Into the Groove

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"Into the Groove"
Two blond females standing side-by-side. They are wearing black trousers and black-and-white tops, with a number of junk jewelery around their neck and hand. The woman on the right crosses her legs and looks towards the image, while the one of the left, looks on her far left. The image is surrounded by a black border, the right of which has the words "Madonna" and "Into the Groove" written in white capital letters.
Single by Madonna
from the album Like a Virgin
A-side "Angel"
B-side "Shoo-Bee-Doo"
Released July 23, 1985
Format
Recorded
Genre
Length 4:45
Label
Writer(s)
Producer(s)
  • Madonna
  • Steve Bray
Madonna singles chronology
  • "Into the Groove"
  • (1985)

"Into the Groove" is a song by American singer-songwriter Madonna from the 1985 film Desperately Seeking Susan. It was featured on the re-issue of her second studio album, Like a Virgin (1984), and released on July 23, 1985, by Sire Records as the album's fourth single outside North America. The original song was included on her third greatest hits album, Celebration (2009), while its remixed versions appeared on the remix compilation You Can Dance (1987), and her second greatest hits compilation The Immaculate Collection (1990).

Madonna's inspiration behind the song was the dance floor, and she wrote it while watching a handsome Puerto Rican man, across her balcony. Initially written for her friend Mark Kamins, Madonna later decided to use it as the soundtrack of her film Desperately Seeking Susan. "Into the Groove" was recorded at Sigma Sound Studios. A remixed version, titled "Into the Hollywood Groove", was created by Madonna in 2003 for a Gap commercial and featured a rap by Missy Elliott. "Into the Groove" consists of instrumentation from synthesizers and drum machines. Madonna's voice is double tracked in the chorus; the song also consists of musical contrasts, overdubs, and Madonna's voice in lower register during the bridge. The lyrics of the song are simple, written as an invitation to dance with the singer. However, it carries sexual innuendos and undertones in the meaning.

The song was appreciated by contemporary critics as well as authors, who frequently called it "Madonna's first great single". The song was a commercial success, reaching the top of the charts in Australia, Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain and the United Kingdom, where it was Madonna's first number-one single. In the United States, the song was only available as the B-side of the 12-inch single of "Angel", therefore it was ineligible to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 according to the rules at the time. By the end of the 1980s, "Into the Groove" was honored by Billboard magazine as the Dance Single of the Decade.

A music video, consisting of clips from the film, was released to accompany the song. The song has been performed by Madonna in most of her concert tours, including the Sticky & Sweet Tour (2008-09), where she performed it while doing Double Dutch jump rope. "Into the Groove" has been covered by a number of artists, including Australian singer Dannii Minogue, who combined the song with her single "Don't Wanna Lose This Feeling".

Background[edit]

Refer to caption
Madonna performing "Into the Groove" with her backup singers Niki Haris (right) and Donna De Lory (left) on the 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour.

"Into the Groove" was written and produced by Madonna and Steve Bray.[1] During an interview with Time, Madonna said that she wrote the song while watching a Latin boy across her balcony.[2] Calling the song 'dorky', Madonna explained:

"When I was writing it, I was sitting in a fourth-floor walk-up on Avenue-B, and there was this gorgeous Puerto Rican boy sitting across me that I wanted to go out on a date with, and I just wanted to get the song over with. I ultimately did go out with him and the song was finished just before my last date with him, which I'm kinda happy that it did not continue... The dance floor was quite a magical place for me. I started off wanting to be a dancer, so that had a lot to do with the song. The freedom that I always feel when I'm dancing, that feeling of inhabiting your body, letting yourself go, expressing yourself through music. I always thought of it as a magical place – even if you're not taking ecstasy. Hence that came to me as the primary inspiration for 'Into the Groove'."[3][4]

Madonna had written the song for her friend Mark Kamins' protégée, Chyne, and recorded a demo, which Kamins intended to modify later.[5] However, Madonna believed that the song would be more suitable for her film Desperately Seeking Susan, and re-recorded it with Bray, making it suitable for the soundtrack.[5] When Kamins found out, he was furious that Madonna did not have the courtesy to tell him that she wanted the song for a different purpose. He felt walked over by Madonna, who retorted: "I'm tough, I'm ambitious and I know exactly what I want. If that makes me a bitch, that's okay." Ultimately Madonna won and the song was used as the soundtrack of Desperately Seeking Susan.[5] "Into the Groove" did not appear on the soundtrack album of the film, but was released on the 1985 worldwide re-issue of Madonna's second studio album, Like a Virgin, instead.[1][6]

