Internet addiction disorder
Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is now more commonly called problematic internet use (PIU) or compulsive internet use (CIU). Other overlapping terms include internet overuse, problematic computer use or pathological computer use – and even iDisorder. These terms avoid the word addiction and are not limited to any single cause, but only reflect a general statement about excessive computer use that interferes with daily life.
IAD was originally proposed as a disorder in a satirical hoax by Ivan Goldberg, M.D., in 1995, though some later researchers have taken his essay seriously. He took pathological gambling as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as his model for the description of IAD. IAD receives coverage in the press, and possible future classification as a psychological disorder continues to be debated and researched in the psychiatric community. A systematic review of PIU identified a lack of standardization of the conceptualization of PIU as a major impediment to advancing this area of study.
Other habits such as reading, playing computer games, or watching very large numbers of internet videos or movies are all troubling only to the extent that these activities interfere with normal life. IAD is often divided into subtypes by activity, such as excessive, overwhelming, or inappropriate internet pornography use, gaming, online social networking, blogging, email, or internet shopping. Opponents note that compulsive behaviors may not themselves be addictive.
Internet addiction is a subset of a broader "technology addiction". Obsession with technology started with radio in the 1930s and with television in the 1960s, but has recently exploded in importance during the current digital age. A study published in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (2014 suggests that prevalence of internet addiction varies considerably between countries and is inversely related to quality of life. 
- 1 A multidimensional construct
- 2 Disputed disorder: DSM
- 3 Controversies in diagnosis
- 4 Prevalence and supportive studies
- 5 Non-supportive studies
- 6 Causes and effects
- 7 Measurement
- 8 Prevention and treatment
- 9 Related disorders
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
A multidimensional construct
A conceptual model of PIU has been developed based on primary data collected from addiction researchers, psychologists, and health providers as well as older adolescents themselves. That study identified seven concepts, or clusters, that make up PIU using a concept mapping approach. These seven clusters are: psychosocial risk factors; physical impairment; emotional impairment; social and functional impairment; risky internet use; impulsive internet use; and internet use dependence. The last three constructs have not been previously identified. Risky internet use are behaviors that increase risks of adverse consequences. It is not just the amount of time spent on the internet that puts an adolescent at risk; how the time is spent is also an important consideration. The impulsive use construct describes an inability to maintain balance or control of internet use in relation to everyday life. Finally, the dependent use construct reflects the more severe symptoms that are typically associated with addictions, such as withdrawal symptoms. Thus, internet addiction may represent a severe form of PIU.
Other research also stresses the fact that the internet addiction disorder is not a unidimensional but a multidimensional construct. Various facets of internet use must be differentiated because of their differential predictors, mechanisms and consequences. Online activities which, if done in person, would normally be considered troublesome, such as compulsive gambling, or shopping, are sometimes called net compulsions. Mass media is defined as the channels of communication in modern societies.The television,radio, and print were means of mass media which were commonly around the 1960s.The internet in simple terms is a network of interlinked computer called the World Wide Web, which is accessible to the general public.The internet has benefits much of advantages than more less of disadvantage. Advantage in the sense that of communication, search information, educational aspect to learn in class just by sitting in-front of your screen. It also provide a well proper aspect of entertainment, as a matter of fact every thing about this earth is made available by visiting the internet. On the contrary, the internet disadvantages is less beneficiary to the society than it advantages. Nevertheless, it can be said that the negative, the internet weight more on the people in our modern society.
Disputed disorder: DSM
Internet addiction disorder is not listed in the latest DSM manual (DSM-5, 2013), which is commonly used by psychiatrists. Gambling disorder is the only behavioural (non-substance related) addiction included in DSM-5. However internet gaming disorder is listed in an appendix as a disorder requiring further study.
Jerald J. Block, M.D. has argued that internet addiction should be included as a disorder in the DSM-5. However, Block observed that diagnosis was complicated because 86% of study subjects showing symptoms also exhibited other diagnosable mental health disorders.
Controversies in diagnosis
This considered 'disorder' is not a part of the DSM-5, which provides argument as to whether or not it is actually a disorder. The addiction to 'cyber sex', 'cyber relationships', 'net compulsions', 'information and research' and 'computer gaming' are categories explained by Young 1999, that relate to the 'broad' term Internet Addiction. 'Internet Addiction' as a disorder on its own is arguably non-existent, but in terms of being addicted to the 'content' online, it is possible.
There are a variety of aspects online that users could be addicted to rather than the Internet itself, which include communication, gaming, shopping, cyber-relations and anonymity, and so it is argued that users 'just use the Internet excessively as a medium to fuel other addictions.'
The material available online can be addictive to Internet users, not the medium itself. The Internet is where they engage in the addictive behaviour. The fact that Internet users can be addicted to components of the Internet does not mean that they are Internet addicts, but excessive Internet users.
A study carried out by Young discovered that over half of people considered 'Internet-dependent' were new users of the Internet, and are therefore more 'inclined' to use to the Internet regularly. She also discusses the fact that 'Non-dependent' users had been using the Internet for more than a year, suggesting that over use of the Internet could 'wear off over time'.
It is difficult to detect and diagnose someone with 'Internet Addiction' as it is a 'highly promoted tool', so instead, it is categorised.
Compulsive online gaming, online gambling, and use of online auction sites are all classed as categories of Internet Addiction, that are said to often result in financial and job-related problems. Internet users can become easily addicted to these types of online activity, rather than the Internet itself.
The ACE model helps to explain compulsive online use.
Accessibility. Because of the convenience of the Internet, users now have easy and immediate access to gambling, shopping and gaming at any time of day, without the hassles of everyday life (e.g. travelling or queues).
