Interstate 496

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Interstate 496 marker

Interstate 496
R.E. Olds Freeway
I-496 connects downtown Lansing with the I-96 and US 127 freeways
Lansing area with I-496 highlighted in red
Route information
Auxiliary route of I-96
Maintained by MDOT
Length: 11.907 mi[3] (19.162 km)
History: Initial section opened in December 1963,[1] completed on December 18, 1970[2]
Major junctions
West end: I‑69 / I‑96 in Delta Township
 

Capitol Loop / M‑99 in Lansing

US 127 near East Lansing
East end: I‑96 / US 127 in Delhi Township
Location
Counties: Eaton, Ingham
Highway system
I‑475 M‑553

Interstate 496 (I-496) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that passes through downtown Lansing in the US state of Michigan. Also a component of the State Trunkline Highway System, the freeway is a loop that connects I-96 to the downtown area. It has been named the R.E. Olds Freeway (sometimes just Olds Freeway) for Ransom E. Olds, the founder of Oldsmobile and the REO Motor Car Company. I-496 runs east–west from I-96/I-69 near the downtown area and north–south along a section that runs concurrently with US Highway 127 (US 127). The trunkline also passes a former assembly plant used by Oldsmobile and runs along or crosses parts of the Grand and Red Cedar rivers.

Construction of I-496 started in 1963, and the freeway opened on December 18, 1970. Segments of the freeway south of downtown Lansing were built in the location of a historically black neighborhood. This neighborhood was formed based on the segregations practices of the early 20th century. Community leaders worked for different housing opportunities for the black residents displaced by I-496 rather than fight the freeway. As the trunkline neared completion, competing proposals to name it resulted in two similar, but separate designations applied to I-496. The city originally approved one name in honor of a former mayor. The local historical society proposed that the state name it as a memorial to Olds after the demolition of the Olds Mansion. The city renamed it the Oldsmobile Expressway, the name under which it opened in December 1970. Two years later, the Michigan Legislature restored its preferred name and it has been the Olds Freeway since.

Route description[edit]

I-496 starts at an interchange with I-96/I-69 at that freeway's exit 95 in Delta Township in Eaton County. The freeway runs eastward through suburban areas of the township adjacent to some residential subdivisions. Continuing eastward, there is an interchange for Creyts Road before I-496 angles to the northeast. At the interchange with Waverly Road, I-496 crosses into Ingham County. The freeway then runs parallel to the Grand River. Near a partial interchange with Lansing Road (old US 27[4]), the freeway gains a pair of service drives: St. Joseph Street runs one-way westbound on the north side, and Malcolm X Street runs eastbound to the south. The next interchange is for the connection to the Capitol Loop and M-99, both of which run along Martin Luther King Boulevard. The Capitol Loop,[5][6] also internally numbered Connector 496,[7] is a signed connector that provides access to various state government buildings like the Michigan State Capitol. South of this interchange, M-99 connects to the Lansing Car Assembly plant,[5][6] a former facility for Oldsmobile.[8]

Photograph of
Looking east from the Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard overpass

Continuing eastward, I-496 passes north of the assembly plant complex and south of the central business district. East of a partial interchange with Walnut Street, the freeway passes the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame, which is located on I-496's southern service drive. The south side of the freeway is adjacent to Cooley Gardens near the confluence of the Grand and Red Cedar rivers. I-496 crosses the Grand River downstream from the confluence and meets the eastern terminus of the Capitol Loop. This interchange with Cedar and Larch streets is also a connection to Business Loop I-96 (BL I-96) and Pennsylvania Avenue. St. Joseph Street ends after the connection to Pennsylvania Avenue.[5][6] The main freeway crosses a rail line owned by CSX Transportation.[9] I-496 runs parallel to the north side of the rail line while Malcolm X Street follows to the south as far as the Clemens Avenue overpass. The freeway then crosses into East Lansing near the Red Cedar Natural Area.[5][6]

After crossing the city line, I-496 turns southward and merges with US 127. The two highways run concurrently,[5][6] and they cross a line of the Canadian National Railway.[9] The freeway runs along the western edge of the campus of Michigan State University. South of campus, I-496/US 127 crosses back into Lansing and has an interchange with Jolly Road before entering Delhi Township. About two-thirds of a mile (1.1 km) south of Jolly Road, I-496 meets I-96 and terminates; US 127 continues southward as a freeway toward Jackson.[5][6]

Photograph of
Southbound I-496/US 127 in East Lansing

Like other state highways in Michigan, I-496 is maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). In 2011, the department's traffic surveys showed that on average, 61,082 vehicles used the freeway between BL I-96 and the Trowbridge Road interchange south of US 127, the highest traffic count along I-496. West of Creyts Road, 17,600 vehicles did so each day, which was the lowest count along the trunkline.[10] As an Interstate Highway, all of I-496 is listed on the National Highway System,[11] a network of roads important to the country's economy, defense, and mobility.[12]

