Interstate 69 in Michigan

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This article is about the section of highway in Michigan. For the entire length of highway, see Interstate 69.

Interstate 69 marker

Interstate 69
I-69 runs northward from Indiana to the Lansing area and then curves eastward to Port Huron, forming an arc in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan
I-69 highlighted in red
Route information
Maintained by MDOT
Length: 202.317 mi[2] (325.598 km)
Existed: October 11, 1967 (1967-10-11)[1] – present
Tourist
routes:
Major junctions
South end: I-69 at the Indiana border near Kinderhook
 
East end: Highway 402 at Canadian border in Port Huron
Location
Counties: Branch, Calhoun, Eaton, Clinton, Shiawassee, Genesee, Lapeer, St. Clair
Highway system
M-68 M-69

Interstate 69 (I-69) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that will eventually run from the Mexican border in Texas to the Canadian border at Port Huron, Michigan. In Michigan, it is a state trunkline highway that enters the state south of Coldwater and passes the cities of Lansing and Flint in the Lower Peninsula. A north–south freeway from the Indiana–Michigan border to the Lansing area, it changes direction to east–west after running concurrently with I-96. The freeway continues to Port Huron before terminating in the middle of the twin-span Blue Water Bridge while running concurrently with I-94 at the border. There are four related business loops for I-69 in the state, connecting the freeway to adjacent cities.

Predecessors to I-69 include the first M-29, US Highway 27 (US 27), M-78 and M-21. The freeway was not included on the original Interstate Highway System planning maps in the mid-1950s, but it was added in 1958 along a shorter route. Michigan built segments of freeway for the future Interstate in the 1960s, and the state was granted additional Interstate mileage in 1968 to extend I-69 north and east to Flint. Later extensions in 1973 and 1987 resulted in the modern highway. The first freeway segment given the I-69 designation opened in 1967, and the last was completed in 1992, finishing Michigan's Interstate System. US 27 previously ran concurrently with I-69 from the Indiana–Michigan state line north to the Lansing area, but this designation was removed in 2002.

Route description[edit]

I-69 is listed on the National Highway System (NHS) for its entire length.[3] The NHS is a network of roadways important to the country's economy, defense, and mobility.[4] The freeway carries 91,100 vehicles on average each day between I-475 and M-54 in Flint and 14,085 vehicles between M-53 and Capac Road near the LapeerSt. Clair county line; the highest and lowest traffic counts in 2012, respectively.[5] I-69 carries the Lake Huron Circle Tour in the Port Huron area and the I-69 Recreational Heritage Route from the Indiana state line north to the CalhounEaton county line.[6]

Northward to Lansing[edit]

Photograph
Approaching exit 70

I-69 in Michigan begins at the Indiana state line southeast of Kinderhook and just north of an interchange with the Indiana Toll Road, which carries I-80 and I-90. From there, I-69 runs northward through a mixture of Southern Michigan farmland and woodland in Branch County. A few miles north of the state line, the freeway passes Coldwater Lake State Park and its namesake body of water; north of the lake, there is a welcome center for the northbound lanes. I-69 curves around the east side of Coldwater, connecting to the city's business loop on the south of town. The freeway intersects the northern end of the business loop immediately east of downtown at an interchange that also features US 12 (Chicago Road). Further north, the freeway curves around to the northwest, crosses into Calhoun County and then over the St. Joseph River. I-69 turns back northward and bypasses Tekonsha to the town's west, intersecting M-60 in the process.[6][7]

Curving around Nottawa Lake, I-69 continues northward through southern Calhoun County. It passes through an interchange that marks the southern terminus of M-227, a highway that connects northward into Marshall. The freeway crosses the Kalamazoo River and passes through an interchange with M-96 west of downtown Marshall. From that interchange northward, the BL I-94 designation is overlaid on I-69; the business loop ends at the cloverleaf interchange northwest of Marshall that marks the first of I-69's two junctions with I-94 in the state . North of I-94, I-69 has one more interchange at N Drive North before crossing into Eaton County.[6][7]

Aerial photograph
Aerial view looking north from the I-496 interchange along I-96/I-69 west of Lansing

In southern Eaton County, the freeway parallels the Battle Creek River north of the junction with M-78. Near Olivet, I-69 begins to turn in a northeasterly direction and curves around the north side of town. On the south side of Charlotte, I-69 turns northward, traversing an area to the east of downtown and crossing the former routing of US 27, which is now part of the business loop for the city. Further north, the freeway has a junction with M-50, a bridge over the Battle Creek River, and an interchange with the northern end of the business loop next to Fitch H. Beach Airport. North of the airport, I-69 turns northeasterly again and parallels Lansing Road, the former route of US 27/M-78. The freeway meets the southern end of M-100 near Potterville and continues into the Lansing–East Lansing metropolitan area. Southwest of the state's capital city, I-69 crosses over Lansing Road near Lansing Delta Township Assembly, a factory for General Motors; northeast of the complex, I-69 merges into I-96. The combined I-96/I-69 runs northward through the suburban edges of the Lansing area, intersecting the western ends of I-496 and the BL I-69 for Lansing. The freeway enters Clinton County, and just north of a crossing of the Grand River, I-69 turns eastward to separate from I-96. As a part of the larger interchange with I-96, I-69 crosses BL I-96 (Grand River Avenue) without any connections.[6][7]

Eastward to Port Huron[edit]

After leaving the I-96 concurrency, I-69 changes cardinal orientation and is signed as east–west from that point on. The freeway continues parallel to the Looking Glass River through suburban areas north of Capital Region International Airport. North of East Lansing, I-69 meets US 127 at a cloverleaf interchange. East of that junction, I-69 turns southeasterly passing the Hawk Hollow Golf Course and Park Lake on the way to meet the eastern end of BL I-69 just north of Lake Lansing. I-69 then turns northeasterly parallel to Lansing Road (Old M-78) to enter Shiawassee County. The freeway continues through Central Michigan farmlands, jogging north of Perry and Bancroft.[6][7]

Photograph
I-94/I-69 eastbound near Port Huron

At Durand, I-69 meets the southeastern end of M-71 on the northwest side of town. The freeway turns sharply to the northeast before turning due east near Lennon. The interchange with M-13 south of Lennon marks the Shiawassee–Genesee county line. Continuing eastward, I-69 parallels Miller Road to the north as far as the city of Swartz Creek; east of town, the two roadways cross.[6][7] I-69 parallels a line of the Canadian National Railway[8] as it enters the Flint metro area. The freeway intersects Bristol Road near the Bishop International Airport and then crosses I-75/US 23 southwest of downtown Flint. I-69, the railroad and the Swartz Creek all parallel into downtown Flint where the freeway intersects I-475 and M-54 (Dort Highway) before exiting the east side of the city.[6][7]

I-69 runs eastward out of Flint parallel to the railroad. At Davison, it intersects M-15 before crossing into Lapeer County. In this area, the freeway traverses farmlands in the southern part of the region called The Thumb. It jogs to the north around Lake Nepessing, which is southwest of Lapeer. The freeway continues through farmland to Imlay City, where it meets M-53 before crossing into western St. Clair County. Southwest of Capac,[6][7] there is a temporary welcome center at the rest area along the westbound lanes.[9] I-69 continues eastward through an interchange with M-19 at Emmett.[6][7]

Aerial photograph
The twin-span Blue Water Bridge

Near Wadhams, I-69 curves around to the north to follow part of the Black River. On the east side of the community, the freeway turns back to the southeast as it enters the western edge of the Port Huron suburbs. I-69 turns again to run due eastward to intersect I-94. The two freeways merge in an interchange that also has connections to BL I-69. Past the interchange, the freeway curves to the north and back around to the east to cross the Black River. On the eastern bank, I-94/I-69 travels through one more interchange, this one for M-25 and BL I-69/BL I-94. Past the interchange, the freeway crosses through the toll and customs plazas for the twin-span Blue Water Bridge. The I-69 designation officially ends at the international boundary in the middle of the St. Clair River where it connects with Highway 402.[6][7]

History[edit]

Predecessor highways[edit]

Map
Map of the pre-statehood Indian trails; none match up with I-69's route.

The first major overland transportation corridors in the future state of Michigan were the Indian trails.[10] None of these followed the path of the modern I-69 however.[11] The State Trunkline Highway System was created on May 13, 1913, by an act of the Michigan Legislature; at the time, none of the system's division corresponded to the modern I-69 either.[12] In 1919, the Michigan State Highway Department (MSHD)[a] was required to signpost the highway system for the first time,[15] and the state become the second after Wisconsin to do so.[16] At the time, two different highways followed sections of the modern I-69 corridor. The original M-29 ran from the Indiana state line north to Charlotte and turned northeasterly to Lansing. The second highway was M-21 from Flint east to Goodells, a community west of Port Huron;[17] the highway was extended to Port Huron by 1924.[18]

On November 11, 1926, the United States Numbered Highway System was approved by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO),[19][b] and the new US 27 replaced M-29 from the state line northward to Lansing.[21] By the end of the next year, M-78 was extended from Charlotte north and east of Lansing to a junction with M-47 near Pittsburg, north of the modern I-69.[22] The section of M-78 north of Lansing was changed in 1929; the segment from Dewitt to Pittsburg was redesignated M-104, and M-78 was rerouted along a more southerly path through East Lansing to Haslett.[23][24] By 1936, M-78 was extended from Haslett all the way into Flint to end at M-21.[25] The first span of the Blue Water Bridge opened between Port Huron and Point Edward, Ontario, in 1938.[26]

Interstate Highway era[edit]

Map
1958 planning map for Michigan's Interstate Highways

The first planning maps from 1947 for what later became the Interstate Highway System did not include a highway along I-69's route; instead a highway further west connecting South Bend, Indiana, with Kalamazoo was included.[27] This alternative highway was maintained on the 1955 plan for the "National System of Interstate and Defense Highways",[28] and numbered I-67 in August 1957.[29] By June 1958, this freeway had been shifted further east and renumbered I-69, connecting Indianapolis, Indiana, with Marshall; no connections north and east to Lansing, Flint or Port Huron were planned as part of the Interstate Highway System.[30] Around the same time, a section of M-146 near Port Huron was converted into an approach freeway for the Blue Water Bridge.[31][32]

By the middle of 1960, the first section of freeway along M-78 was opened in the Lennon area.[32] The next year, the freeway had been extended as far southwest as Durand from the end at Lennon.[33] Also in 1961, the MSHD had proposed that the section of US 27 south of Lansing be built as an electronic highway under a bid through General Motors;[34] the testing for such a roadway was ultimately done at Ohio State University instead.[35]

Map
1957 map showing the predecessor highways to I-69 along its route in Michigan (click to enlarge)
     US 27      M-78      M-21

By the start of 1962, M-78 was a freeway from Perry at the junction with M-47 all the way to Swartz Creek near Flint.[36] On December 12, 1962, I-96 was completed around the Lansing area,[37] and M-78 was rerouted to follow it.[38] A year later, I-496 was partially opened through the Lansing area,[39] and M-78 was routed to follow it as well; the former route through downtown was redesignated Business M-78 (BUS M-78).[40] Around the same time, I-94 was extended along the Blue Water Bridge approach freeway.[41][42]

The first freeway segment of M-21 on the east end was built from Wadhams to Port Huron in 1966.[43][44] The next year, M-78's freeway was extended eastward to I-75/US 10/US 23 in Flint.[45][46] On October 11, 1967, the first segment of I-69/US 27 was scheduled to open between the Indiana state line and Tekonsha.[1] The MSHD requested additional Interstate Highway mileage in 1968 under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 including an extension of I-69 from Marshall to Port Huron;[47] this extension was approved as far as I-75/US 23 in Flint on December 13, 1968.[48]

A discontinuous section of M-78 freeway east of Flint was completed in 1969.[49][50] The same year, I-475 was named the David Dunbar Buick Freeway, after the founder of Buick Motor Company in Flint;[51] the same legislation, House Concurrent Resolution 22 of 1969 named the M-78 freeway through Flint for Louis Chevrolet. In 1970, the I-496 freeway was completed and the BUS M-78 designation was removed through Lansing.[52][53] A freeway segment between Flint and Lapeer opened in 1971. M-21 was routed down M-13 to the new freeway where it joined the M-78 designation from M-13 east. The section of M-21 formerly between M-13 and BUS M-54 was redesignated M-56.[54][55] The M-78 designation was replaced by I-69 in 1973 after a Temporary I-69 (TEMP I-69) designation was extended northward from Charlotte through Lansing to Perry.[56][57] On September 4 of that year, I-69's designation was officially extended by Congress to end at I-475 on the east side of Flint;[48] this extension, and all subsequent ones, was of non-chargeable mileage, or segments not financed through the Interstate Highway fund.[58]

Portrait of Louis Chevrolet
Portrait of David Dunbar Buick
Part of I-69 in Michigan is named for Louis Chevrolet (left) and David Dunbar Buick (right).

In 1980, a Flint-area politician wanted to dedicate a highway after the United Auto Workers (UAW). As a result, the David Dunbar Buick Freeway name was moved off I-475 and applied to I-69 in Flint.[59] The remaining segment of freeway connecting Lapeer with Wadhams opened in 1984 as I-69 and several additional changes were made to the highway system at the same time. M-21 was shortened to Flint and replaced M-56 through the city. The former route of M-21 in Port Huron became BL I-69, and the remainder of that highway was turned back to local control.[60][61] The I-69 designation was officially extended once more under Congressional legislation on February 10, 1987; this last extension designated I-69 all the way to I-94 in Port Huron to reflect the 1984 openings.[48]

Another segment of freeway opened in 1987 in Clinton County between US 127 near DeWitt and TEMP I-69 near Bath.[62][63] This section was connected to the existing freeway at Perry in 1991.[64][65] The final segment of I-69 to be completed was located southwest of Lansing. It opened on October 17, 1992, when the ribbon was cut by Governor John Engler. This segment marked the last in the state to complete Michigan's portion of the Interstate Highway System.[66] At the time it was completed, I-69 was concurrent with US 27 from the state line north to the DeWitt area (exit 87) and then concurrent with US 127 to exit 89 before running alone to Port Huron.[67]

Since completion[edit]

A second span of the Blue Water Bridge between Port Huron and Point Edward opened in July 1997.[68] The St. Johns Bypass on US 27 opened on August 31, 1998;[69] US 27 was extended along I-69 about two miles (3.2 km) to the connect to the bypass, and US 127 was simultaneously removed from I-69.[70] The next year, MDOT petitioned AASHTO to decommission the US 27 designation in the state; the change was approved on April 16, 1999.[71] The state waited until 2002 to make the change.[72]

Photograph
New signage being erected in 2011 to reflect a reconfigured interchange near the Blue Water Bridge in Port Huron

On July 23, 2001, the Michigan Legislature declared that I-69 from exit 105 in Shiawassee County east to exit 135 in Genesee County would be named the Pearl Harbor Memorial Highway.[73] In October 2001, the legislature consolidated the various legislation that created memorial highway designations in the state. Public Act 142 of 2001 extended the merged Chevrolet–Buick Freeway name to all of I-69 in Genesee County, and restored the David Dunbar Buick Freeway name to I-475.[51] The I-69 Recreational Heritage Route was created on October 8, 2004, to follow the freeway in Branch and Calhoun counties.[74] The Branch County segment was also dedicated as the Purple Heart Trail on July 17, 2006.[75]

In 2011, construction began to widen I-94/I-69 approaching the Blue Water Bridge,[76] a project completed in 2012.[77] The widening project added dedicated lanes for local traffic and for Blue Water Bridge traffic[76] with a new permanent welcome center expected to open in 2015, replacing the temporary one near Capac.[9] The lane configuration changes have confused drivers in the area, especially those with outdated GPS devices,[78] a problem first noted as the department was preparing to reopen the freeway in October 2012.[79] As a result, MDOT installed updated signs complete with American and Canadian flags to help prevent drivers from heading to Canada by mistake.[80]

In late 2013, construction began to reconstruct and reconfigure the I-94/I-69 interchange. The project will improve 3.7 miles (6.0 km) of freeway, replace several bridges and ramps and cost $76 million. In June 2014, MDOT closed the ramps from I-69 eastbound to BL I-69 through the interchange until later in the year. The project is slated to be completed in 2015.[81]

Exit list[edit]

County Location Mile[2] km Exit Destinations Notes
Branch Kinderhook Township 0.000 0.000 I-69 south – Fort Wayne Indiana state line
2.617 4.212 3 Copeland Road – Kinderhook
OvidColdwater township line 9.701 15.612 10 BL I‑69 north (Fenn Road) – Coldwater Southern terminus of BL I-69; signed as Fenn Road only southbound
Coldwater 12.607 20.289 13 BL I‑69 south / US 12 – Quincy, Coldwater Northern terminus of BL I-69; signed as US 12 only northbound
ColdwaterGirard township line 16.024 25.788 16 Jonesville Road
Calhoun Tekonsha Township 22.546 36.284 23 Tekonsha, Girard Exit for Old US 27 which follows Main Street in Tekonsha and Marshall Road in Branch County
24.627 39.633 25 M‑60 – Three Rivers, Jackson
Fredonia Township 31.532 50.746 32 M‑227 north (F Drive South) Southern terminus of M-227
Marshall 36.207–
36.217
58.270–
58.286
36 BL I‑94 east (Michigan Avenue) – Marshall
M‑96 west (Michigan Avenue)
Southern end of BL I-94 concurrency; eastern terminus of M-96
Marshall Township 38.132–
38.150
61.368–
61.396
38 I‑94 – Detroit, Chicago
BL I‑94 east
Northern end of BL I-94 concurrency
Convis Township 41.896 67.425 42 N Drive North
Eaton Walton Township 48.229 77.617 48 M‑78 west – Bellevue, Olivet Eastern terminus of M-78
50.406 81.121 51 Ainger Road – Olivet
CarmelEaton township line 56.676 91.211 57 BL I‑69 north (Cochran Road) – Charlotte Southern terminus of BL I-69; signed as Cochran Road only southbound
Charlotte 59.549 95.835 60 M‑50 – Charlotte, Eaton Rapids
61.108 98.344 61 BL I‑69 south (Lansing Road) – Charlotte Northern terminus of BL I-69; signed as Lansing Road only northbound
Potterville 66.388 106.841 66 M‑100 north (Hartel Road) – Potterville, Grand Ledge Southern terminus of M-100
Windsor Township 70.270 113.089 70 Lansing Road
Delta Charter Township 72.720–
72.743
117.031–
117.069
72 I‑96 east – Detroit Southern end of I-96 concurrency; concurrency uses I-96 exit numbers; signed as exit 97 southbound
74.877 120.503 95 I‑496 east – Downtown Lansing Western terminus of I-496
76.341 122.859 93 BL I‑69 east / M‑43 (Saginaw Highway) – Grand Ledge Signed as exits 93B (east) and 93A (west); western terminus of BL I-69; signed as M-43 only southbound
Clinton Watertown Township 78.653–
80.292
126.580–
129.217
91 I‑96 west – Grand Rapids Northern end of I-96 concurrency; I-69 changes from north–south to east–west; signed on I-69 westbound as exit 81 with access to and eastbound entrance from Frances Road
DeWitt Township 83.081 133.706 84 Airport Road
84.820 136.505 85 DeWitt Exit located at DeWitt Road
86.315 138.911 87 Old US 27
88.227–
88.256
141.988–
142.034
89 US 127 – East Lansing, Lansing, Jackson, Clare Signed as exits 89A (south) and 89B (north)
Bath Township 91.603 147.421 92 Webster Road – Bath
93.929 151.164 94 BL I‑69 west – East Lansing Eastern terminus of BL I-69; signed as East Lansing only eastbound
Shiawassee Woodhull Township 97.319 156.620 98 Woodbury Road – Laingsburg
Perry Township 104.613 168.358 105 M‑52 – Owosso, Perry
Shiawassee Township 112.256 180.659 113 Bancroft
Vernon Township 117.408 188.950 118 M‑71 west – Durand, Corunna Eastern terminus of M-71
ShiawasseeGenesee county line VeniceClayton township line 122.213 196.683 123 M‑13 north – Lennon, Saginaw Southern terminus of M-13
Genesee Swartz Creek 127.186 204.686 128 Morrish Road
128.343 206.548 129 Miller Road
Flint 130.649 210.259 131 Bristol Road Former M-121
Flint Township 132.466–
132.479
213.183–
213.204
133 I‑75 / US 23 – Saginaw, Ann Arbor, Detroit
Flint 134.156 215.903 135 Hammerberg Road
135.556 218.156 136 Saginaw Street – Downtown Eastbound exit, entrance via 9th Street; westbound exit, entrance via 8th Street
135.789–
135.812
218.531–
218.568
137 I‑475 – Saginaw, Detroit
137.085 220.617 138 M‑54 (Dort Highway)
Burton 138.087 222.229 139 Center Road
140.157 225.561 141 Belsay Road
Davison Township 142.216 228.874 143 Irish Road
144.258 232.161 145 M‑15 – Clarkston, Davison
Lapeer Elba Township 148.232 238.556 149 Elba Road
Lapeer Township 152.386 245.241 153 Lake Nepessing Road
Lapeer 154.456 248.573 155 M‑24 – Lapeer, Pontiac
Lapeer Township 158.730 255.451 159 Wilder Road
Attica Township 162.736 261.898 163 Lake Pleasant Road
Imlay City 167.815 270.072 168 M‑53 – Imlay City, Almont
St. Clair Mussey Township 175.231 282.007 176 Capac Road – Capac
Riley Township 179.647 289.114 180 Riley Center Road
183.695 295.628 184 M‑19 – Sandusky, Richmond
Wales Township 188.125 302.758 189 Wales Center Road
Kimball Township 193.383 311.220 194 Taylor Road
195.676 314.910 196 Wadhams Road – Wadhams
Port Huron Township 198.472–
198.497
319.410–
319.450
198 I‑94 west – Detroit Western end of I-94 concurrency
198.448 319.371 199 BL I‑69 east – Downtown Port Huron Eastbound exit from I-69 and I-94 (exit 271); westbound entrance to I-69 and I-94; I-69 begins using I-94's mileposts for exit numbers; western terminus of BL I-69
200.745 323.068 274 Water Street, Lapeer Avenue – Port Huron Access via collector-distributor ramps; westbound exit, eastbound entrance only to Lapeer Avenue connector
Port Huron 201.301 323.963 275 BL I‑69 west / BL I‑94 west / M‑25 north (Pine Grove Avenue) – Lexington, Downtown Port Huron Eastbound last exit before Canada; eastern terminus of BL I-69 and BL I-94; southern terminus of M-25; eastbound signage omits mention of BL I-69/BL I-94
201.689 324.587 Toll Plaza (eastbound)
U.S. Customs (westbound)
St. Clair River 201.223–
202.317
323.837–
325.598
Blue Water Bridge (tolled)
To Highway 402 in Sarnia, Ontario
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Business loops[edit]

In Michigan, I-69 currently has four business loops. These highways, each designated Business Loop I-69 (BL I-69), provide access from the main freeway through the downtown districts of adjacent cities. They follow former routings used by I-69's predecessor highways (US 27, M-78 and M-21) as well connecting roads.[7][32] The cities served by these loops are: Coldwater, Charlotte, Lansing, and Port Huron.[6]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Michigan State Highway Department was reorganized into the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation on August 23, 1973.[13] The name was shortened to its current form in 1978.[14]
  2. ^ AASHO was renamed the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) on November 11, 1973.[20]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Indiana, Mich., To Open Road". The News-Palladium (Benton Harbor, MI). Associated Press. September 29, 1967. p. 12. OCLC 10117334. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Michigan Department of Transportation (2009). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Cartography by Michigan Center for Geographic Information. http://www.mcgi.state.mi.us/prfinder/. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
  3. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (April 23, 2006) (PDF). National Highway System, Michigan (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MDOT. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT_NHS_Statewide_150626_7.pdf. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
  4. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  5. ^ Bureau of Transportation Planning (2012). "Traffic Monitoring Information System". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Michigan Department of Transportation (2013). State Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:15 mi / 1 cm:9 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section N10–K14.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Google Inc. "Overview Map of Interstate 69 in Michigan". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. http://maps.google.com/maps?saddr=I-69+N&daddr=I-69+E%2FI-94+E&hl=en&sll=42.990617,-82.440934&sspn=0.030261,0.029783&geocode=FX8zfQIdvynv-g%3BFdwakAIdO1AW-w&mra=ls&t=h&z=8. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  8. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (February 2013) (PDF). Michigan's Railroad System (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by Asset Management. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT_Official_Rail_130897_7.pdf. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  9. ^ a b "Welcome Center Plan Worth Seeing". Our Views (Editorial). The Times Herald (Port Huron, MI). August 19, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2013. 
  10. ^ Morrison, p. 1.
  11. ^ Mason, p. 18.
  12. ^ Michigan Legislature (1913/1915), p. 1868
  13. ^ Kulsea, p. 27.
  14. ^ Kulsea, pp. 30–1.
  15. ^ Michigan Legislature (1919), p. 35.
  16. ^ "Michigan May Do Well Following Wisconsin's Road Marking System". The Grand Rapids Press. September 20, 1919. p. 10. OCLC 9975013. 
  17. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (July 1, 1919). State of Michigan: Lower Peninsula (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD.
  18. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (May 15, 1924). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD.
  19. ^ Weingroff, Richard F. (January 9, 2009). "From Names to Numbers: The Origins of the U.S. Numbered Highway System". Highway History. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved April 21, 2009. 
  20. ^ Staff (December 4, 2012). "November 13". Highway History. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  21. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (December 1, 1926). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD.
  22. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (December 1, 1927). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD.
  23. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (May 1, 1929). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD.
  24. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (January 1, 1930). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by H.M. Gousha.
  25. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (June 1, 1936). 1936 Official Michigan Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by Rand McNally. Section K11–L12.
  26. ^ Hyde, p. 109.
  27. ^ Public Roads Administration (August 2, 1947). National System of Interstate Highways (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by PRA. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_August_2,_1947_big_text.jpg. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
  28. ^ Public Roads Administration (September 1955). General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955 (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by PRA. National System of Interstate and Defense Highways inset. OCLC 416597. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_September_1955.jpg.
  29. ^ Public Roads Administration (August 14, 1957). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as Adopted by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by PRA. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_August_14,_1957.jpg. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  30. ^ American Association of State Highway Officials (June 27, 1958). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by AASHO. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_June_27,_1958.jpg. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  31. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1958). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Port Huron inset. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1958)
  32. ^ a b c Michigan State Highway Department (1960). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Port Huron inset. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1960)
  33. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1961). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section K12. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1961)
  34. ^ "Electronic Wonder: State Seeks Highway". The Michigan Daily (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor). July 13, 1961. p. 3. ISSN 0745-967X. Retrieved August 25, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Driverless Auto Being Developed: Could Be Ready in 15 Years, Ohio Researcher Says". The New York Times. December 11, 1966. p. 132. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  36. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section K11–K12.
  37. ^ "Michigan Freeway Hits 1,000th Mile". The Milwaukee Sentinel. December 13, 1962. Part 1, p. 12. ISSN 1052-4479. 
  38. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  39. ^ "New Highway Opened". Ironwood Daily Globe. Associated Press. December 21, 1963. p. 9. OCLC 10890811. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  40. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  41. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Port Huron inset.
  42. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1965). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Port Huron inset.
  43. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1966). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Port Huron inset.
  44. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1967). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Port Huron inset.
  45. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1967). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section K12.
  46. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1968). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section K12.
  47. ^ "Highway Additions Requested By State". The Owosso Argus-Press. Associated Press. November 14, 1968. p. 7. OCLC 9802802. Retrieved December 5, 2010. 
  48. ^ a b c Weingroff, Richard (July 16, 2013) [1998]. "Part I: History". The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  49. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1969). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by H.M. Gousha. Section L10–K13.
  50. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1970). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section L10–K13.
  51. ^ a b Barnett, pp. 40–1, 49–50.
  52. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1970). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MDSH. Lansing inset.
  53. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1971). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MDSH. Lansing inset.
  54. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1971). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section K12.
  55. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1972). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section K12.
  56. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1973). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section L10–K12.
  57. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSHT. Section L10–K12, L8–K9.
  58. ^ Weingroff, Richard (July 16, 2013) [1998]. "Part II: Mileage". The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  59. ^ Barnett, p. 215.
  60. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1984). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi/1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDTO. Section K12–K14.
  61. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1985). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi/1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDTO. Section K12–K14.
  62. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1987). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  63. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1988). Department of Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  64. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1991). Michigan Department of Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  65. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1992). Michigan Department of Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  66. ^ "I-69 Now Open South of Lansing". Marshall Evening Chronicle. Associated Press. October 17, 1992. p. 20. OCLC 18110507. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 
  67. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1993). Michigan Department of Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDTO. Section N10–L14.
  68. ^ "Thousands Jam Second Blue Water Bridge". Marshall Chronicle. Associated Press. July 15, 1997. p. 3. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  69. ^ Truscott, John (August 31, 1998). "Governor Engler Opens US 27 Freeway" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2008. 
  70. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2000). Department of Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 cm:9 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section K11–L11.
  71. ^ Zink, Ray (April 17, 1999). "Report of the Special Committee on Route Numbering to the Standing Committee on Highways" (PDF). American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Retrieved May 24, 2008. 
  72. ^ Ranzenberger, Mark (April 27, 2008). "US 127 Signs Getting Updated". The Morning Sun (Mount Pleasant, MI). pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 22378715. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  73. ^ Michigan Legislature (July 23, 2001). "Public Act 56 of 2001" (PDF). State of Michigan. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  74. ^ Baker, Gary (October 9, 2004). "Stretch of I-69 Designated as MDOT Recreation Heritage Route". Coldwater Daily Reporter. News section. ISSN 0745-6794. 
  75. ^ Stoy, Roland (July 18, 2006). "Purple Heart Trail: Dignitaries Dedicate 'Link with the Past' at Ceremony". Coldwater Daily Reporter. News section. ISSN 0745-6794. 
  76. ^ a b Helms, Matt (February 17, 2011). "$90M Upgrade Coming to I-94/I-69 in Port Huron Area". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved August 19, 2013. 
  77. ^ LeBlanc, Beth (October 20, 2012). "Interstate 94/69 Bridge Project Done". The Times Herald (Por Huron, MI). Retrieved July 13, 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  78. ^ Morosi, Rob. "Seeing Is Believing on I-94". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  79. ^ Mattera, Julianne (October 1, 2012). "I-94/69 East Exits Changing Today". The Times Herald (Port Huron, MI). Retrieved July 13, 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  80. ^ LeBlanc, Beth (June 3, 2013). "New MDOT Freeway Fix Shakes up Neighbors: Rumble Strips To Alert Drivers Irritate Families". The Times Herald (Port Huron). Retrieved August 19, 2013. 
  81. ^ LeBlanc, Beth (June 26, 2014). "Construction Will Close Eastbound I-69 Exit". The Times Herald (Port Huron, MI). Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 

Works cited[edit]

  • Barnett, LeRoy (2004). A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan. Allegan Forest, MI: The Priscilla Press. ISBN 1-886167-24-9. 
  • Hyde, Charles K. (1993). Historic Highway Bridges of Michigan. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2448-7. 
  • Kulsea, Bill & Shawver, Tom (1980). Making Michigan Move: A History of Michigan Highways and the Michigan Department of Transportation. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Transportation. OCLC 8169232. 
  • Mason, Philip P. (1959). Michigan Highways From Indian Trails to Expressways. Ann Arbor, MI: Braun-Brumfield. OCLC 23314983. 
  • Michigan Legislature (1915) [1913]. "Chapter 91: State Reward Trunk Line Highways". In Shields, Edmund C.; Black, Cyrenius P. & Broomfield, Archibald. The Compiled Laws of the State of Michigan, Volume I. Lansing, MI: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford. pp. 1868–72. OCLC 44724558. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  • ——— (1919). "PA 19: An Act to Provide for the Construction, Improvement and Maintenance of Trunk Line Highways". In Vaughn, Coleman C. Public Acts of the Legislatures of the State of Michigan Passed at the Regular Session of 1919 Containing Joint Resolutions and Amendments to the Constitution. Fort Wayne, IN: Fort Wayne Printing. pp. 31–5. Retrieved October 10, 2013. 
  • Morrison, Roger L. (Autumn 1937). "The History and Development of Michigan Highways". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Bureau of Alumni Relations) 39 (54): 59–73. OCLC 698029175. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing


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