Internet service provider
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An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.
The Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards public, commercial use of the Internet. The remaining restrictions were removed by 1995, four years after the invention of the World Wide Web.
In 1989, first ISPs were established in Australia, and the United States. In Brookline, Massachusetts-based The World became the first commercial ISP in the US. Its first customer was served in November 1989.
On 23 April 2014, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is reported to be considering a new rule that will permit Internet service providers to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Dr. Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School.
Internet access is provided by ISPs that employ a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable (CATV), wireless Ethernet (wi-fi), and fiber optics.
For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL (typically asymmetric digital subscriber line, ADSL), cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) (typically basic rate interface). Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names.
For customers with more demanding requirements, such as medium-to-large businesses, or other ISPs, higher-speed DSL (such as single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line ), Ethernet, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and synchronous optical networking (SONET) can be used.
A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes. It provides email servers to send, receive, accept, and store email for end users or other organizations.
Many mailbox providers are also access providers, while others aren't (e.g., Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail, Gmail, AOL Mail, Po box). The definition given in RFC 6650 covers email hosting services, as well as the relevant department of companies, universities, organizations, groups, and individuals that manage their mail servers themselves. The task is typically accomplished by implementing Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and possibly providing access to messages through Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), the Post Office Protocol, Webmail, or a proprietary protocol.
Internet hosting services provide email, web-hosting, or online storage services. Other services include virtual server, cloud services, or physical server operation.
Just as their customers pay them for Internet access, ISPs themselves pay upstream ISPs for Internet access. An upstream ISP usually has a larger network than the contracting ISP or is able to provide the contracting ISP with access to parts of the Internet the contracting ISP by itself has no access to.
In the simplest case, a single connection is established to an upstream ISP and is used to transmit data to or from areas of the Internet beyond the home network; this mode of interconnection is often cascaded multiple times until reaching a Tier 1 carrier. In reality, the situation is often more complex. ISPs with more than one point of presence (PoP) may have separate connections to an upstream ISP at multiple PoPs, or they may be customers of multiple upstream ISPs and may have connections to each one of them at one or more point of presence. Transit ISPs provide large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs and access ISPs.
A virtual ISP (VISP) is an operation that purchases services from another ISP, sometimes called a wholesale ISP in this context, which allow the VISP's customers to access the Internet using services and infrastructure owned and operated by the wholesale ISP. It is akin to mobile virtual network operators and competitive local exchange carriers for voice communications.
Free ISPs are Internet service providers that provide service free of charge. Many free ISPs display advertisements while the user is connected; like commercial television, in a sense they are selling the user's attention to the advertiser. Other free ISPs, sometimes called freenets, are run on a nonprofit basis, usually with volunteer staff.
A wireless internet service provider (WISP) is an Internet service provider with a network based on wireless networking. Technology may include commonplace Wi-Fi wireless mesh networking, or proprietary equipment designed to operate over open 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 4.9, 5.2, 5.4, 5.7, and 5.8 GHz bands or licensed frequencies in the UHF band (including the MMDS frequency band) and LMDS.
ISPs may engage in peering, where multiple ISPs interconnect at peering points or Internet exchange points (IXs), allowing routing of data between each network, without charging one another for the data transmitted—data that would otherwise have passed through a third upstream ISP, incurring charges from the upstream ISP.
Network hardware, software and specifications, as well as the expertise of network management personnel are important in ensuring that data follows the most efficient route, and upstream connections work reliably. A tradeoff between cost and efficiency is possible.
Law enforcement and intelligence assistance
Internet service providers in many countries are legally required (e.g. via CALEA in the U.S.) to allow law enforcement agencies to monitor some or all of the information transmitted by the ISP. Furthermore, in some countries ISPs are subject to monitoring by intelligence agencies. In the US, a controversial NSA program known as PRISM provides for broad monitoring of Internet users traffic and has raised concerns about potential violation of the privacy protections in the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Modern ISPs integrate a wide array of surveillance and packet sniffing equipment into their networks, which then feeds the data to law-enforcement/intelligence networks (such as DCSNet in the United States, or SORM in Russia) allowing monitoring of Internet traffic in real time.
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- Wyatt, Edward (23 April 2014). "F.C.C., in ‘Net Neutrality’ Turnaround, Plans to Allow Fast Lane". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
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- Crawford, Susan (28 April 2014). "The Wire Next Time". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
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- J.D. Falk, ed. (November 2011). Complaint Feedback Loop Operational Recommendations. IETF. RFC 6449. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6449. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Murray Kucherawy, ed. (June 2012). Creation and Use of Email Feedback Reports: An Applicability Statement for the Abuse Reporting Format (ARF). IETF. RFC 6650. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6650. Retrieved 28 June 2012. ""Mailbox Provider" refers to an organization that accepts, stores, and offers access to RFC 5322 messages ("email messages") for end users. Such an organization has typically implemented SMTP RFC 5321 and might provide access to messages through IMAP RFC 3501, the Post Office Protocol (POP) RFC 1939, a proprietary interface designed for HTTP RFC 7230, or a proprietary protocol."
- Gerson & Ryan A Primer on Internet Exchange Points for Policymakers and Non-Engineers Working Paper, August 11, 2012
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- New KGB Takes Internet by SORM