The music video is made up of clips from the film, with the lyrics often matching the images. Doug Dowdle of Parallax Productions, a company that pioneered in movie tie-in music videos during the 1980s, created this video from edited footage of the movie, directed by Susan Seidelman. This was done because there were five Madonna videos already on power rotation on MTV, and Warner Bros. did not want the audience to be saturated with any new video. Hence, they decided to use the shots from the film and made a music video.[7] During a 2009 interview with Rolling Stone, Madonna commented: "'Into the Groove' is another song I feel retarded singing, but everybody seems to like it."[8]

Recording[edit]

Madonna and Bray started on the re-recording and changed some portion of the lyrics. Bray commented on the recording sessions as: "I've always kind of made the rib cage and the skeleton [music] of the song already – she's there for the last things like the eyebrows and the haircut [lyrics]. She writes in a stream of mood really."[5] "Into the Groove" was recorded at Sigma Sound Studios. Madonna's friend Erika Belle was present during the recording and watched the whole process. In Andrew Morton's Madonna biography, she noted that at one point of the recording, Bray was facing difficulties with the bridge of the song, as the melody thought by him was not syncing with the rest of the composition.[5] Undeterred by his obvious difficulties, Madonna stepped up to the microphone and sang the words "Live out your fantasy here with me". Bray's problem was solved; Belle remembered the experience as: "[The song] seemed to come out of her, I was awestruck."[5]

Madonna re-tailored the song in 2003, and developed a remix called "Into the Hollywood Groove", which replaced the first verse of "Into the Groove" with the first verse of Madonna's single "Hollywood" (2003). The lyrics of the chorus were also slightly altered and it featured a rap by Missy Elliott. This version of the song was used for a Gap commercial in the summer of 2003, featuring Madonna and Elliot in Gap jeans.[9] Another remix version was composed by Josh Harris and Omar Galeano as "The Passengerz", and was included in Madonna's remix album, Remixed & Revisited (2003).[10]

Composition[edit]

A 20 second sample of "Into the Groove", featuring Madonna singing the chorus of the song, backed by sound of heavy drumbeats and a synth bassline.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

"Into the Groove" begins with a spoken introduction by Madonna, and the sound of drums and synth bassline being heard. This is followed by the chorus, where Madonna's voice is double tracked and the treble is increased by a notch. A synth line counterpoints the main tune, adding a contrast.[3] The bridge, where Madonna sings the line "Live out your fantasy", features her vocals in a lower register alongside the main ones.[3] According to the sheet music published in Musicnotes.com by Alfred Publishing Co. Inc., the song is set in the time signature of common time with a medium tempo of 116 beats per minute. The song is set in the key of C minor with Madonna's voice spanning from the high-tone of C4 to the low-tone of D5. It has a basic sequence of Cm7–B/C–Cm7–A as its chord progression.[11]

The song was remixed by Shep Pettibone for Madonna's remix compilation You Can Dance (1987).[12] In the remixed version, overdubs are present with the continuous repetition of the phrase "c'mon". The first verse does not start until about ninety seconds into the remix. After the first "Now I know you're mine" line is sung, there is a percussion break, and repetition of the phrases "step to the beat" and "c'mon". The last verse incorporates echoing on the vocals, causing overlap of the phrases. The remix ends with instrumentation from congas, whistles and timbales, giving it a Mexican ending.[13] Pettibone also remixed the song alongside Goh Hotoda for The Immaculate Collection (1990) compilation.[14]

The lyrics of the song are simple, written as an invitation to dance with the singer. Despite the simple lyrics, it carries sexual innuendos and undertones in the meaning.[3] Similar to Madonna's previous single "Like a Virgin" (1984), a lyrical hook is also present in "Into the Groove", directed at shy girls. The line "At night I lock the door so no-one else can see" implied that Madonna was not as brazen as her provocative image suggested.[3] According to Barker, the nostalgic people would instantly recognize the song's lyrics at night clubs. He added that the line, "Only when I'm dancing can I feel this free," expresses the freedom that a dance floor brings about, with the dancers happy to find freedom in the music.[15] A neume is visible in the line "Live out your fantasy here with me", which Barker believed, blurred the boundaries of reality and brought one closer to the world of fantasy.[15]