Excitement. Internet users often get an excited feeling of a 'rush' or a buzz that they get when winning. Gambling, gaming and online bidding all potentially result in a win. Users will use the net as a way of gaining this emotion.
Internet users can become addicted to playing online games, gambling and shopping through the feeling it gives them. These online activities can create the feeling of convenience, independence and excitement, which makes the user want to do it again.
Internet addiction and pornography
Young (1999), a founding member of The Centre for On-Line Addiction claims Internet addiction is a broad term that covers a wide variety of behaviors and impulse control problems. She claims this is categorized by five specific subtypes including:
- Cybersexual addiction: compulsive use of adult websites for cybersex and cyberporn.
- Cyber-relationship addiction: Over-involvement in online relationships.
- Net compulsions: Obsessive online gambling, shopping or day-trading.
- Information overload: Compulsive web surfing or database searches.
- Computer addiction: Obsessive computer game playing.
Hypersexuality has become an enduring focus of empirical consideration in recent years (Kafka, 2010) The study of compulsive Internet pornography use as a subdomain of hypersexuality has also become a prevalent empirical focus in recent years. Internet pornography use is increasingly common in Western cultures (Carroll et al. 2008). In tandem with this increase, the mental health community has witnessed a dramatic rise in problematic Internet pornography use (Manning, 2006; Warden et al. 2004; Owens, Behun, Manning, & Reid, 2012).
Joshua B. Grubbs, a specialist in Addictive Behavior Patterns, outlines in the journal: Internet Pornography Use: Perceived Addiction, that at present there is no widely accepted means of defining or assessing problematic Internet pornography use and the notion of Internet pornography addiction is still highly controversial.
The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) does not recognise Internet pornography as an addiction. DSM-5, which was published in 2013, mentions hypersexuality (which includes problematic, compulsive pornography use) when discussing other disorders. However, there is no such thing as hypersexual disorder in DSM-5. While pornography is mentioned inside DSM-5 when discussing several paraphilias, there is no such thing as pornography addiction or health hazard due to porn consumption, according to DSM-5. DSM-5 does not consider pornography to be a mental health problem.
Cyber Relationship Addiction
Cyber-Relationship addiction is one impulse-control problem that is covered within Internet Addiction Disorder also known as (IAD). It has been supported through different theories and articles over the years such as Ramdhonee's, Psychological impact of internet usage on children and adolescents and Young’s Internet addiction: Symptoms, evaluation and treatment.
A Cyber-Relationship Addiction has been described as, the addiction to social networking in all forms. Social Networking such as Facebook, Online dating service such as Uniform Dating.com along with many other communication platforms, creating a place to communicate with new people. Virtual online friends start to gain more communication and importance over time to the person becoming more important than real-life family and friends.
Cyber-Relationships are in essence a virtual relationship or form of communication between two people. Visuals are removed as it is communication through text, all you know of a person is what they are communicating to you and what is displayed on their profile. Some People, “will be attracted to the silent, less visually stimulating, non-tactile quality of text relationships - which may be true for some people struggling to contain the over-stimulation of past trauma. A person's ambivalence about intimacy may be expressed in text communication because it is a paradoxical blend of allowing people to be honest and feel close, while also maintaining their distance. People suffering with social anxiety or issues regarding shame and guilt may be drawn to text relationships because they cannot be seen. Some people even prefer text because it enables them to avoid the issue of physical appearance which they find distracting or irrelevant to the relationship. Without the distraction of in-person cues, they feel they can connect more directly to the mind and soul of the other person. Text becomes a transitional space, an extension of their mind that blends with the extension of the other person’s mind".
Issues within Cyber-Relationship Addiction
Cyber-Relationships can often be more intense then real-life relationships, causing addiction to the relationship. With the ability to create whole new personas, people can often deceive the person they are communicating with. Everyone is looking for a the perfect companion but the perfect companion online is not always the perfect companion in real life. Although two people can commit to a Cyber-relationship, offline one of them could not be the person they are claiming to be online.
There are people who deliberately create fake personal profiles online with the intention of tricking an unsuspecting person into falling in love with them. These people are known as "Catfish" The term "Catfish" has come from the title of a documentary film released in 2010, in which New York photographer Nev Schulman discovers the woman he'd been continuing a Cyber-Relationship with had not been honest whilst describing herself. From the releases of the film in 2010, Nev and his team joined up with MTV and created Catfish: The TV Show with the first Season Premiere in 2012. Catfish: The TV Show is enabling young couples take their online romances into the real world. What will happen when they meet in person for the first time? Executive producer Tom Forman says: "Whether or not two people are totally lying to each other and it turns out to be a huge disaster, that's only the first part of the story. We then want to know why they are doing it, who they are, what they are feeling, what led them to this place, and why that resonates with thousands of other young people who have the same feelings, who don't have someone to talk to or don't know how to express themselves".
Prevalence and supportive studies
Over the past decade, the concept of internet addiction has grown in terms of acceptance as a legitimate clinical disorder often requiring treatment. Researchers are divided over whether Internet addiction is a disorder on its own or a symptom of another underlying disorder. There is also debate over whether it should be classified as an impulse-control disorder or an obsessive-compulsive disorder rather than an addiction.
While the existence of internet addiction is debated, self-proclaimed sufferers are resorting to the courts for redress. In one American case (Pacenza v. IBM Corp.), the plaintiff argued he was illegally dismissed from his employment in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act because of internet addiction triggered by Vietnam War-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The case was dismissed by the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and affirmed on appeal to the United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit in 2010 (case summarized in Glaser & Carroll, 2007).
