Internet in Greece
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Internet access in Greece relied on PSTN/ISDN modem dial-up from 1990 (NCFCR Demokritos was the first Hellenic Internet Service Provider) until 2003, when ADSL was commercially launched in Greece by incumbent operator OTE. ADSL is currently the main broadband standard. Greece also has 3G mobile broadband (HSPA) and a more expensive Satellite Internet access.
Mobile broadband was heavily marketed during 2008 by Vodafone, Cosmote and Wind, leading to a surge in mobile Internet usage in Greece, primarily with mobile professionals and young users.
Local Loop Unbundling
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (March 2012)|
A variety of new entrants have appeared since the liberalisation of the market and Local Loop Unbundling (LLU). These operators typically offer higher speed service and lower prices than OTE, but their customer support is in most cases inferior to that of the Greek incumbent.
New ADSL ISPs typically offer flat-rate nationwide voice services, ADSL access (up to 24 Mbit/s) and value-added services (including VoIP and IPTV), all of which are new to the Greek market. As such, the Greek press reports that OTE has lost nearly 500,000 households to new entrants and that customers continue to switch from OTE to LLU ISPs at increasing rates.
- Vivodi Telecom, a private company utilizing LLU since 2003, partly covers Athens and Thessaloníki with its network at the moment. In the past, it covered additional cities (such as Patras, Heraklion, Veria etc.). The customers in those cities were left without service. Vivodi offers triple play services based on ADSL2+, with speeds up to 20 Mbit/s, VoIP telephony and digital television.
- Tellas, a subsidiary of Wind Hellas, offers ADSL through its LLU network in districts of Athens, Thessaloniki, Larissa and Crete with speeds up to 12/1 Mbit/s. Tellas, which was the first to provide free national calls through their network, was severely criticized for taking advantage of the 12-month contracts in order to keep their prices high and uncompetitive. Under pressure, Tellas moved from 4/0,5 to 12/1 services in November 2007, but the service is apparently still unstable, as many of the clients complain about problems related to the faster connection and/or to the router. As of March 2008, Tellas offers unlimited phone calls to 38 countries and also 60 minutes of calls to Greek cellular networks. In May 2008, Tellas upgraded their downstream speed to 24 Mbit/s.
- Wind Hellas currently offers shared LLU and fixed telephony services with carrier preselect through its subsidiary Tellas and is expected to launch full LLU double and later triple play services under its brandname in the first quarter of 2008, eventually also renaming Tellas into Wind.
- Hellas On-Line (HOL), owned by Intracom Holdings (co-owner with Sitronics of Intracom Telecom, a leading Greek network equipment manufacturer and Integrator), offers up to 24/1 Mbit/s ADSL2+ & SDSL, connections in districts of Athens, Thessaloniki, Larissa, Katerini, Karditsa, Volos, Trikala, Thiva, Livadia, Chalkida, Patras, Nafplio, Mykonos. HOL merged with Attikes Tilepikinonies in 2007, acquiring an extensive optical SDH and Metro Ethernet network in the Attika region. HOL has the largest (amongst alternative carriers) optical backhaul networks based on DWDM technology. HOL has signed an agreement with Vodafone, according to which it is Vodafone's partner for broadband services in Greece. The partnership has led to a formal relationship with Vodafone acquiring 18,5% of HOL on August 2009.
- Forthnet, launched its based on LLU offers in early 2007, and was supposed to have covered about 50% of the Greek population by the year's end; however, the coverage wizard on its website has been accused of being inaccurate in its predictions since Forthnet often postpones availability in a telephone exchange from deadline to deadline. It currently covers districts of large cities and offers speeds up to 24/1 Mbit/s.
- On Telecoms, a totally new entrant in the Greek telecoms market, was set up by Greek and Italian managers and entrepreneurs, amongst whom are some of the founders of FASTWEB in Italy. On Telecoms launched its services in January 2007, using LLU as its last-mile medium. On Telecoms offers speeds up to 16/0,5 Mbit/s (As of 9 January 2007[update]). In April 2009, On Telecoms joined forces with NetOne and Algonet.