Critical reception[edit]

A blond woman stands atop a rectangular black box. She wears red shorts and sings into a microphone, while holding a pole atop the box, with her right hand. A man is seen beside her, wearing a cap. The backdrop behind them display light blue patterns.
Madonna performing "Into the Groove" during the Sticky & Sweet Tour (2008–09), while dancing on top of a DJ's station

Ever since its release, "Into the Groove" has received critical acclaim. J. Randy Taraborrelli, author of Madonna: An Intimate Biography, said that the song demonstrated Madonna's ability to create infectitious dance music.[2] Rikky Rooksby, author of Madonna: the complete guide to her music, said that "'Into the Groove' will make you feel like you're a winner either way. And that's one of the best things pop music can do for ya. [It's] Madonna's first great single."[3] Clive Barker and Simon Trussler, authors of New Theatre Quarterly, felt that the song was the first disco-anthem of the 1980s.[15]

Toby Cresswell, author of 1001 Songs: The Great Songs of All Time and the Artists, Stories and Secrets, said that the song is a "sweet, limited white tune on the top, and there's Madonna – all the right-shop chic – dragging the straight world into this subterranean paradise. All the magic of the eighties is right here."[4] Matthew Rettenmund, author of Totally Awesome 80s: A Lexicon of the Music, Videos, Movies, TV Shows, Stars, and Trends of that Decadent Decade, declared "Into the Groove" as the ultimate 80s song and felt that it "cemented Madonna's place as the dancing queen of the era".[16] Dawn Keetley and John Pettigrew, authors of Public Women, Public Words: A Documentary History of American Feminism, called it a "mesmerizing theme song".[17]

Santiago Fouz-Hernández and Freya Jarman-Ivens, authors of Madonna's drowned worlds: new approaches to her cultural transformations, commented that the song "taunted playfully".[18] Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine ranked it at twenty-nine on the list of "100 Greatest Dance Songs". He commented: "It's hard to imagine the most famous woman in the world dancing alone in her bedroom at night, locking the doors so 'no one else can see' (as she sings on 'Groove'), even 20 years ago, but you can't help but believe her. The song—and Madonna's performance—are that good."[19] Alfred Soto from Stylus commented that "'Into the Groove' itself is as much wish-fulfillment as 'Crazy For You'.[20] Austin Scaggs from Rolling Stone commented that the song had "an amazing bassline".[8]

By the end of the 1980s, "Into the Groove" was honored by Billboard magazine as the "Dance Single of the Decade".[21] In 2003, Madonna fans were asked to vote for their top-twenty Madonna singles of all-time by Q magazine; "Into the Groove" was allocated the number-three spot.[22] In 2009, the song was ranked at ninety on Blender magazine's "The 500 Greatest Songs Since You Were Born".[23]

Chart performance[edit]

In the United States, due to similar problems with "Crazy for You" and "Material Girl" being released at the same time and competing with each other, it was decided against releasing "Into the Groove" as a 7" single so it would not compete with "Angel", the third single from the Like a Virgin.[3] "Into the Groove" was eventually released as the B-side to the maxi-single of "Angel", therefore it was ineligible to enter the Billboard Hot 100 or Hot Singles Sales charts.[24][25] The song debuted at number 40 on Hot Dance Club Songs chart, as a double A-side with "Angel", on the issue dated June 1, 1985.[26] After four weeks, it reached the top of the chart and also reached number 19 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart.[27] "Into the Groove" is Madonna's most played song on Billboard '​s Recurrent Airplay Chart.[19] On July 30, 1985, "Angel/Into the Groove" was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for shipment of one million copies across the US—the requirement for a gold single prior to 1989.[28][29] It was the first 12-inch single to be certified gold since Frankie Smith's "Double Dutch Bus" (1981).[30] The song placed at number 12 on the Dance year-end charts and sold approximately 600,000 copies of the 12"; it also reached number-one on the Hot Dance Singles Sales chart.[31][32]

"Into the Groove" debuted on the UK Singles Chart at number four, on the chart dated July 27, 1985.[33] It reached the top of the chart and stayed there for four weeks, and was present for a total of 14 weeks on the chart. The song was Madonna's first number-one single in United Kingdom.[33] During its stay at number-one, Madonna's first UK hit "Holiday" was at number-two position. This made her the first female artist in UK chart history to hold the top-two positions of the chart simultaneously.[34] "Into the Groove" was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) for shipment of 500,000 copies of the single.[35] The song was the third biggest selling UK single of 1985, behind Jennifer Rush's "The Power of Love" and Elaine Paige's and Barbara Dickson's "I Know Him So Well".[34] According to the Official Charts Company, the song has sold 870,000 copies there.[36] In Australia, "Into the Groove" charted as a combined single with "Angel" and reached the top of the Kent Music Report chart. It was the second-highest selling single of 1985 in Australia.[37] Across Europe and Oceania, the song was able to reach the top of the charts in Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand and Spain, and inside the top five in France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and European Hot 100 Singles chart.[38][39][40][41][42][43]

Live performances[edit]

A blond woman with long wavy hair singing on stage, wearing a white t-shirt and a black-and-white patterned skirt, holding a microphone in her hand. She is surrounded by dancers in similar attire, carrying long poles.
Madonna performing "Into the Groove" on the Re-Invention World Tour, while wearing kilts

Madonna performed "Into the Groove" on The Virgin Tour in 1985, the Live Aid concert in 1985, the Who's That Girl World Tour in 1987, the Blond Ambition World Tour in 1990, the Re-Invention World Tour in 2004 and the Sticky & Sweet Tour in 2008–09.

In The Virgin Tour, "Into the Groove" was the third song of the setlist. Madonna wore a blue see-through crop-top, revealing her characteristic black bra. She had lacy leggings and crucifixes around her ear and her neck. Her hair was tied at the top and fell in unkempt manner around her ears.[44] She had a tambourine in her hand like her two male dancers, and together they sang the song while standing in front of a microphone, in tandem.[45] The performance was included on the video release titled Live – The Virgin Tour, shot in Detroit.[46] She also performed it on her Live Aid concert on July 13, 1985.[47]

In the Who's That Girl World Tour of 1987, "Into the Groove" was the second-last song before the encore. The outfit she wore during the performance was inspired by artist Andy Warhol. It consisted of a loose pant with a tin of Campbell's soup on the side, the letter U in the front and the word DANCE in the back; it was designed so that when she turned, audience were able to read 'U [Can] Dance]'.[48] In the middle of her singing, a young boy joined her on stage to dance alongside. Madonna then wore a pink bolero jacket. At the end she is joined by her backup singers and dancers. Together they take a bow to the audience and finish the performance.[49] Two different performances of the song on this tour can be found on the videos: Who's That Girl – Live in Japan, filmed in Tokyo on June 22, 1987,[50] and Ciao Italia: Live from Italy, filmed in Turin on September 4, 1987.[51]

Three years later on the Blond Ambition World Tour, "Into the Groove" was again performed before the encore. Madonna, her backup singers Niki Haris and Donna De Lory were portrayed as being seduced by three macho guys in leather jackets. The girls asked the guys to "prove their love to them" and wondered if they would wear a condom when necessary. After that, they sing the Shep Pettibone extended remix of "Into The Groove".[52] Two different performances were taped and released on video, the Blond Ambition – Japan Tour 90, taped in Yokohama on April 27, 1990,[53] and the Blond Ambition World Tour Live, taped in Nice, France, on August 5, 1990.[54]

In the Re-Invention World Tour of 2004, Madonna included the song at the start of the final segment, which started with Scottish bagpiper players parading around the stage in kilts and playing drums and pipes. Madonna appeared onstage in similar long kilts and a white sleeveless t-shirt to perform "Into the Groove" with Scottish bagpiper group Lorne Cousin. Rapper Missy Elliott appeared on the video screen for a rap interlude.[55] The song was again added to the setlist of 2008–09 Sticky & Sweet Tour. Elements of Cassius's "Toop Toop", Frankie Smith's "Double Dutch Bus", The Sugarhill Gang's "Apache (Jump On It)" and Madonna's own "Jump" were added to the performance.[56] "Into the Groove" marked the beginning of the second segment titled Old School.[57] It began with Madonna appearing on the stage in shorts and t-shirt, while skipping to a DJ station. She started singing the song while cartoon characters from late artist, and Madonna's friend, Keith Haring dance on the backdrops. Near the end of the song, Madonna performed a Double Dutch dance interlude.[56]

