Interreg

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Interreg
Logo Interreg Harmonised
Formation Interreg V 2014-2020
Type Regional policy of the European Union
Legal status treaty; TFUE, Titre XVIII, Articles 174-178
Head
Commissioner Corina Creçu
Subsidiaries Funded by European Regional Development Fund
Website ec.europa.eu/dgs/regional_policy/index_en.htm

European Territorial Cooperation (ETC), better known as Interreg, is a financing instrument of European regional development. Interreg has been designed in the framework of the European Cohesion Policy to intensify institutional cooperation across borders between regions located on European Union's internal and external borders, and regions within transnational areas. As regions of the EU Member States are facing similar issues not contained by borders, territorial cooperation stands out as a key tool in efficiently addressing socio-economic and environmental challenges. The overarching objective of European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) is to lessen the influence of national borders in order to promote a harmonious economic, social and cultural development of the Union as a whole.[1] Interreg is built around three strands of cooperation: cross-border (Interreg A), transnational (Interreg B) and interregional (Interreg C). The current programming period 2014-2020 covers all 28 EU Member States, 3 participating EFTA countries (Norway, Switzerland, Lichtenstein), 6 accession countries and 18 neighbouring countries. The total allocation of Interreg V stemming from the European Regional Development Fund is EUR 10.1 billion, which represents 2.8% of the total of the European Cohesion Policy budget.[2]

History[edit]

Evolution of INTERREG 1990-2020

The first Interreg community initiative launched in 1990 to stimulate exclusively cross-border collaboration was reorganized as a formal objective of the European cohesion policy in 2000. Interreg has been dedicated to support projects covering a wide range of areas such as innovation, health, infrastructure, education, urban development, energy, or digital economy. Thousands of projects involving a wide variety areas of common interest have been implemented since the birth of Interreg. As core tool of the European Cohesion Policy, Interreg has become a mature funding instrument of the European Union to support the development of EU regions. At the beginning Interreg concerned 11 EU Member States whilst the current 28 EU Member States participate nowadays. From the poorest regions within the EU to the more advanced regions, Interreg covers them all and benefits in that way to the overall European territory. Each Interreg programme covers a specific part of the EU territory. Over the years, Interreg financial support has gradually increased from EUR 1.1 billion for the first programming period up to EUR 10.1 billion for 2014-2020 programming period. By introducing the goal of territorial cohesion, the Treaty of Lisbon represents a step forward to reinforce the territorial dimension of the European Cohesion policy. European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) has remained one of the pillars of EU regional policy with the newly designed cohesion policy 2014-2020, by including European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) as the second goal next to the support of investment for growth and jobs. Launched in 1990 by the European Commission Interreg has been organized in multiannual programmes. Five programming periods have succeeded each other since the start of Interreg:

  • INTERREG I (1990-1993)[3]
  • INTERREG II (1994-1999)
  • INTERREG III (2000-2006)
  • INTERREG IV (2007-2013)
  • INTERREG V (2014-2020)

Aim[edit]

The core objective of Interreg is to:

  • Build ties over borders and to bring people closer in order to find common solutions for shared problems that know no borders.
  • Develop links within people creating a sense of solidarity and mutual trust leading to a sustainable collaboration that continues after end of the project/programme.
  • Contribute to promoting equal living conditions and development requirements by reducing regional disparities across European regions.
  • Encourage different regions to learn from each other through managing a common territory.
  • Facilitate exchange of experience and sharing good practice between different partners ranging from European to national and regional actors.
  • Tackle a large variety of issues in order to improve the quality of life of EU citizens and European added value.

Structure[edit]

Interreg is divided into 3 strands of programmes pursuing particular objectives in accordance with the priorities of each funding period.

Strand A: cross-border cooperation[edit]

Cross-border projects have to be developed in partnership in the programme’s territory by at least two project partners from two different Member States. Interreg A supports cooperation between NUTS III regions lying directly on the borders or adjacent to them in order to reduce the effect of borders as administrative, legal and physical barriers. Thus, cross-border collaboration along the 38 internal borders of the EU, concerning directly over one third of the population, aims to tackle common challenges and exploit together under-used potential.[4] Interreg A encourages regional project investments related to innovation, health care, education, employment, labour mobility etc.

