Internet café

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"Net cafe" redirects here. For television series of the same name, see Net Cafe (TV series).
The internet café and library on the Golden Princess.
Combination internet café and sub post office in Münster, Germany

An internet café or cybercafé is a place which provides internet access to the public, usually for a fee. These businesses usually provide snacks and drinks, hence the café in the name. The fee for using a computer is usually charged as a time-based rate.

History[edit]

SFnet logo circa 1993, San Francisco, Calif.
Cyberia: one of the world's first Internet cafés, London, 1994
An internet café in Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia.

The first online café in South Korea called Electronic Café opened in front of Hongik University in March 1988 by Ahn Sang-Su and Keum Nuri in Seoul. It had two 16bit computers connected to Online service networks through telephone lines. Online service users’ offline meetings were held in the Electronic Café, which served as a place that connected online and offline activities. The opening of the online café in Korea was 2–3 years ahead of other developed countries.[1]

The online café phenomenon in the United States was started in July 1991 by Wayne Gregori in San Francisco when he began SFnet Coffeehouse Network. Gregori designed, built and installed 25 coin operated computer terminals in coffeehouses throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. The café terminals dialed into a 32 line Bulletin Board System that offered an array of electronic services including FIDOnet mail and, in 1992, Internet mail.[2]

The concept of a café with full Internet access (and the name Cybercafé) was invented in early 1994 by Ivan Pope. Commissioned to develop an Internet event for an arts weekend at the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA) in London, and inspired by the SFnet terminal based cafes, Pope wrote a proposal outlining the concept of a café with Internet access In June 1994, The Binary Cafe, Canada's first Internet café, opened in Toronto, Ontario.

After an initial appearance at the conference site of the 5th International Symposium on Electronic Art, ISEA, in August 1994, an establishment called CompuCafe was established in Helsinki, Finland, featuring both Internet access and a robotic beer seller.

Inspired partly by the ICA event, a commercial establishment of this type, called Cyberia, opened on September 1, 1994 in London, England. In January 1995, CB1 Café in Cambridge, installed internet and is the longest running Internet Café in the UK, still operating today.[3]

The first public, commercial American Internet café was conceived and opened by Jeff Anderson in August 1994, at Infomart in Dallas, Texas and was called The High Tech Cafe.[4]

Three Internet cafés subsequently opened in the East Village neighborhood of New York City: Internet Cafetm, opened by Arthur Perley, the @ Cafe, and the Heroic Sandwich.[5] In 1996, the Internet café Surf City opened in downtown Anchorage, Alaska.

A variation of Internet café called PC bang (similar to LAN gaming centers) became extremely popular in South Korea when StarCraft was released in 1997. Although computer and broadband penetration per capita were very high, young people went to PC bangs to play multiplayer games.

Beginning in 2005, Sweepstakes Internet Cafes, which are a specific niche of Internet cafés, have appeared in various states across the U.S. Such Internet cafés promote the sale of Internet access using sweepstakes promotions.

Characteristics[edit]

Internet Cafe, Alice Springs, Australia in 2005

Internet cafés are located worldwide, and many people use them when traveling to access webmail and instant messaging services to keep in touch with family and friends. Apart from travelers, in many developing countries Internet cafés are the primary form of Internet access for citizens as a shared-access model is more affordable than personal ownership of equipment and/or software. A variation on the Internet café business model is the LAN gaming center, used for multiplayer gaming. These cafés have several computer stations connected to a LAN. The connected computers are custom-assembled for gameplay, supporting popular multiplayer games. This is reducing the need for video arcades and arcade games, many of which are being closed down or merged into Internet cafés. The use of Internet cafés for multiplayer gaming is particularly popular in certain areas of Asia like India, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea and the Philippines. In some countries, since practically all LAN gaming centers also offer Internet access, the terms net cafe and LAN gaming center have become interchangeable. Again, this shared-access model is more affordable than personal ownership of equipment and/or software, especially since games often require high end and expensive PCs.

There are also Internet kiosks, Internet access points in public places like public libraries, airport halls, sometimes just for brief use while standing. Many hotels, resorts, and cruise ships offer Internet access for the convenience of their guests; this can take various forms, such as in-room wireless access, or a web browser that uses the in-room television set for its display (usually in this case the hotel provides a wireless keyboard on the assumption that the guest will use it from the bed), or computer(s) that guests can use, either in the lobby or in a business center. As with telephone service, in the US most mid-price hotels offer Internet access from a computer in the lobby to registered guests without charging an additional fee, while fancier hotels are more likely to charge for the use of a computer in their "business center."

