|Headquarters||Richmond District, San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Services||Archive-It, Open Library, Wayback Machine (since 2001), Netlabels, NASA Images, Prelinger Archives|
|Slogan(s)||Universal access to all knowledge|
|Alexa rank||169 (December 2013[update])|
|Type of site||Digital library|
The Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides permanent storage of and free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, music, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books. As of October 2012, its collection topped 10 petabytes. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.
The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, The Wayback Machine, contains over 150+ billion web captures. The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.
Founded by Brewster Kahle in 1996, the Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California, where about 30 of its 200 employees work. Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, all in California. Its collection is mirrored for stability and endurance at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt.
- 1 History
- 2 World Wide Web archiving
- 3 Books
- 4 Media collections
- 5 Other services and endeavours
- 6 Controversies and legal disputes
- 7 Opposition to Google Books settlement
- 8 Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills
- 9 Ceramic Archivists collection
- 10 List of additional collections
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In 1996, The Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web. The archived content wasn't available until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Recently, the Archive has begun working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.
According to its website:
Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.
In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files. This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive datacenters, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.
World Wide Web archiving
The use of the term "Wayback Machine" in the context of the Internet Archive has become so common that "Wayback Machine" and "Internet Archive" are almost synonymous. This usage occurs in popular culture, e.g., in the television show Law and Order: Criminal Intent ("Legacy", first run Aug 3, 2008), an extra playing a computer tech uses the "Wayback Machine" to find an archive of a student's Facebook style website. Snapshots usually take at least 6–18 months to be added.
Created in early 2006, Archive-It is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user the option to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search and view their archived collections. In terms of accessibility, the archived websites are full text searchable within seven days of capture. Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards. The data captured through Archive-It is periodically indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.
As of December 2012, Archive-It had over 225 partner institutions in 45 U.S. States and 15 countries that have captured over 4.9 billion URLs for over 1974 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library and many others.
The Internet Archive Text Archive collection includes digitized books and special collections from various libraries and cultural heritage institutions from around the world.
The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of over 2 million books, financially supported by libraries and foundations. As of July 2013[update], the collection included 4.4 million books with over 15 million downloads per month. As of November 2008[update], when there were about 1 million texts, the entire collection was over 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.
Between about 2006 and 2008 Microsoft Corporation had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning over 300,000 books which were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books. Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.
Around October 2007 Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search. As of November 2013 there were over 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection: the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.
The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The site seeks to include a web database for every book ever published: it holds 23 million catalog records of books. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of about 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the over five million from the main texts collection), which are fully readable, downloadable and full-text searchable; it offers access to an e-book lending program for over 250,000 recent books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countries (after getting a "library card", that is a free registration on the website).
In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes an "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.
Moving image collection
The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films. Aside from feature films, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels; classic cartoons; pro- and anti-war propaganda; The Video Cellar Collection; Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection; and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational and industrial films and amateur and home movie collections.
Subcategories of this collection include:
IA's Brick Films collection contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films. The Election 2004 collection is a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States Presidential Election. The Independent News collection includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters". Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The "September 11th Television Archive" contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 as they unfolded on live television.
Some of the films available on the Internet Archive are:
- The 39 Steps (1935)
- Battleship Potemkin
- The Birth of a Nation
- Broken Blossoms
- The Century of the Self
- Charade (1963)
- Columbia Revolt
- D.O.A. (1950)
- Danger Lights
- Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari
- Dating Do's and Don'ts
- Duck and Cover
- Escape from Sobibor
- Fire Over England
- The General
- Hemp for Victory
- The Kid
- Le voyage dans la Lune
- Lying Lips
- The Man Who Knew Too Much
- Manos: The Hands of Fate
- Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media
- Night of the Living Dead
- Nosferatu (not public domain outside of the United States)
- Phantom of the Opera
- Plan 9 from Outer Space
- Princess Iron Fan (1941)
- Reefer Madness
- Sex Madness
- She Done Him Wrong (1933)
- Triumph of the Will
- All seven episodes of Why We Fight
Links to the online film are in the External links section for each article. See also Wikipedia list of films freely available on the Internet Archive.