Strand B: transnational cooperation[edit]

Transnational cooperation involves regions from several countries forming bigger areas such as the Baltic Sea, alpine and Mediterranean regions. It aims to promote better integration and regional development within the Union by a joint approach to tackle common issues.[5] Interreg B supports a wide range of project investment related to innovation, environment, accessibility, telecommunications, urban development etc. In the 2014-2020 period, the concerned Interreg V B programmes match the territory of the four Macro-regional Strategies [6] launched by the European Council: the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, the EU Strategy for the Danube Region, the EU Strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian Region and the (soon to be adopted) EU Strategy for the Alpine Region.

Strand C: interregional cooperation[edit]

Interregional cooperation aims to improve the effectiveness of regional development policies and instruments by encouraging the development of networks between European regional bodies and exchanging good-practice on thematic objectives.[7] This is financially the smallest strand of the three, but the programmes cover both all 28 EU Member States and non EU Member States.

Regional development cooperation programmes outside the EU[edit]

In addition, Interreg contributes up to EUR 50 billion on cooperation with accession and neighbouring countries, in conjunction with the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance[8] (IPA) and the European Neighbourhood Instrument [9] (ENI).

Governance[edit]

In line with the principle of shared management and the partnership approach, Interreg programmes have been developed through a collective process bringing together a wide range of European, national and regional bodies. In order to tackle common challenges across borders in the most adapted way, Interreg multilevel governance applies to all stages of the programming process, from design, management and implementation to monitoring and evaluation.

'Bodies involved bodies in the European Territorial Cooperation at EU level:'

The European Council fosters European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) in setting up European guidelines and strategic orientations related to territorial cohesion. It has been playing a key role in launching Macro-regional strategies, which aim to facilitate cooperation between Member States and third countries located in the same geographical area facing common challenges and opportunities of working together. The European Parliament is active in promoting ETC through the committee on regional development.[10] Sharing the budget and the legislative power, the European Parliament plays a key role in deciding the EU allocation and also the shape of the ETC. The Council of the European Union defines jointly with the European Parliaments the tasks, objectives and the organisation of the Structural Funds, which finance the ETC. The European Economic and Social Committee issues opinions to other European Institutions regarding the single market, including ETC. The Committee of the Regions has a specific consultative role in all policy areas affecting local and regional authorities, such as the Territorial Cooperation. By adopting political opinions and providing information forwarded to the EU decision-making bodies, the Committee of the Regions has been very active in promoting and supporting ETC. The European Commission 's core missions carried out by the General Direction Regional and Urban Policy are:

  • to provide assistance and support to national and regional authorities to ensure effective and efficient use of available resources.
  • to develop indicators to assess the results of programmes and projects for better quality of ETC.
  • to lead the territorial cooperation network involving stakeholders at all levels.
  • to facilitate the share of knowledge, know-how and the transfer of best practice between partners from different regions.
  • to ensure a proper visibility of the impact of ETC programmes by encouraging efficient communication actions at national and regional level.
  • to assist the managing authorities in achieving the strategic and political orientation of programmes.
  • to provide advice to the stakeholders on the appropriate approach to administer and to manage the European funds to ensure fulfilment of the Interreg programmes' objectives.
  • to monitor the efficiency of the implementation and the achievement of the programmes' objectives.
  • to approve the operation programmes set up by the managing authorities at national and local level.

'Bodies involved in the European Territorial Cooperation at national and regional levels:'

Different national and local authorities ensure the link between the Commission services and the project partners. The cooperation programmes can be managed by both central state agencies and regional agencies, like joint (technical) secretariats, situated in one Member State. They are responsible for the management of the whole programme, helping local partners to implement their projects successfully. So called Monitoring Committees composed of stakeholders from all countries involved in the cooperation programmes have also been established to monitor the implementation of the European funds. Applications for an Interreg project can be submitted from a wide range of organisations including: public authorities, associations, non-profit organizations, universities and institutes of Technology etc. (This list is not exhaustive).