For those traveling by road in North America, many truck stops have Internet kiosks, for which a typical charge is around 20 cents per minute.[6]

Internet cafés come in a wide range of styles, reflecting their location, main clientele, and sometimes, the social agenda of the proprietors. In the early days they were important in projecting the image of the Internet as a 'cool' phenomenon.

Evolution[edit]

Internet cafés are a natural evolution of the traditional café.[citation needed] Cafés started as places for information exchange, and have always been used as places to read the paper, send postcards home, play traditional or electronic games, chat to friends, find out local information. Cafés have also been in the forefront of promoting new technologies, for example, the car in 1950s California.

As Internet access is in increasing demand, many pubs, bars and cafés have terminals, so the distinction between the Internet café and normal café is eroded. In some, particularly European countries, the number of pure Internet cafés is decreasing since more and more normal cafés offer the same services. However, there are European countries where the total number of publicly accessible terminals is also decreasing. An example of such a country is Germany. The cause of this development is a combination of complicated regulation, relatively high Internet penetration rates, the widespread use of notebooks and PDAs and the relatively high number of WLAN hotspots. Many pubs, bars and cafés in Germany offer WLAN, but no terminals since the Internet café regulations do not apply if no terminal is offered. Additionally, the use of Internet cafés for multiplayer gaming is very difficult in Germany since the Internet café regulations and a second type of regulations which was originally established for video arcade centers applies to this kind of Internet cafés. It is, for example, forbidden for people under the age of 18 to enter such an Internet café, although particularly people under 18 are an important group of customers for this type of Internet café.

While most Internet cafés are private businesses many have been set up to help bridge the 'digital divide', providing computer access and training to those without home access. For example, the UK government has supported the setting up of 6000 telecentres.

In Asia, gaming is very popular at the Internet cafés. This popularity has helped create a strong demand and a sustainable revenue model for most Internet cafés. With growing popularity, there also comes with this a responsibility as well. In fighting for competitive market share, the Internet cafés have started charging less and hence are adopting alternate means to maximize revenue. This includes selling food, beverages, game and telephone cards to its patrons.

In several countries Internet cafés have adopted sweepstakes promotions, these are commonly referred to as sweepstakes parlors, using sweepstakes software to promote the Internet time they sell. The legal intricacies of running sweepstakes have been shoved onto this modified business model causing some speculation and confusion amongst many law enforcement officials in several areas.[7] The legal action that will be applied to sweepstakes software providers is still to be seen but several internet cafés using "non-certified" software [8] have been raided and shut down. The sweepstakes software providers that have been certified seem legitimate and the cafés using the promotions have proven themselves to be effective "earning between $1,000-$5,000 a month per computer".[9] The future of this adaptation remains to be seen as some of the illegal software companies are weeded out from the more successful (certified) providers.[10]

Censorship and copyright violation[edit]

To combat terrorism, the Italian government requires positive identification from all users of internet cafes. (Florence, May 2006)

In places with censoring regimes such as Singapore, Internet cafés are closely controlled.

Copyright violations by clients are cause for concern by Internet café operators. For example, the EasyInternetcafé chain discontinued its CD burning services because it was held responsible for copyright violations by clients.

Venues[edit]

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil, the initial concept brought by Monkey Paulista was based on the business model used by Internet cafés in South Korea, since this was the first house LAN to exist in Brazil, inaugurated in São Paulo, starting its activities in 1998. The company closed in 2010. However, just a week later for reasons of bureaucracy, the company Lan Game @ The House[11] was opened and today is the first LAN house of Brazil in activity. Today it is seen as the country as a way to test new technologies and demonstration of games and products.

Mainland China[edit]

According to the "Survey of China Internet Café Industry" by the People's Republic of China Ministry of Culture in 2005, Mainland China has 110,000 Internet cafés, with more than 1,000,000 employees contributing 18,500,000,000 yuan to P.R. China's GDP. More than 70% of Internet café visitors are from 18 to 30 years old. 90% are male, 65% are unmarried, and 54% hold a university degree. More than 70% of visitors play computer games. 20% of China's Internet users go to Internet cafés.