One of the sub collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos (see Machinima: Virtual Filmmaking). Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines or software engine are used in a sandbox mode like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays or even publish presentations/keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com as well as independent producers. The sub collection is a collaborative effort between the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences and Machinima.com.
TV News Search & Borrow
In September 2012, the Internet Archive launched the TV News Search & Borrow service for searching U.S. national news programs. The service is built on closed captioning transcripts and allows user to search and stream 30-second video clips. Upon launch, the service contained "350,000 news programs collected over 3 years from national U.S. networks and stations in San Francisco and Washington D.C." According to Kahle, the service was inspired by the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a similar library of televised network news programs. In contrast to Vanderbilt, which limits access to streaming video to individuals associated with subscribing colleges and universities, the TV News Search & Borrow allows open access to its streaming video clips.
The Audio Archive includes music, audio books, news broadcasts, old time radio shows and a wide variety of other audio files. There are over 200,000 free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts, non-English audio and many others.
The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes over 100,000 concert recordings from independent artists, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon concert recordings. The catalog ranges from 1976-2001 and contains 1,137 free songs.
The Archive has a collection of freely distributable music that is downloadable and streamable via its Netlabels service. The music in this collection generally have Creative Commons-license catalogs of virtual record labels.
NASA Images was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The NASA Images team works closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection at NASA Images The site launched in July 2008 and now has more than 100,000 items online.
Other services and endeavours
Voicing a strong reaction to the idea of books simply being thrown away, and inspired by the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Kahle now envisions collecting one copy of every book ever published. "We're not going to get there, but that's our goal," he said. Alongside the books, Kahle plans to store the Internet Archive's old servers, which were replaced in 2010.
The Internet Archive is «the largest collection of historical software online in the world», spanning 50 years of computer history in terabytes of computer magazines and journals, books, shareware discs, FTP websites, video games etc. In 2013 the Internet Archive began to provide abandonware video games browser-playable via MESS, for instance the Atari 2600 game E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.
Controversies and legal disputes
||It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article titled . (Discuss) (November 2013)|
In a story at his Web site headed "What the heck is going on at Internet Archive?", author Steven Saylor noted, “Sometime in 2012, the entire run of Omni magazine was uploaded (and made downloadable) at Internet Archive.... Since those old issues must contain hundreds of works still under copyright by numerous contributors, how is this legal?" At least one contributor to the magazine, author Steve Perry, has publicly complained that he never gave permission for his work to be uploaded ("they didn't say a word in my direction"), and it has been noted that all issues containing the work of Harlan Ellison have apparently been taken down. Glenn Fleishmann, investigating the question "Who Owns Omni?", writes that "Almost all of the authors, photographers, and artists whose work appeared in the magazine had signed contracts that granted only short-term rights....[No one] could simply reprint or post the content from older issues."
In November 2005, free downloads of Grateful Dead concerts were removed from the site. John Perry Barlow identified Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, and Bill Kreutzmann as the instigators of the change, according to a New York Times article. Phil Lesh commented on the change in a November 30, 2005, posting to his personal website:
It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.
A November 30 forum post from Brewster Kahle summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or streamed, but soundboard recordings were to be available for streaming only. Concerts have since been re-added.
National security letter
On August 17, 2011, Middle East Media Research Institute published "Al-Qaeda, Jihadis Infest the San Francisco, California-Based 'Internet Archive' Library" which detailed how members can post anonymously and enjoy free uncensored hosting.
Opposition to Google Books settlement
The Internet Archive is a member of the Open Book Alliance, which has been among the most outspoken critics of the Google Book Settlement. The Archive advocates an alternative digital library project.
Opposition to SOPA and PIPA bills
The Internet Archive blacked out its website for twelve hours on January 18, 2012 in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act and the PROTECT IP Act bills, two pieces of pending legislation in the United States Congress that they claim will "negatively affect the ecosystem of web publishing that led to the emergence of the Internet Archive." This occurred in conjunction with the English Wikipedia blackout, as well as numerous other protests across the internet.
Ceramic Archivists collection
The Great Room of the Internet Archive features a collection of nearly 100 ceramic figures representing employees of the Internet Archive. This collection was commissioned by Brewster Kahle and is ongoing. The sculptor is Nuala Creed.
