Internet Explorer versions

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Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.

The first version of Internet Explorer, (at that time named Microsoft Internet Explorer, later referred to as Internet Explorer 1) made its debut on 16 August 1995. It was a reworked version of Spyglass Mosaic, which Microsoft licensed from Spyglass Inc., like many other companies initiating browser development. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the OEM service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows.

Originally Microsoft Internet Explorer only ran on Windows using Intel 80386 (IA-32) processor. Current versions also run on x64, 32-bit ARMv7, PowerPC and IA-64. Versions on Windows have supported MIPS, Alpha AXP and 16-bit and 32-bit x86 but currently support only 32-bit or 64-bit. A version exists for Xbox 360 called Internet Explorer for Xbox using PowerPC and an embedded OEM version called Pocket Internet Explorer, later rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile, which is currently based on Internet Explorer 9 and made for Windows Phone using ARMv7, Windows CE, and previously, based on Internet Explorer 7 for Windows Mobile. It remains in development alongside the desktop versions.

Internet Explorer has supported other operating systems with Internet Explorer for Mac (using Motorola 68020+, PowerPC) and Internet Explorer for UNIX (Solaris using SPARC and HP-UX using PA-RISC) have been discontinued.

Since its first release, Microsoft has added features and technologies such as basic table display (in version 1.5); XMLHttpRequest (in version 5), which adds creation of dynamic web pages; and Internationalized Domain Names (in version 7), which allow Web sites to have native-language addresses with non-Latin characters. The browser has also received scrutiny throughout its development for use of third-party technology (such as the source code of Spyglass Mosaic, used without royalty in early versions) and security and privacy vulnerabilities, and both the United States and the European Union have alleged that integration of Internet Explorer with Windows has been to the detriment of other browsers.

The latest stable release has an interface allowing for use as both a desktop application, and as a Windows 8 application.

OS compatibility[edit]

IE versions, over time, have had widely varying OS compatibility, ranging from being available for many platforms and several versions of Windows to only a few versions of Windows. Many versions of IE had some support for an older OS but stopped getting updates. The increased growth of the Internet in the 1990s and 2000s means that current browsers with small market shares have more total users than the entire market early on. For example, 90% market share in 1997 would be roughly 60 million[1] users, but by the start of 2007 90% market share would equate to over 900 million users.[1] The result is that later versions of IE6 had many more users in total than all the early versions put together.

The release of IE7 at the end of 2006 resulted in a collapse of IE6 market share; by February 2007, market version share statistics showed IE6 at about 50% and IE7 at 29%.[2] Regardless of the actual market share, the most compatible version (across operating systems) of IE was 5.x, which had Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X, Unix, and most Windows versions available and supported for a short period in the late 1990s (although 4.x had a more unified codebase across versions). By 2007, IE had much narrower OS support, with the latest versions supporting only Windows XP Service Pack 2 and above. Internet Explorer 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 7.0 (Experimental) have also been unofficially ported to the Linux operating system from the project IEs4Linux.

Windows[edit]