History[edit]

Black and white map
1955 planning map for Lansing's Interstates

An east–west freeway was originally planned as an Interstate Highway allowing traffic to access downtown Lansing in the 1955 General Location of National System of Interstate Highways (Yellow Book), an early proposal for what would become the Interstate Highway System.[13] As originally proposed by the Michigan State Highway Department in 1958, the freeway was to be called I-296.[14] The department was waiting on approval of a final numbering scheme the next year,[15] before the first Interstates were signed in the state in 1959.[16] By the time construction started on the Lansing freeway, it was numbered I-496.[17]

The section near downtown was to be built through a historically African-American neighborhood. The neighborhood was formed through "unwritten rules of segregation" as real estate agents and mortgage brokers guided black residents to the area when they were looking to buy homes.[18] When the state and federal governments were planning the freeway, the area was chosen for the path of I-496. The neighborhood boasted a community center and several businesses that catered to the black population of Lansing, including the only record store that sold rhythm and blues music. Community leaders did not fight the freeway and instead lobbied for affordable housing and relocation assistance. The construction spurred integration of blacks into the wider community; some were able to move into neighborhoods previously closed to them, purchasing "newer houses near better schools."[18] In total, the construction of the freeway required the demolition or removal of nearly 600 homes, 60 businesses, and 15 farms.[19]

The first section of I-496 was opened in December 1963,[1] and ran from I-96 northerly to M-43/M-78 (Saginaw and Kalamazoo streets) between Lansing and East Lansing. The freeway, comprising the southern two-thirds, was designated I-496/M-78/BL I-96 while the northern portion was on city streets as M-78/BL I-96.[4][20] Some 50 men completed the work by year's end; they went entirely without vacation time to accomplish the feat.[1] Another section of freeway was opened in 1966, and US 127 was rerouted to follow I-496/M-78. BL I-96 was removed from I-496/US 127/M-78 and routed along the former US 127.[21][22] The freeway segment north of the Trowbridge Road interchange continuing northward as part of US 127 was opened in 1969. Another section opened at the same time was the western section from I-96 to Lansing Road (then US 27) in 1969.[23][24] The remaining section between M-99 (then Logan Street, now Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard) and I-496/US 127 opened on December 18, 1970, completing construction.[2][25]

The freeway underwent a $42.4 million reconstruction (equivalent to $58.7 million in 2012[26]) between April and November 2001 which included the rehabilitation or reconstruction of 35 bridges, 8.5 miles (13.7 km) of freeway, and the addition of a weave-merge lane between Pennsylvania Avenue and US 127.[27][28] Speed limits were raised along I-496 from 55 to 70 miles per hour (89 to 113 km/h) in 2007 to reflect the speeds motorists were driving during studies conducted by MDOT and the Michigan State Police.[29]

Black and white photograph
Olds Mansion

The name applied to the freeway was not without controversy. The Lansing City Council named it in September 1966 after Ralph W. Crego, a former city council member and the longest-serving mayor in the city's history. The Historical Society of Greater Lansing wanted it named the "R.E. Olds Expressway", in part because the new road brought about the demolition of the Olds Mansion,[25] which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places,[30] and to "recogniz[e] the contributions of R.E. Olds to the industries of the city."[25] The society approached the Michigan Legislature, which introduced House Resolution 48 in February 1970 using the historical society's preferred name. The city council realized that they had been bypassed and conveniently discovered that their original resolution was not "formally adopted".[25] They named a park for Crego instead in October 1970 and adopted a resolution to name I-496 the "Oldsmobile Expressway". The Legislature approved its resolution resulting in two names, one for the founder of the car company, and one for the company itself. The council member who introduced the city's resolution criticized the Legislature for taking action without consultation. The state resolution was intercepted before it could be sent to the Michigan Department of State Highways, and the freeway opened on December 18, 1970, with the "Oldsmobile Expressway" name. On August 21, 1972, during the celebrations for the 75th anniversary of Oldsmobile, Senate Concurrent Resolution 345 renamed I-496 the "R.E. Olds Freeway".[25]

Exit list[edit]

