Rationale for establishment
International cities had either had one or both of the following characteristics:
- they were ethnically mixed;
- authority over the city had previously been contested by different nation-states.
Instruments of state and governance
These international cities had limited self-governance (as in Danzig, with supervision from the League of Nations), or were administered by a body of representatives from external nation-states (as in Shanghai from 1845–1944 and the International Zone of Tangier from 1923 to 1957).
Status of Jerusalem
The Vatican's position on Jerusalem was a continuation of its position leading to the Palestinian Mandate. The Vatican's idea for an international commission to resolve claims on the Holy Places had been incorporated in article 95 of the Treaty of Sèvres, and repeated as articles 13 and 14 of the Mandate. However, Britain never gave any effect to the provision. At the time of the proposals that culminated in the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine of 1947, the Vatican and the Italian and French governments continued to press their own legal claims on the basis of the former Protectorate of the Holy See and the French Protectorate of Jerusalem.
- Danzig, (contested by Germany and Poland)
- Tangier, (contested by Spain, France, the United Kingdom and others)
- Trieste, (contested by Italy and Yugoslavia)
International cities may be essentially a form of condominium, a territory where ultimate sovereignty is jointly held by more than one state. In the case of international cities, the sovereignty might lie with one or more foreign states, or with an international body such as the League of Nations or United Nations.
- "Economics of an Internationalized Jerusalem," Richard J. Ward, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Oct., 1971), pp. 311-317
- Carsten Stah, The Law and Practice of International Territorial Administration: Versailles to Iraq and Beyond pp. 7-8, Cambridge University Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-521-87800-5 http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/78005/excerpt/9780521878005_excerpt.pdf
- Gregory Kane, "Hearing the Sounds of Silence at Middle East Conference" Virginia Gazette International City, Gurgaon, India November 28, 2007 http://www.vagazette.com/bal-md.kane28nov28,0,6834786.column
- Vatican hails UN Palestine vote, wants guarantees for Jerusalem