About 25% of users fulfill internet addiction criteria within the first six months of using the Internet. Many individuals initially report feeling intimidated by the computer but gradually feel a sense of "competency and exhilaration from mastering the technology and learning to navigate the applications quickly by visual stimulation" (Beard 374). The feeling of exhilaration can be explained by the way IAD sufferers often describe themselves as: bold, outgoing, open-minded, intellectually prideful, and assertive.
Public concern, interest in, and the study of, internet over use can be attributed to the fact that it has become increasingly difficult to distinguish between the online and offline worlds. The Internet has tremendous potential to affect the emotions of humans and in turn, alter our self-perception and anxiety levels.
According to the Center for Internet Addiction Recovery (whose director is Kimberly S. Young, a researcher who has lobbied for the recognition of net abuse as a distinct clinical disorder), "Internet addicts suffer from emotional problems such as depression and anxiety-related disorders and often use the fantasy world of the Internet to psychologically escape unpleasant feelings or stressful situations." More than half are also addicted to alcohol, drugs, tobacco, or sex.
Mark Griffiths states that "[t]he way of determining whether nonchemical (i.e., behavioral) addictions are addictive in a nonmetaphorical sense is to compare them against clinical criteria for other established drug-ingested addictions", and although his data is dated, and may no longer represent average internet use accurately, Griffiths comes to the conclusion that the internet does meet that criteria for addiction in a small number of users.
Scientists have found that compulsive internet use can produce morphological changes in the structure of the brain. A study which analyzed Chinese college students who had been classified as computer addicts by the study designers and who used a computer around 10 hours a day, 6 days a week, found reductions in the sizes of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and parts of the cerebellum compared to students deemed "not addicted" by the designers. It has been theorized that these changes reflect learning-type cognitive optimizations for using computers more efficiently, but also impaired short-term memory and decision-making abilities—including ones in which may contribute to the desire to stay online instead of be in the real world.
Patricia Wallace PhD, Senior Director, Information Technology and CTY Online, at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth argues that based on the case histories that have surfaced, no one denies that excessive involvement with certain psychological spaces on the net can have serious effects on a person’s life. She explains that, at a large university in New York, the dropout rate among freshmen newcomers rose dramatically as their investment in computers and Internet access increased, and the administrators learned that 43% of the dropouts were staying up all night on the Internet.
Many researchers say that Internet addiction disorder is not a true addiction and may in fact be no more than a symptom of other, existing disorders. An overbroad description of addiction leaves open the possibility of every compensatory behavior being declared an addiction. For example, a person who has lengthy telephone conversations with a friend to avoid an unpleasant situation could be declared "addicted to the telephone" with equal validity as a person who chats on the Internet with the same underlying goal.
Most, if not all "internet addicts", already fall under existing diagnostic labels. For many individuals, overuse or inappropriate use of the Internet is a manifestation of their depression, anxiety, impulse control disorders, or pathological gambling. IAD is compared to food addiction, in which patients overeat as a form of self-medication for depression, anxiety, etc., without actually being truly addicted to eating. It is possible that a person could have a pathological relationship with a specific aspect of the Internet, such as bidding on online auctions, viewing pornography, online gaming, or online gambling (which is included under the existing Pathological Gambling), but that does not make the internet medium itself addictive. For example, whether gambling is done on a computer or face-to-face does not affect whether or not it is pathological; a person with poor impulse control can lose sleep over a suspenseful novel or favorite television show or a computer game or the temptation to click on another web link.
Also, there are significant and critical differences between common internet activities (e-mail, chatting, web surfing) and pathological gambling, which the IAD notion heavily parallels. The internet is largely a pro-social, interactive, and information-driven medium, while gambling is seen as a single, anti-social behavior that has very little social redeeming value. Many so-called internet addicts do not suffer from the same damage to health and relationships that are common to established addictions.
A complete review of the internet addiction research by Byun et al. in 2008 demonstrated significant, multiple flaws in most studies in this area. The researchers wrote in that article, "The analysis showed that previous studies have utilized inconsistent criteria to define Internet addicts, applied recruiting methods that may cause serious sampling bias, and examined data using primarily exploratory rather than confirmatory data analysis techniques to investigate the degree of association rather than causal relationships among variables."
Causes and effects
Dr. Kimberly S. Young says that prior research links Internet Addiction Disorder with existing mental health issues, most commonly depression. Young states that the disorder has significant effects socially, psychologically and occupationally.
According to a Korean study into the disorder, pathological use of the internet results in negative life consequences such as job loss, marriage breakdown, financial debt, and academic failure. 70% of internet users in Korea are reported to play online games, 18% of which are diagnosed as game addicts. The authors of the article conducted a study using Kimberly Young's questionnaire. The study showed that the majority of those who met the requirements of internet addiction disorder suffered from interpersonal difficulties and stress and that those addicted to online games specifically responded that they hoped to avoid reality.
Young states that 52% of the respondents to her own study said that they were following recovery programs for other addictions. These included alcoholism, chemical dependency, compulsive gambling, or chronic overeating. These participants could see the same excessive behaviour, the need for a crutch to help them relax, in their use of the Internet, that they had exhibited in prior addictions. Though they believed that Internet addiction was not as serious as alcoholism, they still felt disheartened that a new addiction had substituted for the old one. Young also discusses the findings of Dr. Maressa Hecht-Orzack of McLean Hospital who set up a service for computer and Internet addiction in the spring of 1996. Orzack noted that primarily depression and bi-polar disorder in its depressive swing were co-morbid features of pathological Internet use, along with this Orzack indicated that referrals received were from various clinics throughout the hospital rather than direct self-referrals for Internet addiction.