Budget[edit]

Interreg is delivered through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) set up in 1975. In accordance with Article 174 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the ERDF contributes to strengthening economic and social cohesion in the European Union by correcting imbalances between the levels of development across European regions. On the one hand the ERDF helps least favoured regions to boost their development and on the other hand it enables more advanced regions to grow. As the financial tool of the European Cohesion Policy, the ERDF together with the European Cohesion Fund and the European Social Fund make up the European Structural ans Investment Funds. For the 2014-2020 programming period, the European Cohesion Policy allocation represents the biggest share of the EU budget with EUR 351 billion. The ERDF spending allocated for Interreg V represents EUR 10.1 billion I.e. 2.8% of the cohesion policy budget. Gaining continuously importance in order to address effectively key challenges of the EU, Interreg is one of the few EU funding programmes 2014-2020 whose budget has not decreased compared to the previous programming period. The ERDF investments for 2014-2020 support cross-border, transnational and interregional cooperation under the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) goal of cohesion policy for 2014-2020, next to the goal of supporting investment for jobs and growth.

The amount of money delivered to finance Interreg projects depends on the population size of the cooperation area, in accordance with the NUTS classification. Applicants for Interreg projects can benefit from ERDF, provided the relevant operational programme has been adopted by the European Commission. A range of standardized criteria has to be fulfilled, for example:

  • the involvement of at least two regions of different states one of them a EU Member State
  • the sustainability of the projects
  • compliance with the co-financing principle, involving funds from the European Union and Member States, regional authorities or the project leaders themselves. Generally, projects are co-financed to a rate of 50% maximum
  • the development of indicators for measuring the results
  • a description of the actions to be funded and the fulfilment of the overall objectives of the pro-gramming period
  • a description of the use of any financial expenditure (such as administrative costs or staff costs)

Interreg III[edit]

Strand A: cross-border cooperation[edit]

Priorities for action in strand IIIA were:

  • Promotion of urban, rural and coastal development
  • Strengthening the spirit of enterprise
  • Developing small and medium-sized enterprises, including those in the tourism sector
  • Developing local employment initiatives
  • Assistance for labour market integration and social inclusion
  • Initiatives for encouraging shared use of human resources, and facilities for research and development, education, culture, communication, health and civil protection
  • Measures for environmental protection, improving energy efficiency and renewable energy sources
  • Improving transport, information and communication networks and services, water and energy systems
  • Increasing cooperation in legal and administrative areas
  • Increasing human and institutional potential for cross-border cooperation

Examples of Interreg IIIA programmes[edit]

  • Alcotra, a French-Italian cross-border programme in the Alps
  • Italia-Malta, an Italian-Maltese programme

Strand B: transnational cooperation[edit]

Proposals for transnational cooperation under IIIB had to take account of:

  • Experience from previous Interreg programmes;
  • Priorities for Community policies, especially trans-European transport networks;
  • Recommendations made in the European Spatial Development Plan (ESDP).

Within this context, the priorities for action wereas follows:

  • Drawing up regional development strategies at transnational level, including cooperation between towns or urban areas and rural areas
  • Promoting effective and sustainable transport systems, together with better access to the information society. The aim here is to facilitate communication between island or peripheral regions.
  • Promoting protection of the environment and natural resources, particularly water resources.

In the specific case of ultra-peripheral regions, transnational cooperation encourages the following initiatives:

  • Economic integration and improved cooperation between these regions and regions in other Member States
  • Improved links with the countries of their wider geographic area (Caribbean, Latin America, Atlantic Ocean, North West Africa and the Indian Ocean)

Examples of Interreg IIIB projects[edit]

Strand C: interregional cooperation[edit]

Interreg IIIC promoted interregional co-operation between regional and other public authorities across the entire EU territory and neighbouring countries. It allowed regions without joint borders to work together in common projects and develop networks of co-operation.

Co-operation under Interreg IIIC gave access to experience of other actors involved in regional development policy and created synergies between "best practice" projects and the Structural Fund's mainstream programmes. The overall aim was to improve the effectiveness of regional development policies and instruments through large-scale information exchange and sharing of experience (networks) in a structured way.

Priorities for action included research, technology development, enterprise, the information society, tourism, culture, and the environment.

Examples of Interreg IIIC projects[edit]

Interreg IV[edit]

Interreg IV has a budget of almost 7,8 billion euro (2006 prices), up from 4,9 billion euro in Interreg III (1999 prices).

Strand A: cross-border cooperation[edit]

The A strand of Interreg IV covers 52 programmes, which use up to 74% of all resources (some 5,6 billion euros).

