Telecommunications in Chad

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Telecommunications in Chad include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.

Radio and television[edit]

Radio stations:

  • state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007);[1]
  • 2 AM, 4 FM, and 5 shortwave stations (2001).[2]

Radios: 1.7 million (1997).[dated info]

Television stations:

Television sets: 10,000 (1997).[dated info]

Radio is the most important medium of mass communication. State-run Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne operates national and regional radio stations. Around a dozen private radio stations are on the air, despite high licensing fees, some run by religious or other non-profit groups. The BBC World Service (FM 90.6) and Radio France Internationale (RFI) broadcast in the capital, N'Djamena. The only television station, Tele Tchad, is state-owned.[3][4]

State control of many broadcasting outlets allows few dissenting views.[3] Journalists are harassed and attacked. On rare occasions journalists are warned in writing by the High Council for Communication to produce more "responsible" journalism or face fines. Some journalists and publishers practice self-censorship. On 10 October 2012, the High Council on Communications issued a formal warning to La Voix du Paysan, claiming that the station’s live broadcast on 30 September incited the public to "insurrection against the government." The station had broadcast a sermon by a bishop who criticized the government for allegedly failing to use oil wealth to benefit the region.[4]

Telephones[edit]

Calling code: +235[1]

International call prefix: 00[5]

Main lines:

  • 29,900 lines in use, 176th in the world (2012);[1]
  • 13,000 lines in use, 201st in the world (2004).[2]

Mobile cellular:

  • 4.2 million lines, 119th in the world (2012);[1]
  • 210,000 lines, 155th in the world (2005).[2]

Telephone system: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density; fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons (2011).[1]

Satellite earth stations: 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011).[1]

Internet[edit]

Top-level domain: .td[1]

Internet users:

  • 230,489 users, 149th in the world; 2.1% of the population, 200th in the world (2012);[6][7]
  • 168,100 users, 145th in the world (2009);[1]
  •   35,000 users, 167th in the world (2005).[2]

Fixed broadband: 18,000 subscriptions, 132nd in the world; 0.2% of the population, 161st in the world (2012).[6][8]

Wireless broadband: Unknown (2012).[9]

Internet hosts:

  • 6 hosts, 229th in the world (2012);[1]
  • 9 hosts, 217th in the world (2006).[2]

IPv4: 4,096 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 0.4 addresses per 1000 people (2012).[10][11]

Internet censorship and surveillance[edit]

There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms.[4]

The constitution provides for freedom of opinion, expression, and press, but the government does not always respect these rights. Private individuals are generally free to criticize the government without reprisal, but reporters and publishers risk harassment from authorities when publishing critical articles. The 2010 media law abolished prison sentences for defamation and insult, but prohibits "inciting racial, ethnic, or religious hatred," which is punishable by one to two years in prison and a fine of one to three million CFA francs ($2,000 to $6,000).[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Communications: Chad", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 January 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Communications: Chad", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 19 June 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2014 via the Internet Archive.
  3. ^ a b "Chad profile: Media", BBC News, 14 August 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d "Chad", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 26 March 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  5. ^ Dialing Procedures (International Prefix, National (Trunk) Prefix and National (Significant) Number) (in Accordance with ITY-T Recommendation E.164 (11/2010)), Annex to ITU Operational Bulletin No. 994-15.XII.2011, International Telecommunication Union (ITU, Geneva), 15 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  6. ^ a b Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012", Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
  7. ^ "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
  8. ^ "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  9. ^ "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  10. ^ Select Formats, Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
  11. ^ Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.

External links[edit]