Determining the cause of excessive internet use as it relates to negative outcomes may require a consideration of moderating factors. For example, excessive use accompanied by the cognitive factor of high preoccupation with the internet (excessive thinking about the internet) has been found to be related to greater amounts of negative outcomes.
A 2009 study suggested that brain structural changes were present in those classified by the researchers as internet addicted, similar to those classified as chemically addicted.
Internet Addiction Test
The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) of Kimberly Young was the first instrument to assess internet addiction. Initial studies have found that the IAT was a reliable measure that covers the key characteristics of pathological online use. The test measures the extent of a client’s involvement with the computer and classifies the addictive behavior in terms of mild, moderate, and severe impairment. The IAT was utilized in outpatient and inpatient settings and adapted accordingly to fit the needs of the clinical setting. The IAT was not validated during its development, but later studies have established its validity in English, and also in Italy and France, making it the first global psychometric measure.
Chen Internet Addiction Scale
The Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) contains 26 items ranked on a 4-point Likert scale, wherein a higher total score indicates a greater severity of Internet addiction symptoms. The CIAS was revised to address psychometric properties in adolescents, as well adults. According to the revised version, Internet addiction is prevalent in 18% of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.
Compulsive Internet Use (CIUS)
The Compulsive internet Use Scale (CIUS) was developed in 2009 by Meerkerk and colleagues at the Addiction Research Institute, Rotterdam, Netherlands. It was tested on two representative samples: 447 heavy internet users, and 16,925 regular internet users. The CIUS contains 14 items rated on a 5-point scale from 0 = never to 4 = very often. Example item: "How often do you find it difficult to stop using the internet when you are online?".
Problematic Internet Use (PRIUSS)
A newer 18-item measure is the PRIUSS, the Problematic And Risky Internet Use Screening Scale, has been developed by Jelenchick and colleagues in 2012 at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine. This scale differed in that it was based on a conceptual model of PIU created in an earlier study and has been validated through factor analysis during its development. The instrument is currently being launched in several schools and clinics, as well as being evaluated through further research. It contains 18 items.
Problematic Internet Use is an addictive behaviour, either extreme or poorly controlled fixation, desires, or actions concerning computer use and internet access that may lead to harm or anguish.
For PIU the current hypothesis that individuals’ prefer online interaction, instead of face-to-face encounters. Social interaction plays an important role when spending time on the internet, as it can develop negative consequences associated with problematic internet use.
Looking at PIU, the overuse of the Internet leads to unfortunate health and life consequences.
A study conducted by Scott E. Caplan, suggests that lonely and depressed individuals may develop a preference for online social interaction, which may then lead to negative outcomes with their Internet use.
When looking at some of the issues involved when PIU, it is clear that some of these issues are psychosocial variables, which include, depression, self-esteem, loneliness, and shyness. The study conducted, which resulted in not only the symptoms stated previously but more, for example, mood alterations and other issues like, negative outcomes associated with internet use, compulsive internet use, withdrawal symptoms when away from the internet and more. The preliminary study indicates that the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale (GPIUS) is both reliable and valid.
Stated by Caplan, the term problematic refers to usage reflecting a specific cycle of innate dysfunction leading to Internet use that in turn exacerbates the dysfunction.
- Salience: When the use of the Internet becomes the more important activity in an individual’s life and dominates their thinking (pre-occupations and cognitive distortions), feelings (cravings) and behavior (deterioration of socialized behavior). For example, even when the individual is offline, they are thinking about the next time they will be online.
- Mood modification: This refers to the subjective experiences that people report as a consequence of engaging in Internet use and can be seen as a coping strategy (i.e. they experience an arousing “buzz” of a “high” or paradoxically tranquilizing feel of “escape” or “numbing”).
- Tolerance: This is the process by which users increase the level of Internet use they partake in to achieve mood modification effects. So, for someone who is engaged in Internet use, they tend to gradually increase the amount of time online, to increase further the mood modification effects.
- Withdrawal symptoms: The unpleasant feeling states and/or physical effects, which occur when Internet use is discontinued or suddenly reduced. Examples of withdrawal symptoms could include shakiness, moodiness and irritability etc.
- Conflict: This refers to the conflicts between the Internet user and those around them (interpersonal conflict), conflicts with other activities (job, social life, hobbies and interests) or from within the individual themselves (intrapsychic conflict and/or subjective feelings of loss of control) which are concerned with spending too much time engaged in Internet use.
- Relapse: The tendency for repeated reversals to prior patterns of Internet use to recur and for even the most extreme patterns typical of excessive Internet use or addiction can be rapidly restored, even after periods of abstinence or control.
Prevention and treatment
In many cases, though not all, Internet overuse corrects itself. Sarah Kershaw wrote for the New York Times in 2005:
It was Professor Kiesler who called Internet addiction a fad illness. In her view, she said, television addiction is worse. She added that she was completing a study of heavy Internet users, which showed the majority had sharply reduced their time on the computer over the course of a year, indicating that even problematic use was self-corrective.
Corrective strategies include content-control software, counselling, and cognitive behavioural therapy. One of the major reasons that the Internet is so addicting is the lack of limits and the absence of accountability.
Professionals generally agree that, for Internet overuse, controlled use is a more practical goal than total abstinence.
Families in the People's Republic of China have turned to unlicensed training camps that offer to "wean" their children, often in their teens, from overuse of the Internet. The training camps have been associated with the death of at least one youth. In November 2009, the government of the People's Republic of China banned physical punishment to "wean" teens from the Internet. Electro-shock therapy had already been banned.