Windows[3][4]
Years Layout engine 8.1, Server 2012 R2 8, Server 2012 7, Server 2008 R2 Vista, Server 2008 Server 2003 XP Me 2000 98 NT 4.0 95 NT 3.51 NT 3.5 NT 3.1 3.1x
Years available 2013– 2012-2014 2009-2014 2006–2011 2003–2009 2001–2009 (SP 2/3) 2000–2001 2000–2004 1998–2001 1996–2001 1995–2000 1995–1999 1995–1996 1995 1995–1999
IE 11 2013 Trident 7.0 Included N/A Yes with SP1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
IE 10 2012 Trident 6.0 N/A Included Yes with SP1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
IE 9 2011 Trident 5.0[5] N/A N/A Yes Yes with SP2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
IE 8 2009 Trident 4.0[6] N/A N/A Included Yes Yes with SP2 Yes with SP2/3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
IE 7 2006 Trident N/A N/A N/A Included Yes with SP1/2 Yes with SP2/3& N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
IE 6 2001 Trident N/A N/A N/A N/A Included Included Yes
6.0 SP1
Yes
6.0 SP1
Yes
6.0 SP1
Yes
6.0 SP1
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
IE 5.5 2000 Trident N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Included Yes Yes Yes Yes
5.5 SP2
N/A N/A N/A N/A
IE 5.0 1999 Trident N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Included
5.01 SP4
Included
with 98SE
Yes Yes Yes N/A N/A Yes
IE 4.0 1997 Trident N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Included
Yes Included
OSR2.5
Yes N/A N/A Yes
IE 3.0 1996 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Included
OSR2
Yes Yes N/A Yes
IE 2.0 1995 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Included Included
OSR1
Yes Yes Yes Yes
IE 1.5 1996 Spyglass N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A N/A
IE 1.0 1995 Spyglass N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Non-free
Plus!
N/A N/A N/A N/A
** The version of Internet Explorer included with Windows 95 varied by OSR release; 2.0 was included with OSR1, 3.0 was included with OSR2, and 4.0 was included with OSR2.5.
& Windows XP Service Pack 3 does not include IE7.

Mac OS[edit]

Mac OS[3][4]
Years Layout engine Mac OS X
PPC
Mac OS 7.6 to 9.2.2
PPC
Mac OS 7.5.x
PPC

Mac OS 7.1 to 8.1
68k

7.1.2
PPC

Mac OS 7.0.1
68k
Years available 2001 (PPC Systems only) 1997–1999 1994–1999 1992–1997 1991–1995
IE 5.0 1999 Tasman Included
5.2.3
Included¥
5.1.7
N/A N/A N/A
IE 4.5 1999 N/A Included Yes N/A N/A
IE 4.0 1997 Trident
[verification needed]
N/A Included Yes Yes
4.01
N/A
IE 3.0 1996 N/A Included Yes Included N/A
IE 2.0 1995 N/A Yes Yes Yes£ Yes£
2.0.1
£ Internet Explorer 2.0 and 2.0.1 requires System 7.0.1 or higher. Internet Explorer 2.1 requires System 7.1 or higher.
Included Internet Explorer 3.01 in Mac OS 8.0 and Mac OS 8.1; Internet Explorer 4.01 in Mac OS 8.5 and 8.5.1; Internet Explorer 4.5 from Mac OS 8.6 to 9.0.4; Internet Explorer 5 from Mac OS 9.1 to 9.2.2 and Mac OS X v10.0; Internet Explorer 5.1 in Mac OS X v10.1; Internet Explorer 5.2 in Mac OS X v10.2.
¥ Internet Explorer 5 Macintosh Edition requires Mac OS 7.6 or higher. Internet Explorer version 5.1; 5.1.4; 5.1.5; 5.1.6 and 5.1.7 requires Mac OS 8.0 or higher or Mac OS 7.6.1 with Appearance Manager.

Others[edit]

Other operating systems[3][4]
Years Layout engine IBM OS/2
2.1 and later
Unix HP-UX
Solaris
Years available 1993–1996 1996–1999
IE 5.0 1999 ? N/A Yes
5.01 SP1
IE 4.0 1997 Trident
[verification needed]
N/A Yes
IE 3.0 1996 Yes (16-bit) Beta
IE 2.0 1995 Yes (16-bit) N/A

Early versions[edit]

Microsoft Internet Explorer[edit]

Microsoft Internet Explorer (later referred to as Internet Explorer 1) made its debut on 16 August 1995. It was a reworked version of Spyglass Mosaic which Microsoft had licensed,[7][8] like many other companies initiating browser development, from Spyglass Inc.[7][8] It came with Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95 and the OEM release of Windows 95.[citation needed] It was installed as part of the Internet Jumpstart Kit in Plus! for Windows 95.[9] The Internet Explorer team began with about six people in early development.[10][11] Microsoft Internet Explorer 1.5 was released several months later for Windows NT and added support for basic HTML table rendering. By including it free of charge on their operating system, they did not have to pay royalties to Spyglass Inc, resulting in a lawsuit and a US$8 million settlement on January 22, 1997.[7][8]

Although not included, this software can also be installed on the original release of Windows 95.