Internet cafes allow individuals to go about the internet anonymous, faster, and cheaper than at home. Large internet cafes of major cities in China are expensive and heavily regulated by Government officials. Large internet cafes are used by wealthy elite for business transactions and social gatherings. The majority of internet cafes are small privately owned cafes comprising 90% of the market. (China Tightening Control, 2003) The majority of internet cafes are unregistered because they do not meet the requirements of government standards or they do not want to go through the lengthy process of registering. According to Hong and Huang only 200 out of 2,400 cafes are registered in Beijing. The Chinese government is cracking down on the number of unregistered internet cafes because some users spread propaganda, slander, allow pornography, and allow underage users. Crack downs by Chinese Government Officials banned 17,488 Internet Cafes in 2002 and another 27,000 were banned in 2003. (j. Hong, L. Huang) Internet cafes that are getting closed are being replaced with government approved businesses. These pre-approved businesses monitor patrons’ activities and help the government crackdown on offending users. (Xiao, 2003; Qiu 2003) If the Chinese government continues to screen internet content, then the transition to a more Democratic nation will be very slow.

Milestones:

  • Before 1995 – An Internet café called 3C+T appeared in Shanghai, probably the first in China. The price was 20 yuan per hour ($2.50 per hour)
  • 1995–1998 – China's Internet cafés proliferate. Playing unconnected games is the main purpose of café users. The average price was 15~20 yuan per hour.
  • After 2002 – Heavy censorships were imposed, including real-name registration. At the end of 2004, more than 70,000 Internet cafés were closed in a nationwide campaign.
  • 2008 – Microsoft attempts to make Internet cafés profitable in Asia and other emerging markets. After discussions with the governments of these countries, it helps to establish safe Internet cafés.

Indonesia[edit]

According to APWKomitel[12] (Association of Community Internet Center) there are 5,000 Internet cafés in urban Indonesian cities in 2006 providing computer/printer/scanner rental, training, PC gaming and Internet access/rental to the people who do not have PC or Internet access at home. The website[13] also contains a directory listing some of these warnet/telecenter/gamecenter in Indonesia. In urban areas, the generic name is warnet (or warung internet) and in rural areas the generic name is telecenter. Warnets/netcafes are usually owned by private SME as bottom-up initiatives, while telecenters in rural villages are usually initiated by government and donors as top-down financing. Information on netcafe/warnet in Indonesia can also be found in a book titled: Connected for Development:Indonesian Case study.[14]

Currently, no special license is required to operate an Internet café or warnet in Indonesia, except for the ordinary business license also applied to cafe or small shop. Because of hype and many Internet café starting their business without proper planning, some of them closed down for lack of a business plan. Although the number is still growing, associations such as APWKomitel[15] urge new Internet café owners to do a feasibility study before planning to open an Internet café, and provide a business model called multipurpose community Internet center or "MCI Center"[16] to make the business more sustainable and competitive. Hourly usage rate varies between Rp 2500-15000 ($ 0,27 - 1,60)

Japan[edit]

Japan has a strong internet cafe culture, with most serving a dual purpose as joint internet-manga cafes. Most chains (like Media Cafe Popeye and Jiyū Kūkan) allow offer customers a variety of seating options, including normal chair, massage chair, couch, and flat mat. Customers are then typically given unlimited access to soft drinks, manga, magazines, internet, online video games, and online pornography. Most offer food and shower services for an additional fee. In fact, many purchase "night packs" and shower/sleep in the cafes, giving rise to a phenomenon known as "net cafe refugee" or "net cafe homeless".[17]

Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia, most of the teenagers like to visit Internet cafés to enjoy their gaming time with friends. The Internet café in Malaysia is also called cybercafe, Some of the Internet cafés in Malaysia combine the characteristics of a F&B café and an Internet café.

Philippines[edit]

An internet café in Angeles City, Philippines.

In the Philippines, internet cafés or better known as computer shops are found on every street in major cities and there is at least one in most municipalities or towns. There are also internet cafés in coffee shops and malls. High-end restaurants and fast food chains also provide free broadband to diners. Rates range from P10 ($0.20) on streets, up to P100 ($2) in malls.

