Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
Telecommunications were well established before the Bosnian war erupted in the early 1990s. The infrastructure included the telephone and telegraph network, as well as a network for transfer of data. The total capacity of Bosnia and Herzegovina telephone exchange facilities was 744,000 telephone lines. The war caused huge material damages to telecommunications facilities. In addition, the administrative division of the country into two entities created a division in the telecommunications sector. Post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network is aided by an internationally sponsored program under the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Radio and television
- Television stations: 3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BHRT), Federation TV operating 2 networks, and Radio Televizija Republike Srpske; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations; and dozens of small independent TV stations (2010).
The Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA) is charged with regulating the country's radio and television media.
During the Bosnian war, most media became propaganda tools of the authorities, armies, and factions. Since then, efforts have been made - with limited success - to develop media which bridge ethnic boundaries.
TV is the chief news source. The most influential broadcasters are the public radio and TV stations operated by the Bosniak-Croat and Serb entities. The Office of the High Representative (OHR), the leading international civilian agency in Bosnia, oversaw the development of national public broadcasting. The OHR worked to create a non-nationalist, civic media.
- Calling code: +387
- Total fixed lines: 852,442 lines (2012).
- Residential 715,675 fixed lines (2012).
- Business: 136,767 fixed lines (2012).
- Total mobile cellular: 3.4 million active subscriptions (2012).
- Mobile cellular penetration:
- Short Message Service: 1.9 billion SMS messages sent (2012).
- Multimedia Messaging Service: 4.3 million MMS messages sent (2012).
- Service providers:
- Top level domain: .ba
- Internet users: 2.2 million, 57% of the population (2012).
- Fixed Internet: 551,037 subscriptions (2012).
- 84,314 dial-up subscriptions (2012).
- 466,723 broadband subscriptions (2012).
- Internet hosts: 155,252 hosts, 77th in the world.
- Internet Service Providers: 73 ISPs (2012).
Internet censorship and surveillance
The Press Council of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the organization responsible for self-regulation of online and print media content. In 2012 the Press Council considered 176 complaints alleging inaccurate or libelous reporting by print and online media (103 for print and 73 for online media), accepting 35 as valid and rejecting 19 as unfounded.
The law provides for freedom of speech and press; however, the government does not always respect press freedom in practice. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina law prohibits hate speech. The Republika Srpska law does not specifically proscribe hate speech, although the law prohibits causing ethnic, racial, or religious hatred. Independent analysts note a continuing tendency of politicians and other leaders to label unwanted criticism as hate speech.
The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.
- Radio-Television of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (RTVFBiH), public radio and television broadcaster.
- Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BHRT).
- This article incorporates material from websites or documents of the Communications Regulatory Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Regulatorna agencija za komunikacije Bosne i Hercegovine) "2012 editions".
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2014 edition".
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State.
- "Communications: Bosnia and Herzegovina", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Bosnia and Herzegovina", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Bosnia-Hercegovina profile - Media", BBC News, 18 December 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Telecommunications indicators for 2012. Communications Regulatory Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Blicnet pokreće uslugu mobilne telefonije!" [Blicnet launches mobile service!] (in Bosnian). Blicnet. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "NIC.ba Registracija domene" [NIC.ba Domain Registration] (in Bosnian). University Tele-Informatics Centre (UTIC). Retrieved 19 September 2013. English translation.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina.|
- Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA) of Bosnia and Herzegovina, web site.
- NIC.ba (Bosnian), .ba domain registrar.