Microsoft Internet Explorer (that is version 1.x) is no longer supported, or available for download from Microsoft. However, archived versions of the software can be found on various websites.

Features[edit]

Microsoft Internet Explorer came with an install routine replacing a manual installation required by many of the existing web browsers.[12]

Microsoft Internet Explorer 2[edit]

Main article: Internet Explorer 2

Microsoft Internet Explorer 2 was released for Windows 95, Windows NT 3.5, and NT 4.0 on 22 November 1995 (following a 2.0 beta in October). It featured support for SSL, cookies, VRML, RSA, and Internet newsgroups. Version 2 was also the first release for Windows 3.1 and Macintosh System 7.0.1 (PPC or 68k), although the Mac version was not released until January 1996 for PPC, and April for 68k.[13] Version 2.1 for the Mac came out in August 1996, although by this time, Windows was getting 3.0. Version 2 was included in Windows 95 OSR 1 and Microsoft's Internet Starter Kit for Windows 95 in early 1996.[14] It launched with twelve languages, including English, but by April 1996, this was expanded to 24, 20, and 9 for Win 95, Win 3.1, and Mac, respectively.[14] The 2.0i version supported double-byte character-set.[14]

Microsoft Internet Explorer 3[edit]

Main article: Internet Explorer 3
Market share history snapshot
for February 2005[15]
IE4: 0.07%
IE5: 6.17%
IE6: 82.79%

Microsoft Internet Explorer 3 was released on 13 August 1996 and went on to be much more popular than its predecessors. Microsoft Internet Explorer 3 was the first major browser with CSS support, although this support was only partial. It also introduced support for ActiveX controls, Java applets, inline multimedia, and the PICS system for content metadata. Version 3 also came bundled with Internet Mail and News, NetMeeting, and an early version of the Windows Address Book, and was itself included with Windows 95 OSR 2. Version 3 proved to be the first more popular version of Internet Explorer, bringing with it increased scrutiny. In the months following its release, a number of security and privacy vulnerabilities were found by researchers and hackers. This version of Internet Explorer was the first to have the 'blue e' logo.[9] The Internet Explorer team consisted of roughly 100 people during the development of three months.[16] The first major IE security hole, the Princeton Word Macro Virus Loophole, was discovered on 22 August 1996 in IE3.[17]

Backwards compatibility was handled by allowing users who upgraded to IE3 to still use the last IE, because the installation converted the previous version to a separate directory.[18]

Microsoft Internet Explorer 4[edit]

Main article: Internet Explorer 4
Market share history snapshot
for October 2008[19]
IE4: 0.01%
IE5: 0.20%
IE6: 37.01%
IE7: 35.81%

Microsoft Internet Explorer 4, released in September 1997, deepened the level of integration between the web browser and the underlying operating system. Installing version 4 on a Windows 95 or Windows NT 4 machine and choosing Windows Desktop Update would result in the traditional Windows Explorer being replaced by a version more akin to a web browser interface, as well as the Windows desktop itself being web-enabled via Active Desktop. The integration with Windows, however, was subject to numerous packaging criticisms (see United States v. Microsoft). This option was no longer available with the installers for later versions of Internet Explorer, but was not removed from the system if already installed. Microsoft Internet Explorer 4 introduced support for Group Policy, allowing companies to configure and lock down many aspects of the browser's configuration as well as support for offline browsing.[20] Internet Mail and News was replaced with Outlook Express, and Microsoft Chat and an improved NetMeeting were also included. This version was also included with Windows 98. New features that allowed users to save and retrieve posts in comment forms were added, but they are not used today. Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.5 offered new features such as easier 128-bit encryption. It also offered a dramatic stability improvement over prior versions, particularly the 68k version, which was especially prone to freezing.[21][22][23]

Microsoft Internet Explorer 5[edit]