Examples of Interreg IVA projects[edit]

  • FLUXPYR (2009–2012) (www.fluxpyr.eu): European cross-border network for the determination and management of water, carbon and energy fluxes and stocks in agricultural and grassland ecosystems of the Pyrenees, in the context of climate and land-use change. 11 partners from France, Spain and Andorra. Cofinanced by the EU-ERDF, Generalitat de Catalunya and Conseil Régional Midi-Pyrénées.
  • ISLES project – "ISLES", accelerating the development of renewable energy off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland
  • WINSENT project: WINSENT is an ambitious project to promote social entrepreneurship in Ireland and North Wales.
WINSENT provides a networking opportunity and free assistance, guidance and a range of supports to any social entrepreneur or social enterprise based in Dublin and surrounds in Ireland or based in North Wales in the counties of Denbighshire and the Isle of Anglesey, including opportunities to network with other like minded “change agents” through the WINSENT Networks: socialenterprise.ie and WISEA
  • SHAPING 24 - SHAPING 24 is a cultural and heritage tourism initiative that links 12 heritage sites in Norwich with 12 heritage sites in Ghent, increasing awareness of the longstanding historical links between East Anglia and the Low Countries. SHAPING 24 seeks to promote and support the 24 sites, raise the profile of Norwich and Ghent as significant cultural heritage cities. It is funded through the Interreg IVA 2 Seas Programme.
  • AI-CHEM CHANNEL - AI-Chem Channel project gathers 9 Research organisations and institutes on both sides of the Channel and aims at developing cross-border relationships between academic and industrials stakeholders from the molecular chemistry sector. It is supported by local innovation agencies, incubators and CBS technopole. It has a budget of 7.6M€ among which 3.8M€ are ERDF European Fund in the framework of the INTERREG IVa France(Channel)-England programme.[11]

Strand B: transnational cooperation[edit]

Interreg IVb is divided into thirteen different Operational Programmes (OPs).[12] Each OP is led by a Secretariat and covers a specific part of the EU territory. All Member States can participate in Interreg IVB, but only if an organisation or authority is located in the eligible area of one of the programmes (Annex 1). IVB has a total budget of 1,82 billion euro for the programme period 2007–2013.

List of the Interreg IVb programmes:

Examples of Interreg IVB projects[edit]

  • ALFA (Adaptive Land use for Flood Alleviation) aims to protect the North West Europe region against the effects of flooding due to climate changes. This will be done in the project by creating new capacity for storage or discharge of peak floods within river catchments.[13]
  • BLAST (Bringing Land and Sea Together) is a collaborative project of public, private and academic partners from seven North Sea countries, which is developing prototype tools for better data integration, coastal zone management and navigation in the North Sea.
  • MP4: 'Making Places Profitable, Public and Private Open Spaces' is a transnational project involving partners from seven countries in the North Sea Region focusing on innovative approaches to 'place-keeping' – the long-term management of private and public open spaces. Funded by the North Sea Region Programme.
  • 'Collabor8.me', a transnational programme involving nine partners in five different North West European countries that aims to contribute to the economic prosperity, sustainability and cultural identity of North West Europe in increasingly global markets.
  • Rural Alliances, aiming to bring communities and businesses together to promote rural 'vibrancy'.[14]
  • SmartCities, creating an innovation network between 8 municipal governments and 4+ academic partners in six countries, leading to excellence in the domain of the development and take-up of e-services. Funded by the North Sea Region Programme.
  • SoNorA, on improving transport infrastructure and services between the Adriatic and the Baltic Sea.
  • Technet_nano, is a transnational network of public clean rooms and research facilities in micro- and nanotechnology making accessible innovation resources and services to SMEs in the Baltic Sea Region.[15]
  • The MUSIC Project (Mitigation in Urban areas: Solutions for Innovative Cities), is a transnational cooperation project between European cities and research institutes in Northwest Europe. MUSIC aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% in the partner cities Aberdeen, Montreuil, Gent, Ludwigsburg and Rotterdam in 2030. The Dutch Research Institute For Transitions (DRIFT) and Public Research Centre Henri Tudor from Luxembourg assist the cities with scientific expertise in Transition Management and Geospatial Decision Support Systems.[16]

Strand C: interregional cooperation[edit]

Strand C covers the interregional co-operation programme (INTERREG IVC) and 3 networking programmes (URBACT II, INTERACT II and ESPON). Each programme covers all 27 Member States of the EU. ESPON covers 31 states; Liechtenstein, Norway, Iceland an Switzerland are included at well. They provide a framework for exchanging experience between regional and local bodies in different countries. Strand C has an ERDF contribution of 445 million euros.

