Internet in Germany
With over 30 million DSL customers, Germany is one of the top DSL countries in the European Union. With over 12 million customers Deutsche Telekom is still market leader in Germany. Alternatively, there are DSL providers in Germany which have their own DSL network who rent the copper lines from the incumbent in a LLU arrangement.
Some of the most important providers are:
Providers like Deutsche Telekom or Vodafone also offer IPTV, which requires at least 16 Mbit/s to watch in HD quality.
Connection technologies other than DSL are widely used due to lower prices or better availability and speed.
Internet via cable is offered i.a. by Kabel Deutschland and Unitymedia/Kabel BW (separated geographically). The available download speed is between 16 and 150 Mbit/s. A typical 2-year tariff with 100Mbit/s internet, telephone and HD cable TV costs about €30.
Germany has implemented in more and more regions of the country FTTx Technologies and providing up to 200 Mbit/s downloads and 10 Mbit/s uploads for a flat monthly price of €39,95.
Satellite links can be used by those who are not covered by DSL or other technologies. Companies like SkyDSL are the market leaders. SkyDSL also offers up to 20Mbit/s but with €65 it's not cheap and has high latency.
Mobile internet: UMTS/HSDPA and LTE
The high speed internet network in Germany is being expanded constantly. However there is no existing tariff with truly unlimited internet. Usually after a transfer of 2GB (HSDPA) or 25GB (LTE) the speed is being limited. HSDPA with up to 42,2 Mbit/s is offered by all four network operators: Deutsche Telekom, Vodafone, O2 and E-Plus. All of them, except E-Plus, also offer LTE with up to 150 Mbit/s.
3G speed is offered by almost 95% of the German cellular network with an average speed of 7,3 Mbit/s. LTE is expanded to almost 97% with an average speed of 12,1 Mbit/s. A typical 2-year contract with 2GB of LTE speed, unlimited minutes and texts costs around €35.
Until 1995, Deutsche Telekom (DTAG) was a government corporation linked with Deutsche Bundespost. As a government run and owned corporation, Deutsche Telekom was the monopoly ISP until its privatization in 1995, and the dominant ISP thereafter. Until the 21st century, Deutsche Telekom controlled almost all Internet access by individuals and small businesses.
Bildschirmtext (BTX) was one such service offered by Deutsche Telekom as an alternative to the Internet, but was discontinued by 2001.
- Waesche, Niko Marcel (2003). Internet Entrepreneurship in Europe: Venture Failure and the Timing of Telecommunications Reform. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 162–164. ISBN 978-1-84376-135-8.