County Location Mile[3] km Exit Destinations Notes
Eaton Delta Township 0.000 0.000 I‑96 / I‑69 – Grand Rapids, Flint, Detroit, Ft. Wayne Exit 95 on I-96/I/-69
1.637 2.634 1 Creyts Road Signed as exits 1A (south) and 1B (north) westbound
EatonIngham
county line
Delta Township
Lansing city line
3.561 5.731 3 Waverly Road
Ingham Lansing 4.545 7.314 4 Lansing Road Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
5.306–
5.403
8.539–
8.695
5 M‑99 south / Capitol Loop east (Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard)
5.802–
5.950
9.337–
9.576
6 Pine Street, Walnut Street – Downtown Lansing
6.273 10.095 7A Grand Avenue – Downtown Lansing Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
6.567–
6.921
10.569–
11.138
7 BL I‑96 / Capitol Loop west (Pennsylvania Avenue, Cedar Street, Larch Street) Separate exits for Cedar Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, connected by collector-distributor roads eastbound only; exit 7A is also attached to collector-distributor roads westbound only
8.576 13.802 8 US 127 north – Flint, East Lansing Northern end of US 127 concurrency; former M-143
East Lansing 8.748 14.079 9 Trowbridge Road
Lansing 10.912 17.561 11 Jolly Road
Delhi Township 11.907 19.162 I‑96 – Detroit, Grand Rapids
US 127 south – Jackson
Exit 106 on I-96; exit 73 on US 127; freeway continues south as US 127
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Related trunkline[edit]

Main article: Capitol Loop

Capitol Loop
Location: Lansing
Length: 2.381 mi[3] (3.832 km)
Existed: October 13, 1989[31]–present

The Capitol Loop is a state trunkline highway running through Lansing that was commissioned on October 13, 1989.[31] It forms a loop route off I-496 through downtown near the Michigan State Capitol complex, home of the state legislature and several state departments. However, unlike other business loops in Michigan, it has unique reassurance markers—the signs that serve as regular reminders of the name and number of the highway. It is known internally at MDOT as Connector 496 for inventory purposes.[7] The highway follows a series of one-way and two-way streets through downtown Lansing, directing traffic downtown to the State Capitol and other government buildings.[32][33] Unlike the other streets downtown, the seven streets composing the Capitol Loop are under state maintenance and jurisdiction.[34]