In some major cities with existing ordinances regulating internet cafés (e.g. Valenzuela, Marikina, Davao, Lapu-lapu and Zamboanga), students who are below 18 years old are prohibited from playing computer games during regular class hours. Depending on the city, regulations varies on their exact details and implementation.[18] Such city ordinances usually also requires internet café owners to:

  1. Install filtering software to block adult oriented sites
  2. Prohibit the sales of intoxicating drinks and cigarettes inside their establishment
  3. Allow open view of rented computers (i.e. no closed cubicles)
  4. Front wall panel is 50% transparent to allow a clear view of the interior of the establishment
  5. Adequate lighting both inside and outside of the establishment to allow a clear view of the interior at all times

South Korea[edit]

Main article: PC bang

In South Korea, Internet cafés are called PC bangs.[19] They are ubiquitous in South Korean cities, numbering over 20,000.[20] PC bangs mostly cater to online game playing for the younger generation. On average and mode, use of a PC bang computer is priced at around 1,000 won per hour (about $0.88 USD).

Taiwan[edit]

In Taiwan, many people go to Internet cafés. The Internet café in traditional Chinese is "網咖" (Wǎng kā). The first character means "net" and the second character is the first syllable of "café."The rate mainly NT$10~20 in most area, but $35 an hour is charged in the East District of Taipei City

An internet café in Mombasa, Kenya, combined with other services.

United States[edit]

Reputedly, the first kosher cybercafe was the IDT Cafe in New York City’s diamond district, opened in the spring of 1997.[21][22][23][24][25]

India[edit]

In India, internet cafés are used by traveling people and business is declining since the arrival of widespread mobile internet usage.A set of other services are offered by internet cafes in India.Like printing of documents or webpages .operators also help computer illiterates through some government processes(as a part of e-governance in India ).Low speed of mobile internet and these services offered by internet cafés help its survival.In India a positive government id is compulsory for every cafe users in most states.

Kenya[edit]

Cybercafes are prevalent in the city of Mombasa, as poverty and unreliable infrastructure do not make personal Internet a viable option for many citizens. The cafes are often combined with a variety of other businesses, such as chemists, manicurists, repair shops, and convenience stores.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Cyber Internet History Museum". Eng.i-museum.or.kr. 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  2. ^ "SFnet Archive | Coffee Bar Network". Sfnet.org. Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  3. ^ Paul Mulvey (1994-012-06). "Coffee and a byte?". The Bulletin (Australia). Archived from the original on 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2010-06-20.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ Lewis, Peter H. (1994-08-27). "Here's to the Techies Who Lunch". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-17. 
  5. ^ "New York's Latest Virtual Trend: Hip Cybercafes on the Infobahn". Los Angeles Times. 1995-06-29. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  6. ^ "Internet Web Stations". Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  7. ^ "Texas Attorney General". Oag.state.tx.us. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ "The Casino Next Door". Businessweek. 2011-04-21. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  10. ^ [2][dead link]
  11. ^ "The @ Game". Taglan.blogspot.com. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  12. ^ "Home of APWKOMITEL". Apwkomitel.org. Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  13. ^ "Warnet di Sumatra". Apwkomitel. Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  14. ^ [3][dead link]
  15. ^ "wsis-online.org". wsis-online.org. Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  16. ^ WSIS Webmaster. "World Summit on the Information Society". Itu.int. Retrieved 2012-02-04. 
  17. ^ "Japan homeless living in internet cafes". news.bbc.co.uk (BBC). 21 March 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Internet Cafe City Ordinance - Philippines". iCafeProject. 2012-06-19. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  19. ^ In Korean, "bang" (Hangeul: 방; Hanja: 房) means "room", so the term literally means PC room.
  20. ^ Taylor, Chris (2006-06-14). "The future is in South Korea". CNN. Retrieved 207-12-21.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  21. ^ Chen, David W. (February 20, 2997). "First, there was the cybercafe. Now, the kosher cybercafe". The New York Times (New York: Sociology 265 - Religion, Culture and Society). Retrieved 20 June 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  22. ^ "Food Timeline, Food & the Internet". 28 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  23. ^ "Kosher cafe makes itself into a cybercafe". Ocala Star-Banner. February 16, 1997. Retrieved June 21, 2013. 
  24. ^ Gardiner, Beth (March 23, 1997). "Kosher cybercafe" (PDF). Retrieved June 21, 2013. 
  25. ^ Chen, David W. (February 13, 1997). "Food Megabite, Anyone? This Cybercafe Is Kosher". The New York Times (New York). Retrieved 21 June 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]