Examples of Interreg IVC projects[edit]

  • Regioclima, on adaptation to the new climate conditions
  • Pre-waste, on waste prevention in cities and regions
  • Osepa, on usage of open-source software in public administrations
  • TR3S, on smart specialization and innovation

Interreg V[edit]

Graphique Interreg V

The 2014-2020 programming period marks an important milestone regarding the reformed content, as well as the organizational process of Interreg. In accordance with the new design of the European Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 and the targets set out in Europe 2020, Interreg has significantly been reshaped to achieve greater impact and an even more effective use of the investments. With the establishment of its own regulation, European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) should better reflect the specific multi-country nature of cooperation. In accordance with the need to develop a higher degree of concentration with a smaller number of thematic priorities within the 2014-2020 programming period, the ERDF funding should move to a more results-oriented approach with better and clearer results of the cohesion policy across the Union. The new programming period introduces changes to the overall management of programmes such as administrative and accounting simplification, by harmonising and establishing a common set of rules for the European structural and investment Funds. Considerable simplification for beneficiaries, programme authorities, authorities in participating Member States as well as the European Commission should enhance the positive impact of cooperation. Moreover Interreg V put emphasis on stepping up the involvement of actors at all levels in the implementation of operational programmes.

2015 corresponds with a new European Commissioner for EU Regional Policy with Commissioner Corina Creţu [17] from Romania, following Austrian Commissioner Johannes Hahn.[18]

'Priorities' : The fifth period of Interreg is based on 11 investment priorities laid down in the ERDF Regulation contributing to the delivery of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth:[19]

For each cooperation area, a cooperation programme [20] prepared by the participating Member states has to be adopted by the European Commission before entering into force. At least, 80% of the budget for each programme has to concentrate on a maximum of 4 thematic objectives among the eleven EU priorities.

'Regulation' : The newly designed Interreg is the result of a wide reflection process on the future of the European Cohesion policy and the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) for 2014-2020. Following up different initiatives from a green paper on Territorial cohesion (8), a public consultation launched by the European Commission, to the report from the Member of the European Parliament Marie-Sanchez-Schmid (PPE-Fr) on "Objective 3: a challenge for territorial cooperation – the future agenda for cross-border, transnational and interregional cooperation", the programming took several years. The cohesion policy legislative package for the 2014-2020 (9) was jointly adopted by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union in December 2013. The new rules and legislation governing the next round of EU Cohesion Policy investment for 2014-2020 have been formally endorsed by the Council of the European Union. Interreg V programmes are governed by:

  • The Common Provisions Regulation (EU) No 1303/2013 [21]
  • The ERDF Regulation (EU) No 1301/2013 [22]
  • The ETC Regulation (EU) No 1299/2013 [23]
Map of cross border cooperation programmes 2014-2020

Regulatory provisions list the priority objectives of the ERDF, eligibility criteria, financial resources available and criteria for their allocation. It also sets out the implementing arrangements, including plans for financial management and control for cross-border, transnational and interregional pro-grammes. The exact eligible area and available amount for each programme is set out in 2 imple-menting acts adopted by the European Commission in June 2014:

  • Commission Implementing Decision for ETC geography (EU) No C (2014) 3898 [24]
  • Commission Implementing Decision for ETC resources (EU) No C (2014) 3776 [25]

Strand A: cross-border cooperation[edit]

For the period 2014-2020, Interreg V A covers 60 cross border operational programs ERDF allocation: EUR 6.6 billion (accounting for the biggest Interreg spending).

Strand B: transnational cooperation[edit]

TN 2014 2020 A3L

Interreg VB covers 15 cooperation programmes in larger areas of cooperation such as the Baltic Sea, Danube, Alpine and Mediterranean regions. The EU funding opportunities available in the period 2014-2020 for Interreg B amounts to EUR 2.1 billion.

Strand C: interregional cooperation[edit]

Strand C covers the 4 interregional cooperation programmes Interreg EUROPE, INTERACT, URBACT and ESPON, covering all 28 EU Member States of the EU. The EU provides around EUR 500 million from the ERDF for Interreg VC.