Main article: Internet Explorer 5

Microsoft Internet Explorer 5, launched on 18 March 1999, and subsequently included with Windows 98 Second Edition and bundled with Office 2000, was another significant release that supported bi-directional text, ruby characters, XML, XSLT, and the ability to save web pages in MHTML format. IE5 was bundled with Outlook Express 5. Also, with the release of Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0, Microsoft released the first version of XMLHttpRequest, giving birth to Ajax (even though the term "Ajax" was not coined until years later). It was the last with a 16-bit version. Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01, a bug fix version included in Windows 2000, was released in December 1999. Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.5 followed in July 2000, improving its print preview capabilities, CSS and HTML standards support, and developer APIs; this version was bundled with Windows Me. However, version 5 was the last version for Mac and UNIX. Version 5.5 was the last to have Compatibility Mode, which allowed Microsoft Internet Explorer 4[24] to be run side by side with the 5.x.[9][25] The IE team consisted of over 1,000 people by 1999, with funding on the order of US$100 million per year.[11][16]

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6[edit]

Main article: Internet Explorer 6

Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 was released on 27 August 2001, a few months before Windows XP. This version included DHTML enhancements, content restricted inline frames, and partial support of CSS level 1, DOM level 1, and SMIL 2.0.[26] The MSXML engine was also updated to version 3.0. Other new features included a new version of the Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK), Media bar, Windows Messenger integration, fault collection, automatic image resizing, P3P, and a new look-and-feel that was in line with the Luna visual style of Windows XP, when used in Windows XP. Internet Explorer 6.0 SP1 offered several security enhancements and coincided with the Windows XP SP1 patch release. In 2002, the Gopher protocol was disabled, and support for it was dropped in Internet Explorer 7.[27] Internet Explorer 6.0 SV1[28] came out on 6 August 2004 for Windows XP SP2 and offered various security enhancements and new colour buttons on the user interface. Internet Explorer 6 updated the original 'blue e' logo to a lighter blue and more 3D look.[9] Microsoft now considers IE6 to be an obsolete product and recommends that users upgrade to Internet Explorer 8. Some corporate IT users have not upgraded despite this, in part because some still use Windows 2000, which will not run Internet Explorer 7 or above.[29] Microsoft has launched a website, http://ie6countdown.com/, with the goal of getting Internet Explorer 6 usage to drop below 1 percent worldwide. Its usage is 6% globally as of October 2012, and now about 6.3% since June 2013, and depending to the country the usage differs heavily: while the usage in Norway is 0.1%, it is 21.3% in the People's Republic of China.[30] On 3 January 2012, Microsoft announced that usage of IE6 in the United States had dropped below 1%.[31][32]

Windows Internet Explorer 7[edit]

Main article: Internet Explorer 7

Windows Internet Explorer 7 was released on 18 October 2006. It includes bug fixes, enhancements to its support for web standards, tabbed browsing with tab preview and management, a multiple-engine search box, a web feeds reader, Internationalized Domain Name support (IDN), Extended Validation Certificate support, and an anti-phishing filter. With IE7, Internet Explorer has been decoupled from the Windows Shell—unlike previous versions, the Internet Explorer ActiveX control is not hosted in the Windows Explorer process, but rather runs in a separate Internet Explorer process. It is included with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, and is available for Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later, and Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 and later. The original release of Internet Explorer 7 required the computer to pass a Windows Genuine Advantage validation check prior to installing, but on October 5, 2007, Microsoft removed this requirement. As some statistics show, by mid-2008, Internet Explorer 7 market share exceeded that of Internet Explorer 6 in a number of regions.[33][34]

For newer versions see: Internet Explorer.

