  31. ^ Macromolecular Symposia retrieved 15 April 2010
  32. ^ Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids review on Amazon retrieved 15 April 2010
  33. ^ Solution Calorimetry review on Amazon retrieved 15 April 2010
  34. ^ Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures part I review on Amazon retrieved 15 April 2010
  35. ^ Flipkart review of Measurement of the Thermodynamic properties of Single Phases retrieved 15 April 2010
  36. ^ Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases review on Amazon retrieved 15 April 2010
  37. ^ Flipkart review of Atmospheric Particles retrieved 15 April 2010
  38. ^ Amazon Review of Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation, and Characterisation retrieved 15 April 2010
  39. ^ Wiley on Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems. New York: Wiley. Retrieved 15 April 2010
  40. ^ Flipkart review of Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  41. ^ SciTech Book News, Vol. 26, No. 2, June 2002.
  42. ^ Review of Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater retrieved 15 April 2010
  43. ^ Review of In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation from Barnes and Noble. Retrieved 15 April 2010
  44. ^ Review of Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles retrieved 15 April 2010
  45. ^ Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems. Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3. Review on Amazon. Retrieved 15 April 2010
  46. ^ Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces review retrieved 15 April 2010
  47. ^ IUPAC orange book publication history
  48. ^ a b Orange Book Preamble retrieved 15 April 2010
  49. ^ IUPAC Pure and Applied Chemistry retrieved 15 April 2010
  50. ^ a b c IUPAC Pure and Applied Chemistry Issue 1 retrieved 15 April 2010
  51. ^ Gold Book Online retrieved 15 April 2010
  52. ^ Online version of Blue Book retrieved 15 April 2010
  53. ^ United Nations Resolution 63/209: International Year of Chemistry. 3 February 2009. Retrieved on 24 April 2010.
  54. ^ About IYC: Introduction. 9 July 2009. Retrieved on 24 April 2010.
  55. ^ a b "International Year of Chemistry Prospectus". Portal.acs.org. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  56. ^ a b c d e f IUPAC Current Projects. 9 May 2010. Retrieved on 9 May 2010.
  57. ^ CP and MOF Project. 9 May 2010. Retrieved on 9 May 2010.
  58. ^ Halogen Bonding Project. 15 February 2010. Retrieved on 17 February 2010.
  59. ^ IUPAC Current Projects. 15 February 2010. Retrieved on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010
  60. ^ IUPAC Current Projects. 15 February 2010. Retrieved on 2 March 2010.

External links[edit]