In August 2009, ReSTART, a residential treatment center for "pathological computer use", opened near Seattle, Washington, United States. It offers a 45-day program intended to help people wean themselves from pathological computer use, and can handle up to six patients at a time.
In August 2013, researchers at the MIT Media Lab developed a USB-connected keyboard accessory that would "punish" users – with a small electric jolt – who spent too much time on a particular website.
Online gambling addiction
According to David Hodgins, a professor of psychology at the University of Calgary, online gambling is considered to be as serious as pathological gambling. It is known as an "isolated disorder" which means that those who have a gambling problem prefer to separate themselves from interruptions and distractions. Because gambling is available online, it increases the opportunity for problem gamblers to indulge in gambling without social influences swaying their decisions. This is why this disorder has become more a problem at this date in time and is why it is so difficult to overcome. The opportunity to gamble online is almost always available in this century opposed to only having the opportunity in a public forum at casinos for example. Online gambling has become quite popular especially with today's adolescents. Today's youth has a greater knowledge of modern software and search engines along with a greater need for extra money. So not only is it easier for them to find opportunities to gamble over any subject, but the incentive to be granted this money is desperately desired.
Stock trading addiction
According to Brian Bloch during his trading addiction study in July 2013, online stock trading is one activity, just like online gambling that gives a participant an addictive rush. Online stock trading has an environment that is vulnerable to encouraging addiction. Problem traders have ownership towards when and how they trade stocks and distribute their money. There are no second parties, bosses or schedules so the problem trader could automatically feel empowered. Because it is on the internet, when stock trading, the trader's are able to feel as though they are in their own world and etch out reality. Bloch explains that it is quite common for problem traders to experience "beginners luck" when stock trading, but as they continue based off the initial rush, they begin to lose money. After the loss of money, problem traders begin a cycle of trying to win back their losses which results in an immense financial loss and even bankruptcy. Your brain produces dopamine when responding to an exciting experience, kind of like your brain is giving your body a reward. By releasing this chemical that gives a pleasurable effect, it is subconsciously teaching the brain that the activity that caused the reaction is positive, and should be repeated. So those who trade stock get a rush when successful and have an "obsessive desire" to repeat the pleasure.
Online gaming addiction (internet gaming disorder)
Video game addiction is a known issue around the world. Incidence and severity grew in the 2000s, with the advent of broadband technology, games allowing for the creation of avatars, 'second life' games, and MMORPGs (massive multiplayer online role playing games). World of Warcraft has the largest MMORPG community on-line and there have been a number of studies about the addictive qualities of the game. Addicts of the game range from children to mature adults. A well-known example is Ryan van Cleave, a university professor whose life declined as he became involved in online gaming. Andrew Doan, MD, PhD, a physician with a research background in neuroscience, battled his own addictions with video games, investing over 20,000 hours of playing games over a period of nine years.
Online gaming addiction may be considered in terms of B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning, which claims that the frequency of a given behaviour is directly linked to rewarding and punishment of that behavior. If a behaviour is rewarded, it is more likely to be repeated. If it is punished, it becomes suppressed.
Orzack, a clinical psychologist at McLean Hospital in Massachusetts claims that 40 percent of World of Warcraft (WoW) players are addicted. Orzack says that the best way to optimize the desired behaviour in the subject is to provide rewards for correct behaviour, and then adjust the number of times the subject is required to exhibit that behaviour before a reward is provided. For instance, if a rat must press a bar to receive food, then it will press faster and more often if it doesn't know how many times it needs to press the bar. An equivalent in World of Warcraft would be purple (epic) loot drops. Players in World of Warcraft will often spend weeks hunting for a special item which is based on a chance system, sometimes with only a 0.01% chance of it being dropped by a slain monster. The rarity of the item and difficulty of acquiring the item gives the player a status amongst their peers once they obtain the item.
Online Gamers Anonymous, an American non-profit organization formed in 2002, is a twelve-step, self-help, support and recovery organization for gamers and their loved ones who are suffering from the adverse effects of addictive computer gaming. It offers resources such as discussion forums, online chat meetings, Skype meetings and links to other resources.
Jim Rossignol, a finance journalist who reports on internet gaming has described how he overcame his own addiction, and channeled his compulsion into a desirable direction as a reporter of internet gaming and gaming culture.
Communication addiction disorder (compulsive talking)
Communication addiction disorder (CAD) is a supposed behavioral disorder related to the necessity of being in constant communication with other people, even when there is no practical necessity for such communication. CAD had been linked to internet addiction. Users become addicted to the social elements of the internet, such as Facebook and YouTube. Users become addicted to one-on-one or group communication in the form of social support, relationships and entertainment. However interference with these activities can result in conflict and guilt. This kind of addiction is called social network addiction.
Social network addiction is a dependence of people by connection, updating and control of their and their friends social network page. The correlation between the social network use and a decreasing of offline social relationships is a complex issue, depending not only from the time spent on them but also from the motivation in using them. For some people in fact, the only important thing is to have a lot of friends in the network regardless if they are offline or only virtual; this is particularly true for teenagers as a reinforcement of egos. Sometimes teenagers use social networks to show their idealized image to the others. They generally start using social networks to improve face-to-face relationships. However, some of them use these tools as a showcase creating an idealized image to be accepted by groups and to reach a big number of friends. They spend a reduced time for face-to-face relationships, passing instead at least six hours per day on social networks. However, other studies claim that people are using social networks to communicate their real personality and not to promote their idealized identity.
- Addictive personality
- Compulsive gambling
- Internet sex addiction
- List of repetitive strain injury software (i.e. Break reminders)
- Media multitasking
- Pornography addiction
- Soft addiction
- Underearners Anonymous
- Digital addict
- Digital detox
- Moreno MA, Jelenchick LA, Christakis DA (2013). Problematic internet use among older adolescents: A conceptual framework. Computers and Human Behavior. 29, 1879–1887. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.053.