Release history for desktop Windows OS version[edit]

Color Meaning
Pink Old test release; unsupported
Red Old release; unsupported
Orange Old release; extended support only[Note 1]
Yellow Old release; supported
Green Current release
Purple Test release
Blue Future release
  1. ^ Support available (inside product's support lifecycle) only for the operating system it uses. Product support lifecycle information for Windows Operating Systems
  • Service packs are not included unless significant.
Major version Minor version Release date Significant changes Shipped with
Version 1 1.0 August 1995 Initial release. Plus! for Windows 95
1.5 January 1996 Compatible with Windows NT 3.5
Version 2 2.0 Beta October 1995 Support of HTML tables and other elements.
2.0 November 1995 SSL, cookies, VRML, and Internet newsgroups. Windows NT 4.0
Windows 95 OSR1
Internet Starter Kit
2.01 Unknown Bug fix release.
Version 3 3.0 Alpha 1 March 1996 Improved support of HTML tables, frames, and other elements.
3.0 Alpha 2 May 1996 Support of VBScript and JScript.
3.0 Beta 2 July 1996 Support of CSS and Java.
3.0 August 1996 Final release. Windows 95 OSR 2
3.01 October 1996 Bug fix release.
3.02 March 1997 Bug fix release.
3.03 1997 Bug fix release.
Version 4 4.0 Beta 1 April 1997 Improved support of CSS and Microsoft DOM.
4.0 Beta 2 July 1997 Improved support of HTML and CSS.
4.0 September 1997 Improved support of HTML and CSS. Windows 95 OSR 2.5
4.01 November 1997 Bug fix release. Windows 98
Version 5 5.0 Beta 1 June 1998 Support of more CSS2 features.
5.0 Beta 2 November 1998 Support of bi-directional text, ruby character, XML/XSL and more CSS properties.
5.0 March 1999 Final release. Last version supported on Windows 3.x and Windows NT 3.x. Windows 98 SE
5.01 November 1999 Bug fix release. Windows 2000
5.5 Beta 1 December 1999 Support of more CSS properties. Minor changes to support of frames.
5.5 July 2000 Final release. Last version supported on Windows 95. Windows Me
5.6 August 2000 Released for Windows Whistler build 2257. Windows Whistler
Version 6 6.0 Beta 1 March 2001 More CSS changes and bug fixes to be more W3C-compliant. Add new feature Smart tag
6.0 August 27, 2001 Final release. remove the Smart tag again. Windows XP
6.0 SP1 September 9, 2002 Vulnerability patch. Last version supported on Windows NT 4.0, 98, Me or 2000. Windows XP SP1
6.05 October 1, 2003 Released for Windows Longhorn build 4051. Windows Longhorn build 4051-4094
6.0 SP2 August 25, 2004 Vulnerability patch. Popup/ActiveX blocker. Add-on manager. Support ended on July 13, 2010. Windows XP SP2
Windows Server 2003 SP1
6.0 SP3 April 21, 2008 Windows XP: Latest updates included with XP SP3. Support ended on April 8, 2014.
Windows Server 2003: Support until July 14, 2015.
Windows XP SP3
Windows Server 2003 SP2
Version 7 7.0 Beta 1 July 27, 2005 Support of PNG alpha channel. CSS bug fixes. Tabbed browsing. Support for EV SSL certificate. Phishing filter. Windows Vista Beta 1
7.0 Beta 2 Preview January 31, 2006 More CSS fixes. Web feeds platform integration. New GUI. Quick Tabs.
7.0 Beta 2 April 24, 2006 Feature complete. More CSS fixes. Application compatibility fixes.
7.0 Beta 3 June 29, 2006 Fixes rendering issues for CSS.
7.0 RC 1 August 24, 2006 Improvements in performance, stability, security, application compatibility and final CSS adjustments.
7.0 October 18, 2006 Final release. Windows Vista
Version 8 8.0 Beta 1 March 5, 2008 CSS 2.1, Contextual Services. Accelerators. Web Slices. Tab isolation and DEP protection enabled by default. Automatic crash recovery. Improved phishing and malware filter (SmartScreen). Uses 6 HTTP server connections for improved website responsiveness.