List of additional collections
|Collection||Number of items
(April 11, 2013)
|Number of Sub-Collections
(April 14, 2013)
|Aljam3a-Library المكتبة الجامعة||12,960||0|
|Aozora Bunko 青空文庫||4,000||0|
|Bishop's College School||167||0|
|Boletin Oficial de la Republica Argentina||25,376||0|
|Building Technology Heritage Library||3,867||0|
|BYU Utah Valley Obits||8,973||0|
|Charity Hospital Reports||115||0|
|Collected texts of Simon Schwartzman||884||0|
|Cookbooks and Home Economics||3,018||0|
|Des Moines and Polk County, Iowa, City Directories:1866-1922||43||0|
|Digital Fanzine Preservation Society||72||0|
|Flat World Knowledge Creative Commons Archive||119||0|
|Folkscanomy: A Library of Books||689||6|
|International Music Score Library Project||26,680||0|
|JSTOR Early Journal Content||452,019||342|
|No Borders Bookstore||66||0|
|No Borders Bookstore||-||0|
|Open Reading Room||1,912||0|
|Panama-California Exposition Digital Archive||105||0|
|Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London||18,553||0|
|Quigley / Reynolds Family History||62||0|
|RECAP US Federal Court Documents||892,321||0|
|RECAP US Federal Court Documents (Development)||11||0|
|Shimer Alumni (Unauthorised) Archive||255||0|
|Siyavula Education Collection||166||0|
|Social Sciences Society, HKUSU - SSS Library||143||0|
|Solidarity! Revolutionary Center and Radical Library||836||0|
|Tamil Nadu Text Books||260||0|
|The Beat Within Magazine||131||0|
|The BITSAVERS.ORG Documents Library||8,741||25|
|The Collection Of The International Psychoanalytic University Berlin||821||0|
|The Crittenden Automotive Library||842||0|
|The Harvard Classics / Dr. Eliot's Five Foot Shelf||159||0|
|The Science Fiction and Fantasy Fiction Collection||315||0|
|The Swedish National Museums of World Culture||35||4|
|The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center Library||2||0|
|The University of Wisconsin-Stout Archives||99||0|
|The Zamorano 80||146||0|
|US Government Documents||32,365||6|
|USGS Water Resources of New York Reports||107||0|
|École des Ponts ParisTech||31||0|
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- Books imported from Google have a metadata tag of scanner:google for searching purposes. The archive provides a link to Google for PDF copies, but also maintains a local PDF copy, which is viewable under the "All Files: HTTP" link.
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- Search inside feature.
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- "September 11th Television Archive". Archive.org]
- Aune, Sean (August 10, 2010). "The 40 best free legal movies you can download right now". blorge.com. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "Welcome to Machinima". Internet Archive.
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- "Welcome to Audio Archive". Internet Archive.
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- "Unca Harlan's Art Deco Dining Pavilion: Another Can of Worms". January 8, 2013 posting by Steve Perry. Harlanellison.com. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "OMNI, Digital Rights, and Voodoo". Posting of January 8, 2013. Harlanellison.com. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
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- Mayshark, Jeff (December 1, 2005). "Wrath of Deadheads stalls a Web crackdown". International Herald Tribune (republication of article from The New York Times). Retrieved July 14, 2010.
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- Nakashima, Ellen, "FBI Backs Off From Secret Order for Data After Lawsuit", Washington Post, May 8, 2008.
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- Kahle, Brewster, "Archiving the Internet", November 4, 1996
- Ringmar, Erik, "Liberate and Disseminate," Times Higher Education Supplement, April 10, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Internet Archive.|
- Official website in California, United States
- Internet Archive Mirror at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
- Netlabels release collection
- The Other Minds Archive – New Music Resource from radiom.org
- Web Archiving at archive.org, details of Internet Archive operations
- Pictures and descriptions of the Wayback Machine hardware in 2003 (prior to the Petabox), with cost information
- Current Petabox storage hardware
- Earliest known website of Internet Archive (www.archive.org) from 1997
- Early websites from 1996
- Brewster Kahle (November 6, 2013). "Scanning Center Fire — Please Help Rebuild". Internet Archive Blogs. Retrieved November 7, 2013.