Internet in Turkey
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Turkey has had public Internet access since 1993, although experimentation at Ege University started in 1987. The first available connections were dial-up. Cable Internet has been available since 1998 and ADSL since 2001.
Currently Türk Telekom's TTNET ADSL2+ service is the most widely used Internet service in Turkey, offering speeds from 1 Mbit/s to 16 Mbit/s. TTNET offers VDSL2 service with speeds at 20 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s as well. Alternative broadband companies, while mostly still using TTNET infrastructure, such as SmileADSL and Biri are also available. Superonline is offering fibre broadband in limited areas in 8 cities, though the company is enlarging at a healthy pace. They currently offer up to 1000 Mbit/s speeds. Furthermore, relatively wide but not universal coverage of cable Internet is maintained by UyduNET, offering speeds from 1Mbit/s to 100Mbit/s.
In March 2012, TTNet and Superonline, which between themselves provide the bulk of Turkish broadband Internet access, have started applying "fair use" policies (known with the Turkish abbreviations AKK for "Adil Kullanım Koşulları" and AKN for "Adil Kullanım Noktası") that are overly restrictive in terms of the allowed download and upload quotas. Most accounts are allotted 50GB download (and 10GB upload) quotas, after which the bandwidth is reduced 10-fold, down to 1Mbit/s. Some users have reported that their broadband speeds were reduced in six days into the month. Both companies have been under heavy criticism for their "fair use" policies.
After June 2009, 3G Mobile Networks approved from Ministry of Transport and Communications, Mobile Networks started to raise their popularity in Turkey. The price policies of the cellular network companies and the broadband companies are similar.
TTNET's monopoly and perceived excessive pricing have received numerous criticisms from users over the years. Internet censorship is also a problem in Turkey, with courts issuing site blocking orders under laws like Law Nr. 5651 on the "Regulation of Publications on the Internet and Suppression of Crimes Committed by means of Such Publications". Internet pornography is also widely censored through court-ordered blocks.
According to IWS, Turkey has 35 million active Internet users.
- Dogan Online (portal and entertainment)
- Milliyet Group (news)
- Mynet (portal)
- Blogcu.com (blog platform)
- Hurriyet Internet Group (news)
- Nokta Internet Technologies (entertainment)
- sahibinden.com (classifieds)
- http://www.ttnet.com.tr/web/234-1196-1-1/tur/evde_ttnet/baglanti_cesitleri_-_vdsl2/kisaca[dead link]
- "Europe Internet Usage Stats Facebook Subscribers and Population Statistics". Internetworldstats.com. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
- "93 Percent of Internet Users in Turkey Visited Google Sites in September 2009 - comScore, Inc". Comscore.com. 2009-11-11. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
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