8.0 Beta 2 August 27, 2008 CSS 2.1 bug fixes. InPrivate browsing. Smart address bar. Search suggestions. Tab color grouping. Caret browsing. Windows 7 Pre-Beta
8.0 Pre-RC 1 December 11, 2008 CSS bug fixes. Improved Developer Tools. Changes in Compatibility View. Improved Favorites management and other minor changes to UI. Changes to InPrivate browsing and blocking modes. Windows 7 Beta
8.0 RC1 January 26, 2009 CSS bug fixes. Minor changes in favorites management and search bar.
8.0 March 19, 2009 Final release. Last version supported on Windows XP.[36] Windows 7
Version 9 9.0 Platform Preview 1
v1.9.7745.6019
March 16, 2010 Support for some CSS3 selectors (including border-radius property), HTML5 and SVG. New JavaScript engine (code name Chakra). Added support for graphics and web rendering hardware acceleration, using Direct2D and DirectWrite.
9.0 Platform Preview 2
v1.9.7766.6000
May 5, 2010 Support for more functions in SVG, HTML5, DOM. Added support for all CSS3 selectors. JavaScript performance improvements.
9.0 Platform Preview 3
v1.9.7874.6000
June 23, 2010 Support for HTML5 <audio>, <video> and <canvas> tags. Support for WOFF fonts. JavaScript and graphics performance improvements.
9.0 Platform Preview 4
v1.9.7916.6000
August 4, 2010 CSS bug fixes. Support for ECMAScript5 (ES5). JScript engine integrated into the core browser components (architectural change). Performance improvements.
9.0 Beta & 9.0 Platform Preview 5
v1.9.7930.16406
September 15, 2010 New UI, Download manager, New Tab page, Search in the address bar, Notification Bar, Add-on Performance Advisor Windows 8 build 7850
9.0 Platform Preview 6
v1.9.8006.6000
October 28, 2010 CSS3 2D transforms and HTML5 semantic tags.
9.0 Platform Preview 7
v1.9.8023.6000
November 17, 2010 Better JavaScript performance.
9.0 Release Candidate & 9.0 Platform Preview 8
1.9.8080.16413
February 10, 2011 Performance improvements, Tracking Protection, ActiveX Filtering, paste and navigate, enhancements to user interface, and support for the W3C Geolocation API.
9.0 March 14, 2011 Improved performance, improved Tracking Protection, and the option to pin multiple targets per page. Last version supported on Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.[37] Windows 8 build 7989
Version 10 10.0 Platform Preview 1
v2.10.1000.16394
April 12, 2011 Support for CSS3 multi-column layout, CSS3 grid layout, CSS3 flexible box layout, CSS3 gradients, and ES5 strict mode.
10.0 Platform Preview 2
v2.10.1008.16421
June 29, 2011 Support for Positioned Floats, CSS stylesheet limit lifted, CSSOM Floating Point Value support, Improved hit testing APIs, Media Query Listeners, HTML5: Support for async attribute on script elements, HTML5 Drag and Drop, HTML5 File API, HTML5 Sandbox, HTML5 Web Workers, and some Web Performance APIs.
10.0 Developer Preview (Platform Preview 3) September 13, 2011 Support for Windows 8, CSS 3D Transforms, CSS Text shadow, SVG Filter Effects, Spellchecking, Autocorrection, local storage with IndexedDB and the HTML5 Application Cache, Web Sockets, HTML5 History, and InPrivate tabs. Windows 8 Developer Preview
10.0 Developer Preview (Platform Preview 4) November 29, 2011 Windows 8 Developer Preview
10.0 Consumer Preview (Platform Preview 5) February 29, 2012 Improved performance and support for more HTML5.[38] Windows 8 Consumer Preview
10.0 Release Preview (Platform Preview 6) May 31, 2012 Windows 8 Release Preview
10.0 RTM October 26, 2012 Final release. Only version supported on Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012.[39] Windows 8 RTM
Version 11 11.0 October 17, 2013 The default browser in Windows 8.1. Available on Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012 R2.[40] Windows 8.1