INTERREG EUROPE cooperation programme is a policy learning programme for European public authorities promoting the exchange of experience and the transfer of good practices between actors at all levels in Europe. By encouraging the share of knowledge the effectiveness of cohesion policy should be reinforced. Countries: 28 EU Member States, Norway, Switzerland ERDF contribution: EUR 359 million

INTERACT III is the European programme created especially for assisting European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) programmes. Interact helps programme's managing authorities, audit authorities and administrators of cooperation programmes, first level controllers to understand EU rules defined for 2014-2020 in order to improve the managements of these programmes. The Interact team offers training, tools and encourages networking within the territorial cooperation community and beyond. Reducing administrative burden for both programme bodies and beneficiaries Interact provides advisory services on Interreg practices. For the period 2014-2020 the selected overarching objective of Interact III is to enhance institutional capacity of public authorities and stakeholders and efficient public administration. Countries: 28 EU Member States, Norway, Switzerland ERDF contribution: EUR 39 million

ESPON 2020 cooperation programme produces a pan-European research by providing scientific in-formation to public authorities and actors at all levels through territorial research and analysis. ESPON's 2020 overarching objective is to support the development of regions in line with the EU Cohesion Policy as well as national development policies making sure the cities and regions across Europe are well informed. Countries: 28 EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland ERDF contribution: EUR 41 million

ENI-20copia

URBAN III 2014-2020 provides a framework of network between local and regional bodies facing similar urban challenges. In order to find common solutions for a sustainable and integrated urban development in Europe, URBAN III supports cities by exchanging information and identifying good practice. Countries: 28 EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland ERDF contribution: EUR 96.3 million

Regional development cooperation programmes outside the EU[edit]

There are also a number of instruments available to support regional development along the EU's external borders with countries which are either candidates for EU membership or potential candidates, and also with so-called third countries (i.e. non-EU members : Iceland, Norway, Switzerland...).

Interreg cofinances EUR 50 billion of regional development cooperation for:

  • 12 Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) cross-border collaboration programmes. EU allocation: EUR 11.7 billion, of which 242 million is earmarked for cross-border cooperation.
  • 16 European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) cross-border collaboration programmes. EU allocation: EUR 15.4 billion, of which 634 million is earmarked for cross-border cooperation.

Interreg 25 years[edit]

Interreg 25 years logo

2015 marks the 25th anniversary of Interreg. 2015 will be highlighted by a series of events celebrating Interreg all around Europe, sharing and evaluating achievements since it was developed as a Community Initiative in 1990. The celebration of Interreg anniversary will culminate at a ceremony on the European Cooperation Day in Luxembourg on 15–16 September. A competition has been launched February the 14th called The EU Love Without Borders [26] inviting lovebirds to share their experience on how their romance has overcome obstacles across European borders in a cultural, political, linguistic, administrative, geographical, logistical way.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Objective of the European Territorial Cooperation of the EU, website European Commission
  2. ^ Budget of the European Cohesion policy 2014-2020, website European Commission
  3. ^ Interreg Community Initiative, website INTERACT
  4. ^ Cross-border cooperation, website European Commission
  5. ^ Transnational cooperation, website European Commission
  6. ^ European Macoregional strategies, website European Commission
  7. ^ Interregional cooperation, website European Commission
  8. ^ Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, website European Commission
  9. ^ European Neighbourhood Instrument
  10. ^ Website REGI Committee of the European Parliament
  11. ^ "Interreg IV A France (Channel) - England programme". Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  12. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docoffic/official/regulation/pdf/2007/publications/guide2007_en.pdf
  13. ^ "INTERREG IVB NWE programme - Investing in Opportunities". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Rural Alliances". Rural-alliances.eu. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  15. ^ "Home - Technet_nano". Technet-nano.eu. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  16. ^ "MUSIC - Mitigation in urban areas". Themusicproject.eu. 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  17. ^ Website commissioner Corina Creţu, European Commission
  18. ^ Website commissioner Johannes Hahn, European Commission
  19. ^ Europe 2020, European Commission
  20. ^ cooperation programmes 2014-2020, European Commission
  21. ^ Common Provisions Regulation (EU) No 1303/2013, JO
  22. ^ Common Provisions Regulation (EU) No 1301/2013, JO
  23. ^ Common Provisions Regulation (EU) No 1299/2013, JO
  24. ^ Commission Implementing Decision for ETC geography (EU) No C (2014) 3898, JO
  25. ^ Commission Implementing Decision for ETC resources (EU) No C (2014) 3776 , JO
  26. ^ Facebook page on the #eulovewithoutborders competition

External links[edit]