- Meerkerk, G.-J. et al. (2009). The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 1 – 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2008.0181.
- Rosen, L. D. et al. (2012). iDisorder: Understanding Our Obsession with Technology and Overcoming Its Hold On Us. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230117570
- Byun, S; Sookeun Byun, et al. (2009). "Internet Addiction: Metasynthesis of 1996–2006 quantitative research". Cyberpsychology & Behavior 12 (2): 203–7. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0102. PMID 19072075.
- Beato, Greg (2010). Internet addiction: What once was a parody may soon be diagnostic. .
- "Internet Addictive Disorder (IAD) Diagnostic Criteria". Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- Moreno MA et al. (2011). Problematic internet use among US youth: A systematic review" Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 165, 797–805.
- Turel, O. & Serenko, A. (2010). "Is mobile email addiction overlooked?". Communications of the ACM 53 (5): 41–43. doi:10.1145/1735223.1735237.
- "eBay Addiction". Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- "Why internet addiction still doesn’t exist". PsychCentral.com. Retrieved 2009-09-15.
- Cheng Cecilia and Li Angel Yee-lam. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. December 2014, 17(12): 755-760.http://dx.doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0317.
- Kim S.J., & Byrne, S. (2011). Conceptualizing personal web usage in work contexts: A preliminary framework. Computers in Human Behavior. 27(6), 2271-2283. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.07.006
- Trochim, W., & Kane, M. (2005). Concept mapping: an introduction to structured conceptualization in health care. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 17, 187–191
- Pawlikowski, M. et al. (in press, 2013). Pathological internet use: It is a multidimensional and not a unidimensional construct. Addiction Research & Theory.
- "Types of Internet addiction". Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 797–798. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- Block, J. J. (2008). "Issues for DSM-V: Internet addiction" American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 306–307.
- Widyanto, L. and Griffiths, M. 2006. ‘Internet Addiction’: A Critical Review. Springer Science + Business Media Inc. p. 32, Accessed: 14 March 2014.
- Griffiths, M. 2000. Internet addiction-time to be taken seriously?. Addiction Research & Theory, 8 (5), pp. 413-418.
- .M. Yellowlees, P. and Marks, S. 2005. Problematic Internet use or Internet addiction?. University of California. pp. 1449. Accessed 14 March 2014.
- M. Grohol, O. 2014. Internet Addiction and Online Addiction. Accessed 14 March 2014.
- Young, K. S. and Rodgers, R. C. 1998. Internet Addiction: Personality Traits Associated with Its Development. [e-book] p. 1. Available through: netaddiction http://netaddiction.fusionxhost.com/articles/personality_correlates.pdf [Accessed: 14 Mar 2014].
- Saisan, J., Smith, M., Robinson, L. and Segal, J. 2014. Internet and Computer Addiction: Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment. Accessed 14 Mar 2014.
- sationagent.com. 2013. Conversation Agent - Valeria Maltoni: Internet Delivers Convenience via Speed and Cognitive Ease. Accessed: 14 March 2014.
- Sinclair, D. 2014. Making the Most of the Internet - Convenience. Accessed 14 March 2014.
- Pea, R. and Maldonado, H. 2006. WILD for learning: Interacting through new computing devices anytime, anywhere. pp. 852-886. Accessed 14 March 2014.
- Play.google.com. 2014. Accessed 14 March 2014.
- Young, K. S. 1998. Caught in the net. New York: J. Wiley.
- Young, K. 2009. Understanding online gaming addiction and treatment issues for adolescents. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 37 (5), pp. 355--356.
- Young, K. (1999). The research and controversy surrounding internet addiction. Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 2, 381–383. Springer Int J Ment Health Addict (2006) 51
- Young, K. (1999b). Internet addiction: Symptoms, evaluation and treatment. In L. VandeCreek & T. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, 17 (pp. 19–31). Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press.
- Kafka, M. P. (2010). Hypersexual disorder: A proposed diagnosis for DSM-V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 377–400. Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. (1995). Sexual sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity scales: Reliability, validity,and predicting HIV risk behavior. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65, 586–601.
- Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. D. (2008). Generation XXX. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 6–30.
- Manning, J. C. (2006). The impact of Internet pornography on marriage and the family: A review of the research. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 13, 131–165.
- Internet Addiction, Narelle L. Warden, James G. Phillips, James R. P. Ogloff Psychiatry, Psychology and Law Vol. 11, Iss. 2, 2004
- Owens, E. W., Behun, R. J., Manning, J. C., & Reid, R. C. (2012). The impact of Internet pornography on adolescents: A review of the research. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 19, 99–122.
- Internet Pornography Use: Perceived Addiction, Psychological Distress, and the Validation of a Brief Measure. Joshua B. Grubbs, Fred Volk, Julie J. Exline, Kenneth I. Pargament Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 797–798. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- Pornography addiction: A neuroscience perspective, Donald L. Hilton, Jr, Clark Watts, Surg Neurol Int. 2011; 2: 19. Published online 2011 February 21. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.76977, PMCID: PMC3050060
- All mentions of pornography inside DSM-5: p. 694 pornography mentioned in sexual masochism disorder; p. 696 pornography mentioned in Sexual sadism disorder; p. 698, 699 pornography mentioned in pedophile disorder; p. 797 pornography disqualified as a possible internet use disorder, in the context of internet gaming disorder, which does not amount to a recognized disorder, but to a condition for further study.