The loop was originally proposed in 1986 as part of a downtown revitalization effort.[35] Almost from the beginning before the highway was commissioned in 1989, it was affected by controversial proposals. The first was related to suggestions by community leaders to rename city streets in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.[25] Another controversy dealt with rebuilding the streets as part of a downtown beautification project; the downtown business community protested the original scope of construction,[36] and the Lansing City Council threatened to cancel the project in response to the controversy.[37] In 2010, additional controversies surfaced regarding the posting and enforcement of speed limits on city streets in Michigan, including the streets that make up the Capitol Loop.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "New Highway Opened". Ironwood Daily Globe. Associated Press. December 21, 1963. p. 9. OCLC 10890811. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Rook, Christine (July 23, 2006). "Paving the Way: Interstate Roads Have Shaped the Future for Many Mid-Michigan Communities". Lansing State Journal. pp. 1D, 5D. ISSN 0274-9742. Retrieved July 13, 2012.  (subscription required)
  3. ^ a b c Michigan Department of Transportation (2009). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Cartography by Michigan Center for Geographic Information. http://www.mcgi.state.mi.us/prfinder/. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  4. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). Cartography by MSDH. Lansing inset.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Michigan Department of Transportation (2012). State Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:3.5 mi / 1 cm:2 km. Cartography by MDOT. Lansing inset.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Google Inc. "Overview Map of I-496". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. //maps.google.com/maps?saddr=I-496+E&daddr=US-127+S&hl=en&sll=42.676946,-84.499626&sspn=0.030415,0.02914&geocode=FWbPiwId6iH0-g%3BFfQtiwIdLLD2-g&t=h&mra=ls&z=12. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  7. ^ a b Staff (May 1, 2008). "Appendix C: State Trunkline Connector Routes" (PDF). Michigan Geographic Framework. Michigan Department of Information Technology. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2008. 
  8. ^ Wieland, Barbara (May 1, 2005). "Lansing Car Assembly: 1901–2005". Lansing State Journal. p. A1. ISSN 0274-9742. Retrieved July 12, 2012.  (subscription required)
  9. ^ a b Michigan Department of Transportation (January 2011) (PDF). Michigan's Railroad System (Map). Cartography by MDOT. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT_Official_Rail_130897_7.pdf. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
  10. ^ Bureau of Transportation Planning (2008). "Traffic Monitoring Information System". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 30, 2012. 
  11. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (April 23, 2006) (PDF). National Highway System, Michigan (Map). Cartography by MDOT. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT_NHS_Statewide_150626_7.pdf. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
  12. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike; Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  13. ^ Bureau of Public Roads (1955). "Lansing". General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955 (Yellow Book) (Map). Cartography by BPR. p. 44. OCLC 4165975. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lansing,_Michigan_1955_Yellow_Book.jpg.
  14. ^ Staff (April 25, 1958). "Recommended Interstate Route Numbering for Michigan". Michigan State Highway Department. Archived from the original on August 5, 2004. 
  15. ^ "Michigan Delays Road Number System". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. June 4, 1959. p. 11. OCLC 12962635. Retrieved November 21, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Interstate 75 Road Markers Are Unveiled". The Herald-Press (St. Joseph, MI). Associated Press. October 13, 1959. p. 3. OCLC 10117184. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Release Bids for Freeway to Holland". Holland Evening Sentinel. United Press International. July 20, 1962. p. 6. OCLC 13440201. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b Miller, Matthew (February 22, 2009). "A Complicated Legacy: I-496 Slashed through Key Black Neighborhood in the '60s". Lansing State Journal. pp. 1A, 8A. ISSN 0274-9742. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  19. ^ Ingells, Norris (February 14, 1965). "City's East–West Traffic Speeded". Lansing State Journal. ISSN 0274-9742. 
  20. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  21. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1966). Official Highway Map (Map). Cartography by MDSH. Lansing inset.
  22. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1967). Official Highway Map (Map). Cartography by MDSH. Lansing inset.
  23. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1969). Official Highway Map (Map). Cartography by H.M. Gousha. Lansing inset.
  24. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1970). Official Highway Map (Map). Cartography by MDSH. Lansing inset.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Barnett, LeRoy (2004). A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press. p. 165. ISBN 1-886167-24-9. 
  26. ^ United States nominal Gross Domestic Product per capita figures follow the "Measuring Worth" series supplied in Johnston, Louis & Williamson, Samuel H. (2014). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved April 18, 2014.  These figures follow the figures as of 2012.
  27. ^ Gantert, Tom (April 4, 2001). "The Big Fix on Interstate 496". Lansing State Journal. p. A1. ISSN 0274-9742. Retrieved July 13, 2012.  (subscription required)
  28. ^ Hugh, Leach (November 5, 2001). "Most Area Road Work Complete". Lansing State Journal. p. B3. ISSN 0274-9742. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  29. ^ Wallbank, Derek (April 3, 2007). "Drivers on I-496 Get the Green Light To Go 70: Stretch of US 127 in Frandor Area Seed Higher Speed Limits as Well". Lansing State Journal. pp. 1A, 7A. ISSN 0274-9742. Retrieved July 13, 2012.  (subscription required)
  30. ^ O’Hearn, Patricia. "Michigan Time Traveler" (PDF). Lansing Newspapers in Education, Michigan Historical Center. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  31. ^ a b Michigan Department of Transportation (August 29, 2007) (PDF). Ingham County (Map). Cartography by City of Lansing. Sheet 180. OCLC 12843916. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. http://mdotwas1.mdot.state.mi.us/public/ROWFiles/files/Ingham/sheet180.pdf. Retrieved October 15, 2008.
  32. ^ Google Inc. "Overview Map of the Capitol Loop". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. //maps.google.com/maps?saddr=S+Martin+Luther+King+Jr+Blvd&daddr=42.7326018,-84.55619+to:42.7335723,-84.5492377+to:S+Cedar+St&hl=en&ll=42.733554,-84.557347&spn=0.030387,0.029998&sll=42.726713,-84.555545&sspn=0.030391,0.029998&geocode=FSHziwId4Jr1-g%3BFTkMjAIdYsb1-ikdsaSs18EiiDH0HJhJRWoyyA%3BFQQQjAIdi-H1-inBYoC72MEiiDEtrL8yqDBdGg%3BFT_yiwIdS_L1-g&mra=dpe&mrsp=2&sz=15&via=1,2&t=m&z=15. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
  33. ^ Universal Map (2010). Michigan County Atlas: Back Roads & Forgotten Places (Map) (2nd ed.). p. 66, Lansing inset. ISBN 978-0-7625-6505-4.
  34. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2008). Truck Operators Map (Map). Cartography by MDOT. Lansing inset. OCLC 261183721.
  35. ^ Andrews, Chris (May 22, 2003). "Work Set for Capitol Loop". Lansing State Journal. pp. 1A, 6A. ISSN 0274-9742. 
  36. ^ Sturm, Daniel (October 29, 2003). "The 'Big Dig' Causing a Big Flap in Downtown Lansing". City Pulse (Lansing, MI). OCLC 48427464. 
  37. ^ Murphy, Shannon (November 4, 2003). "City to Seek Options for Capitol-Area Road Work". Lansing State Journal. pp. 1–2B. ISSN 0274-9742. 
  38. ^ Kolp, Stephanie (June 2, 2010). "Some Speeding Tickets Being Waived". Lansing, MI: WLNS-TV. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing