Intertextuality

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Intertextuality is the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. Intertextual figures include: allusion, quotation, calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody.[1][2][3] An example of intertextuality is an author’s borrowing and transformation of a prior text or to a reader’s referencing of one text in reading another.

The term “intertextuality” has, itself, been borrowed and transformed many times since it was coined by poststructuralist Julia Kristeva in 1966. As philosopher William Irwin wrote, the term “has come to have almost as many meanings as users, from those faithful to Kristeva’s original vision to those who simply use it as a stylish way of talking about allusion and influence.”[4]

Intertextuality and poststructuralism[edit]

Kristeva’s coinage of “intertextuality” represents an attempt to synthesize Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics—his study of how signs derive their meaning within the structure of a text—with Bakhtin’s dialogism—his examination of the multiple meanings, or “heteroglossia”, in each text (especially novels) and in each word.[5] For Kristeva,[6] “the notion of intertextuality replaces the notion of intersubjectivity” when we realize that meaning is not transferred directly from writer to reader but instead is mediated through, or filtered by, “codes” imparted to the writer and reader by other texts. For example, when we read James Joyce’s Ulysses we decode it as a modernist literary experiment, or as a response to the epic tradition, or as part of some other conversation, or as part of all of these conversations at once. This intertextual view of literature, as shown by Roland Barthes, supports the concept that the meaning of a text does not reside in the text, but is produced by the reader in relation not only to the text in question, but also the complex network of texts invoked in the reading process. –

More recent post-structuralist theory, such as that formulated in Daniela Caselli's Beckett's Dantes: Intertextuality in the Fiction and Criticism (MUP 2005), re-examines "intertextuality" as a production within texts, rather than as a series of relationships between different texts. Some postmodern theorists [7] like to talk about the relationship between "intertextuality" and "hypertextuality"; intertextuality makes each text a "living hell of hell on earth" [8] and part of a larger mosaic of texts, just as each hypertext can be a web of links and part of the whole World-Wide Web. Indeed, the World-Wide Web has been theorized as a unique realm of reciprocal intertextuality, in which no particular text can claim centrality, yet the Web text eventually produces an image of a community--the group of people who write and read the text using specific discursive strategies.[9]

One can also make distinctions between the notions of "intertext", "hypertext" and "supertext".[citation needed] Take for example the Dictionary of the Khazars by Milorad Pavić. As an intertext it employs quotations from the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions. As a hypertext it consists of links to different articles within itself and also every individual trajectory of reading it. As a supertext it combines male and female versions of itself, as well as three mini-dictionaries in each of the versions.

Competing terms[edit]

Some critics have complained that the ubiquity of the term "intertextuality" in postmodern criticism has crowded out related terms and important nuances. Irwin (227) laments that intertextuality has eclipsed allusion as an object of literary study while lacking the latter term's clear definition.[10] Linda Hutcheon argues that excessive interest in intertextuality rejects the role of the author, because intertextuality can be found "in the eye of the beholder" and does not entail a communicator's intentions. By contrast, in A Theory of Parody Hutcheon notes parody always features an author who actively encodes a text as an imitation with critical difference.[11] However, there have also been attempts at more closely defining different types of intertextuality. The Australian media scholar John Fiske has made a distinction between what he labels 'vertical' and 'horizontal' intertextuality. Horizontal intertextuality denotes references that are on the 'same level' i.e. when books make references to other books, whereas vertical intertextuality is found when, say, a book makes a reference to film or song or vice versa.[citation needed] Similarly, Linguist Norman Fairclough distinguishes between 'manifest intertextuality' and 'constitutive intertextuality.'[12] The former signifies intertextual elements such as presupposition, negation, parody, irony, etc. The latter signifies the interrelationship of discursive features in a text, such as structure, form, or genre. Constitutive Intertextuality is also referred to interdiscursivity,[13] though, generally interdiscursivity refers to relations between larger formations of texts.

Related Concepts[edit]

Linguist Norman Fairclough states that "intertextuality is a matter of recontextualization."[14] According to Per Linell, recontextualization can be defined as the "dynamic transfer-and-transformation of something from one discourse/text-in-context … to another."[15] Recontextualization can be relatively explicit—for example, when one text directly quotes another—or relatively implicit—as when the "same" generic meaning is rearticulated across different texts.[16]

A number of scholars have observed that recontextualization can have important ideological and political consequences. For instance, Adam Hodges has studied how White House officials recontextualized and altered a military general’s comments for political purposes, highlighting favorable aspects of the general’s utterances while downplaying the damaging aspects.[17] Rhetorical scholar Jeanne Fahnestock has shown that when popular magazines recontextualize scientific research they enhance the uniqueness of the scientific findings and confer greater certainty on the reported facts.[18] Similarly, John Oddo found that American reporters covering Colin Powell’s 2003 U.N. speech transformed Powell’s discourse as they recontextualized it, bestowing Powell’s allegations with greater certainty and warrantability and even adding new evidence to support Powell’s claims.[19]

Oddo has also argued that recontextualization has a future-oriented counterpoint, which he dubs "precontextualization."[20] According to Oddo, precontextualization is a form of anticipatory intertextuality wherein "a text introduces and predicts elements of a symbolic event that is yet to unfold."[21] For example, Oddo contends, American journalists anticipated and previewed Colin Powell’s U.N. address, drawing his future discourse into the normative present.

Examples and history[edit]

James Joyce's 1922 novel Ulysses bears an intertextual relationship to Homer's Odyssey.

While the theoretical concept of intertextuality is associated with post-modernism, the device itself is not new. New Testament passages quote from the Old Testament and Old Testament books such as Deuteronomy or the prophets refer to the events described in Exodus (though on using 'intertextuality' to describe the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament, see Porter 1997). Whereas a redaction critic would use such intertextuality to argue for a particular order and process of the authorship of the books in question, literary criticism takes a synchronic view that deals with the texts in their final form, as an interconnected body of literature. This interconnected body extends to later poems and paintings that refer to Biblical narratives, just as other texts build networks around Greek and Roman Classical history and mythology. Bullfinch's 1855 work The Age Of Fable served as an introduction to such an intertextual network;[citation needed] according to its author, it was intended "...for the reader of English literature, of either sex, who wishes to comprehend the allusions so frequently made by public speakers, lecturers, essayists, and poets...".

Even the nomenclature "new" and "old" (testament) reframes the real context that the Jewish Torah had been usurped by followers of a new faith wishing to co-opt the original one.

Sometimes intertextuality is taken as plagiarism as in the case of Spanish writer Lucía Etxebarria whose poem collection Estación de infierno (2001) was found to contain metaphors and verses from Antonio Colinas. Etxebarria claimed that she admired him and applied intertextuality.[citation needed]

Some examples of intertextuality in literature include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gerard Genette (1997) Paratexts p.18
  2. ^ Hallo, William W. (2010) The World's Oldest Literature: Studies in Sumerian Belles-Lettres p.608
  3. ^ Cancogni, Annapaola (1985) The Mirage in the Mirror: Nabokov's Ada and Its French Pre-Texts pp.203-213
  4. ^ Irwin,2, October 2004, pp. 227–242, 228.
  5. ^ Irwin, 228.
  6. ^ Kristeva, Julia. Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980, p. 69.
  7. ^ Gerard Genette, Palimpsests: literature in the second degree, Channa Newman and Claude Doubinsky (trans.), University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln NE and London.
  8. ^ Kristeva, 66.
  9. ^ Mitra, Ananda (1999). "Characteristics of the WWW Text: Tracing Discursive Strategies". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 5 (1): 1. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.1999.tb00330.x. 
  10. ^ Irwin, 227.
  11. ^ Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. New York: Methuen, 1985.
  12. ^ Fairclough, Norman (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press, 117.
  13. ^ Agger, Gunhild Intertextuality Revisited: Dialogues and Negotiations in Media Studies. Canadian Journal of Aesthetics, 4, 1999.
  14. ^ Fairclough, Norman. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. New York: Routledge, 2003, p. 51.
  15. ^ Linell, Per. "Discourse across boundaries: On recontextualizations and the blending of voices in professional discourse," Text, 18, 1998, p. 154.
  16. ^ Oddo, John. Intertextuality and the 24-Hour News Cycle: A Day in the Rhetorical Life of Colin Powell's U.N. Address. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2014, p. 132-133.
  17. ^ Hodges, Adam. "The Politics of Recontextualization: Discursive Competition over Claims of Iranian Involvement in Iraq, " Discourse & Society, 19(4), 2008, 483-505.
  18. ^ Fahnestock, Jeanne. "Accommodating Science: The Rhetorical life of Scientific Facts," Written Communication, 3(3), 1986, 275-296.
  19. ^ Oddo, John. Intertextuality and the 24-Hour News Cycle: A Day in the Rhetorical Life of Colin Powell's U.N. Address. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2014.
  20. ^ Oddo, John. "Precontextualization and the Rhetoric of Futurity: Foretelling Colin Powell's U.N. Address on NBC News," Discourse & Communication, 7(1), 2013, 25-53.
  21. ^ Oddo, John. Intertextuality and the 24-Hour News Cycle: A Day in the Rhetorical Life of Colin Powell's U.N. Address. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2014, p. 78.

Works cited[edit]

  • Agger, Gunhild Intertextuality Revisited: Dialogues and Negotiations in Media Studies. Canadian Journal of Aesthetics, 4, 1999.
  • Fahnestock, Jeanne. "Accommodating Science: The Rhetorical life of Scientific Facts," Written Communication, 3(3), 1986, 275-296.
  • Fairclough, Norman. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. New York: Routledge, 2003.
  • Griffig, Thomas. Intertextualität in linguistischen Fachaufsätzen des Englischen und Deutschen (Intertextuality in English and German Linguistic Research Articles). Frankfurt a.M. et al.: Lang, 2006.
  • Hodges, Adam. "The Politics of Recontextualization: Discursive Competition over Claims of Iranian Involvement in Iraq," Discourse & Society, 19(4), 2008, 483-505.
  • Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. New York: Methuen, 1985.
  • Irwin, William. ''Against Intertextuality''. Philosophy and Literature, v28, Number 2, October 2004, pp. 227–242.
  • Kristeva, Julia. Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
  • Linell, Per. "Discourse across boundaries: On recontextualizations and the blending of voices in professional discourse," Text, 18, 1998, 143-157.
  • Oddo, John. Intertextuality and the 24-Hour News Cycle: A Day in the Rhetorical Life of Colin Powell's U.N. Address. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2014.
  • Pasco, Allan H. Allusion: A Literary Graft. 1994. Charlottesville: Rookwood Press, 2002.
  • Porter, Stanley E. "The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament: A Brief Comment on Method and Terminology." In Early Christian Interpretation of the Scriptures of Israel: Investigations and Proposals (eds. C. A. Evans and J. A. Sanders; JSNTSup 14; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), 79-96.

See also[edit]