- RAMDHONEE, K. .. 2014. Psychological Impacts of Internet usage of Children/ Adolescents. [e-book] pp. 1-10. Accessed: 14 Mar 2014.
- Suler, J. 2004. The psychology of text relationships. Online counseling: A handbook for mental health professionals, pp. 19--50.
- Movies.zap2it.com. 2014. Catfish. Accessed 21 March 2014.
- Porter, R. 2012. 'Catfish: The TV Show': MTV delves into online relationships. Zap 2 IT, [blog] August 3, 2012, Accessed: 21 March 2014.
- Evans, D. 2014. ‘Catfish’ Reality Show Follows the Lies Involved in Online Dating. Online Dating Insider, [blog] December 9, 2012, Accessed 21 March 2014.
- Young, K., S., and Nabuco de Abreu, C. (ed.) (2011) Internet addiction, A handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Winkler, A.; Dörsing, B.; Rief, W.; Shen, Y.; Glombiewski, J. A. (2013). "Treatment of internet addiction: A meta-analysis". Clinical Psychology Review 33 (2): 317–329. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.12.005. PMID 23354007.
- "Pacenza vs. IBM Corp.". Retrieved 1 March 2007.
- "Internet Addiction: The Next Disability". LRP Publications. February 28, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- "Pacenza v. IBM Corporation". Pacenza v. IBM Corporation, No. 09-2025-cv. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Beard, K. W.; Wolf, E. M. (2001). "Modification in the Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction". CyberPsychology & Behavior 4 (3): 377. doi:10.1089/109493101300210286.
- 17% of Youth Addicted To Internet January 11, 2007
- Horstman, Judith (2009). The Scientific American Day in the Life of Your Brain. Jossey-Bass / Wiley. ISBN 978-0470376232.
- Kalwar, S. K., & Heikkinen, K. (2009). Study of human anxiety on the Internet. In Human-Computer Interaction. New Trends (pp. 69–76). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
- Goldman, Lea (2005-09-05). "This Is Your Brain on Clicks.". Forbes. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
- Young, K. (2009). Issues for Internet Addiction as a New Diagnosis in the DSM-V. Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from PsycEXTRA database.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Netaddiction.com. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Netaddiction.com. Retrieved 2009-08-09.[dead link]
- Griffiths, Mark (1998). "Internet addiction: Does it really exist?" In: Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Transpersonal Applications. Ed. J. Gackenbach. New York: Academic Press, 61–75.
- Yuan et al., K. (2011). Yang, Shaolin, ed. "Microstructure abnormalities in adolescents with internet addiction disorder". PLoS ONE 6 (6): e20708. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020708. PMC 3108989. PMID 21677775.
- "High wired: Does addictive internet use restructure the brain?". Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Wallace, P. (2001) The Psychology of the Internet, paperback edn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Tapper, Josh (2013-02-01). "Internet addicts face constant temptation, non-believers". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
Yet, many researchers contend internet addiction cannot exist on its own. They say it is most likely a symptom of ...
- "Experts debate Internet addiction". Physorg.com. 2006-11-14. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- Hooked on the Web: Help Is on the Way. New York Times, Dec. 1, 2005.
- Press Release #4 at netaddiction.com[dead link]
- Young, K. (1998). The relationship between depression and internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, 25–28.
- Sang-Min Whang, L. Lee, S. Chang, Geunyoung. (2003) "Internet over-users' psychological profiles: A behavior sampling analysis on internet addiction", CyberPsychology & Behavior,6,p143-152
- Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the Net. New York: John Wiley. ISBN 0471191590.
- Young, K. S. (1999) 'Internet Addiction: Symptoms, Evaluation, and Treatment'. reproduced from VandeCreel, L., Jackson, t., L (e.d.), (1999) 'Innovations in Clinical Practice' Professional Resource Press." (17)
- Service for Computer and Internet addiction
- Caplan, S. E.; High, A. (2006). "Beyond excessive use: The interaction between cognitive and behavioral symptoms of problematic internet use". Communication Research Reports 23 (4): 265. doi:10.1080/08824090600962516.
- Zhou, Y. et al. (2009). Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study. European Journal of Radiology. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.10.025
- Young, K. (2009). "Internet Addiction Test"
- Young, K. (2011). 'Clinical Assessment of Internet-Addicted Clients' in Young, K., Nabuco do Abreu, C. (ed). Internet Addiction. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Ferraro, G. et al. (2007) 'Internet addiction disorder: An Italian study' CyberPsychology & Behaviour, 10(2), pp.170–175 in Young, K., Nabuco do Abreu, C. (ed). Internet Addiction. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Khazaal, Y. et al. (2008). 'French validation of the Internet Addiction test.' CyberPsychology & Behaviour, 11(6), pp.703–706. in Young, K., Nabuco do Abreu, C. (ed). Internet Addiction. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc
- Chen, S.H. et al. (2003). 'Development of Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and its psychometric studu,' in Chin J Psychol. ed. 45, pp. 279-294.
- Mak, K.K. et al. (2014). 'Psychometric properties of the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) in Chinese adolescents', 42(7), pp.1237-45. in J Abnorm Child Psychol. (ed).