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "History and Growth of the Internet". Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  2. ^ "Market share for browsers, operating systems and search engines". Retrieved 2007-03-03. 
  3. ^ a b c "Internet Explorer for Macintosh or Windows 3.1". Retrieved 2007-03-01. 
  4. ^ a b c "Download Netscape 4.7x & 4.8". Archived from the original on 2006-11-14. Retrieved 2007-03-01. 
  5. ^ Silbey, Marc (2010-03-23), Introducing IE9's User Agent String, Microsoft 
  6. ^ "The Internet Explorer 8 User-Agent String". MSDN. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  7. ^ a b c Elstrom, Peter (22 January 1997). "MICROSOFT'S $8 MILLION GOODBYE TO SPYGLASS". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c Thurrott, Paul (22 January 1997). "Microsoft and Spyglass kiss and make up". WindowsITPro. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d Hardmeier, Sandi (25 August 2005). "The History of Internet Explorer". Microsoft. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  10. ^ Borland, John (2003-04-15). "Software empire pays high price". CNET News. CNET Networks. Retrieved 2011-02-09. 
  11. ^ a b Sink, Eric (15 April 2003). "Memoirs From the Browser Wars". Eric Weblog. Ericsink.com. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  12. ^ "Windows History". Microsoft. 2003-06-30. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  13. ^ "Computer History". islandnet.com. 
  14. ^ a b c "Microsoft Internet Explorer Web Browser Available on All Major Platforms, Offers Broadest International Support". Microsoft.com. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  15. ^ "Search Engine Market Share". marketshare.hitslink.com. November 2007. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  16. ^ a b "Victor: Software empire pays high price | CNET News.com". News.com. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  17. ^ http://thespike67.wordpress.com/2012/06/17/internet-explorer-history/
  18. ^ "By having IE3 rename your previous version, Microsoft gives you a fallback in case IE3 crashes. IE3 also scans for Netscape bookmarks and converts them to IE3 favorites." Jonathan Chau (1996-11-01). "Internet Explorer 3.0". Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  19. ^ "Browser Version Market Share". marketshare.hitslink.com. October 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  20. ^ "Supporting Offline Browsing in Applications and Components". Microsoft. 
  21. ^ "WinPlanet IE4 Review". cws.internet.com. 
  22. ^ "PC Pro IE4 Review". pcpro.co.uk. 
  23. ^ Stroud, Forrest. "MacUser IE 4 Review". macuser.co.uk. 
  24. ^ "KB197311". support.microsoft.com. 
  25. ^ "MS Article ID 237787". support.microsoft.com. 
  26. ^ "SMIL Standards and Microsoft Internet Explorer 6, 7, and 8". Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  27. ^ "Using a web browser to access gopher space". Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  28. ^ "XPSP2 and its slightly updated user agent string". IEBlog. MSDN. 2 September 2004. Retrieved 2010-09-26.  SV1 stands for "Security Version 1", referring to the set of security enhancements made for that release []. This version of Internet Explorer is more popularly known as IE6 SP2, given that it is included with Windows XP Service Pack 2, but this can lead to confusion when discussing Windows Server 2003, which includes the same functionality in the SP1 update to that operating system.
  29. ^ "Corporate IT just won't let IE6 die". Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  30. ^ "The Internet Explorer 6 Countdown". Microsoft. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  31. ^ Thurott, Paul (January 3, 2012). "Microsoft: IE 6 Usage Drops Below 1 Percent in US". Paul Thurott's Supersite for Windows. p. 1. Retrieved January 3, 2012. 
  32. ^ Muchmore, Michael (2012-01-04). "IE6 Usage Drops Below 1 Percent in U.S.". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  33. ^ "Browser statistics". W3Schools. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  34. ^ "Browser statistics". Statcounter. Retrieved 2012-01-22. 
  35. ^ Installing Internet Explorer 8
  36. ^ Installing Internet Explorer 9
  37. ^ Windows Consumer Preview: The Fifth IE10 Platform Preview
  38. ^ Internet Explorer 10 FAQ for IT Pros
  39. ^ Internet Explorer 11 - FAQ for IT Pros

Further reading[edit]