- Net One, a new company which started offering 10/1 Mbit/s double play services in April 2007, now offers service at up to 24/1 Mbit/s. NetOne had been very stable and functional; however, their VoIP services are generally less popular than the traditional PSTN services offered by most other providers, because the majority of users are not familiar with VoIP setup and/or they do not realize that even PSTN services are actually VoIP with a PSTN last mile conversion, and thus, they are as reliable and functional as native VoIP. In March 2008, Net One incorporated Algonet and these two joined with On Telecoms in April 2009.
- Vodafone started offering ADSL full LLU access (up to 24/1 Mbit/s) in October 2007 as a reseller of HOL's LLU infrastructure. In September 2009, Vodafone sent letters out to all their DSL customers informing them that they will be moving the accounts directly to HOL. As of October 28, no further information has been given to the Vodafone customers, and even some HOL sales representatives remain uninformed.
- Cyta Hellas covers the whole country with digital PSTN and ISDN telephone lines and also offers ADSL in all urban areas. Cyta is offering fixed telephony, Internet service (Cytanet) has adopted VSDL technology that allows download speed up to 50Mbit/s and up to 10Mbit/s upload speed, the company is also offering, mobile telephony (Cytamobile-Vodafone) and Pay TV (Cytavision).
- Smaller companies also offer LLU services, but with limited coverage and uncompetitive prices.
Main Internet Providers
- Otenet, OTE's affiliate ISP.
- Cyta Hellas
- Forthnet (see above)
- Vivodi Telecom (see above)
- Hellas On Line (see above)
- Tellas (see above)
Approximately 23 ISPs total. 2 Tier 1 ISPs. OTE AE and OTE Global Solutions are part of the same group of companies. 
Mobile broadband access
Downstreams are realized via (HSDPA) technology with speeds for Wind Hellas and Cosmote reaching up to 28,8 Mbit/s and for Vodafone Greece up to 42,2 Mbit/s. Upstreams of all three providers are realized via HSUPA technology, reaching up to 5,76 Mbit/s.
Greece is covered by two satellite internet providers:
Satellite service is offered through the Hellas Sat satellite under the "Hellas Sat Net" brandname. OTE, as one of the owners of Hellas Sat, offers Hellas Sat Net service through its own distribution channels (website, shops etc.). The subscription packages either include a one-year commitment that is automatically renewed as unlimited time service after one year, or as a six-month limited subscription for "seasonal business" (as described on the oteshop website) that is renewable on demand. The equipment is installed by Hellas Sat accredited engineers and it includes a Satnet S3020 DVB - RCS VSAT Terminal (Advantech) satellite modem and a 0,96 m Antenna (satellite dish with transmitter receiver). Hellas Sat Net connections are also used to interconnect public administration offices and schools in remote areas (mostly remote islands of the Aegean Sea) to the national administration network Syzefxis and to the Internet).
The second provider covering Greece with broadband satellite internet is Tooway. Since 2011 they offer a downstream up to 10 Mbit/s and an upstream of up to 4 Mbit/s. They address private and business customers and have a variety of packages reaching from traffic metered packages to flatrate programmes.
Attempts at Internet censorship
On June 29, 2009, George Sanidas, the soon-to-be-retired Prosecutor of the Greek Supreme Court (Areios Pagos), declared that "Internet-based communications are not covered by current privacy laws" and are thus open to surveillance by the police. Such surveillance would be, according to Sanidas's mandate, completely legal. Following this proclamation, Greek bloggers, legal experts and notable personalities from the media have claimed that Sanidas's mandate contravenes both the Greek constitution and current EU laws regarding the privacy of Internet communications. Furthermore, this mandate has been greatly criticised as being a first step towards full censorship of all Internet content.
In early 2012, there were at least 2.396.700 broadband connections and at least 3.443.432 active 3G subscribers got connected to the Internet. 
- * Ethnos newspaper on Sanidas's mandate regarding the (lack of) privacy of Internet-based communications
- "Troktiko website". Troktiko.blogspot.com. 24 July 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- http://ipduh.com/macro/gr/. Missing or empty
- Greece - Internet
- www.adslgr.com An independent review site for broadband in Greece
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