- Lauren Jelenchick, "The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Initial Scale Development and Refinement." Accessed 14 March 2014
- http://www.pdfok.com/document/odgw/TQEjpwCTPChrRIchg-JC9o+T4UAj/IgDg/QCxPv3Cs3qa+Ndu3pZgeE4wk5+KkIzhp5GFVWTuQlnQ1US0Drnaq1rrxLsH76YodCds25qKQPD5u+itIQDjNmHQ2QTRNqm2mn7rkJb-HClz62heQCnLnnV6bTdYu3ar1LywFsGxq9cDEcRlv+3ZYm536y0 Problematic Internet Use: Young people and the online world are synonymous, but when does it become excessive? Accessed 14 March 2014
- [e:book] Author Scott E. Caplan, Preference for Online Social Interaction: A Theory of Problematic Internet Use and Psychosocial Well-Being, Accessed 14 March 2014
- Joinson, A. N. (2003) Understanding the Psychology of Internet Behaviour, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Griffiths, M. D. (1998) 'Internet addiction: does it really exist?' in Gackenbach, J. (ed), Psychology and the Internet. New York: Academic Press, pp. 61–75.
- Griffiths, M. D. (2000) p.414-415. 'Internet Addiction – Time To Be Taken Seriously? (Editorial)' in Addiction Research, 2000, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp 413-418. OPA (Overseas Publishers Association). Available at: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/16066350009005587 [Accessed 14 March 2014]
- Hooked on the Web: Help is on the way. New York Times December 1, 2005
- "University of Notre Dame Counseling Center, "Self help – Lost in Cyberspace"". Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- "Internet addiction and lack of accountability". internet-addiction-guide.com. 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- Young, Kimberly S. (2007). "Treatment Outcomes with Internet Addicts". CyberPsychology & Behavior 10 (5): 671–679. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9971. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- Krajnak, Deb (2009-08-19). "China probe of abuse at Web addiction camp". CNN. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- Yu Le; Emma Graham-Harrison (November 5, 2009). "China bans physical punishment for Internet addicts". Reuters India. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- Geranios, Nicholas K. (September 3, 2009). "Internet addiction center opens in US". Yahoo. Associated Press.
- "Internet addiction center opens in US". Khaleejtimes.com. 2009-09-07. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- Slice of MIT. "MIT Researchers Develop a Shocking Treatment for Facebook Addiction" Retrieved 2013-09-05.
- "At war with World of Warcraft", The Guardian, London, 29 August 2011. Retrieved on 2012-03-15.
- "The Virtual Skinner Box", Retrieved on 2012-03-15.
- Reimer, Jeremy. "Doctor claims 40 percent of World of Warcraft players are addicted", ARS Technica, 9 August 2006. Retrieved on 2012-03-15.
- Online Gamers Anonymous [12-step support group]. http://olganon.org/
- Rossignol, Jim (2009). The Gaming Life: Travels in Three Cities. University of Michigan Press, ISBN 9780472033973.
- Walther, J.B. (1999) "Communication Addiction Disorder: Concern over media, behavior and effects [APA conference talk]".
- Echeburua E., de Corral P. (2010). “Addiction to new technologies and to online social networking in young people: A new challenge”. Adicciones; vol. 22, pp. 91-95.
- Guzzo T., Ferri F., Grifoni P. (2013). “Social Network’s Effects on Italian Teenager’s Life”. Journal of Next Generation Information Technology (JNIT),Vol. 4, N. 3, pp. 54-62.
- Hutson M. (2009). "Facebook Friends: Too Many, Too Few?" Retrieved 10 March 2012
- Buffardi L. E., Campbell W. K. (2008). "Narcissism and Social Networking Web Sites". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 34 pp.1303-1314. Retrieved 28 March 2010
- Manago A. M., Graham M. B., Greenfield P. M., Salimkhan G. (2008). “Self-presentation and gender on MySpace”. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. 29, pp. 446-458.
- Ambady N., Skowronski J. (2008). “First impressions”. New York Guilford.
- Internet Addiction: Symptoms, Evaluation, And Treatment (PDF) by Dr. Kimberly S. Young
- Dowling, N. A., & Quirk, K. L. (2008). Screening for internet dependence: Do the proposed diagnostic criteria differentiate normal from dependent internet use? CyberPsychology & Behavior, vol. 12, 21 – 27.
- Dreier, M. et al. (2012). The development of adaptive and maladaptive patterns of Internet use among European adolescents at risk for internet addictive behaviours: A Grounded theory inquiry. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (N.K.U.A.), Athens: EU NET ADB. Available at www.eunetadb.eu. available online.
- Dreier, M., Wölfling, K., & Müller, K.W. (2013). Psychological Research and a Sociological Perspective on Problematic and Addictive Computer Game Use in Adolescents. in: Internet Addiction. A Public Health Concern in Adolescence. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 87-110.
- Dreier, M., Wölfling, K. Beutel, M.E. (2014). Internet Addiction in Youth. Internetsucht bei Jugendlichen. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde. doi: 10.1007/s00112-013-3069-2. 1-6.
- Grohol, J. M. (1999). Internet Addiction Guide. Psych Central available online.
- Hansen S (2002). "Excessive internet usage or 'internet addiction'? The implications of diagnostic categories for student users". Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 18: 232–236.
- Padilla-Walker, L.M., Nelson, L.J., Carroll, J.S. & Jensen, A.C. (2009). More than just a game: Video game and internet use during emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 103 – 113. DOI 10.1007/s10964-008-9390-8.
- Potera C (Mar–Apr 1998). "Trapped in the Web?". Psychology Today 31 (2): 66–70.
- Surratt, Carla G (1999). Netaholics?: The creation of a pathology Commack, NY : Nova Science Publishers.
- Turel, O., Serenko, A. & Bontis, N. (2011). Family and Work-Related Consequences of Addiction to Organizational Pervasive Technologies. Information & Management, 48(2–3): 88–95. available online.
- Tel Aviv University. (2007, August 18). What exactly is internet addiction, and what is the treatment? Science Daily .
- Zur, O. & Zur, A. (2009). On Digital Immigrants & Digital Natives. Zur Institute .