Cover versions[edit]

The cast of the popular children's musical sitcom Kids Incorporated covered the song on television in 1985 – the original, sexually-suggestive lyrics were altered to be more youth-oriented.[58] The song was covered by alternative rock band Sonic Youth under the pseudonym Ciccone Youth for a 1986 single, and re-titled "Into the Groove(y)"; this recording also appears on the 1988 release The Whitey Album.[59] Dale Bozzio, former lead singer of new wave band Missing Persons, covered the song for the Madonna tribute album Virgin Voices: A Tribute To Madonna, Vol. 2 from 2000.[60] A dance cover of the song was recorded by the group Mad'House for the album Absolutely Mad.[61] Italian singer Mina made a very "personal" version of the song for her 1988's album Ridi Pagliaccio. French pop/rock group Superbus covered "Into the Groove" for their 2002 album, Aéromusical. It was the third and final single from the album.[62] A 2007 tribute compilation to Madonna, titled Through the Wilderness, features a cover of the song by Jeremy Jay.[63] The Medic Droid covered the song on their 2008 debut album, What's Your Medium?.[63]

In 2003, the song was combined with the vocals of Dannii Minogue's "Don't Wanna Lose This Feeling", the fourth and final single from her album Neon Nights. "Into the Groove"'s instrumentation and a small Madonna vocal sample were added to Minogue's vocals, though Minogue's pitch was altered to fit the tempo of the song.[64] In 2013, popular TV series Glee covered the song in the seventh episode of their fifth season, "Puppet Master" featuring guest stars Demi Lovato and Adam Lambert.[65]

Track listing and formats[edit]

Credits and personnel[edit]

Credits adapted from the Like a Virgin (1985 re-issue) and You Can Dance album's liner notes.[1][73]

Charts and certifications[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Like a Virgin (LP, Vinyl, CD). Madonna. Sire Records. 1985. 7599-25181-2. 
  2. ^ a b Taraborrelli 2002, p. 89
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Rooksby 2004, p. 19
  4. ^ a b Cresswell 2006, p. 243
  5. ^ a b c d e f Morton 2002, p. 168
  6. ^ "Desperately Seeking Susan > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved July 10, 2010. 
  7. ^ Bego 2000, p. 120
  8. ^ a b Scaggs, Austin (October 29, 2009). "Madonna Looks Back: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone (San Francisco: Jann Wenner) (1090): 51. ISSN 0035-791X. 
  9. ^ Susman, Gary (July 16, 2003). "True Blue Jeans". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 18, 2010. 
  10. ^ Rooksby 2004, p. 67
  11. ^ "Digital Sheet Music – Madonna – Into The Groove". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing. 
  12. ^ Chin, Brian (1987). You Can Dance (LP, Vinyl, CD). Madonna. Sire Records. 9 25535-2. 
  13. ^ Rooksby 2004, p. 29
  14. ^ The Immaculate Collection (LP, Vinyl, CD). Madonna. Sire Records. 1990. 7599-26440-2. 
  15. ^ a b c Barker & Trussler 1996, p. 106
  16. ^ Rettenmund 1996, p. 56
  17. ^ Keetley & Pettigrew 2005, p. 379
  18. ^ Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 181
  19. ^ a b Cinquemani, Sal (January 30, 2006). "100 Greatest Dance Songs". Slant Magazine. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  20. ^ Soto, Alfred (October 23, 2007). "Madonna – Like a Virgin / The Immaculate Collection". Stylus. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  21. ^ Press release (May 25, 1990). "Michael, Madonna Top 'Billboard' Poll". Dayton Daily News: 23. ISSN 0897-0920. 
  22. ^ Reporter, Staff (December 9, 2003). "Top 20 Madonna Singles of All-time". Q magazine (San Francisco) 19 (23). ISSN 0955-4955. 
  23. ^ "The 500 Greatest Songs Since You Were Born". Blender. April 1, 2009. Archived from the original on May 3, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  24. ^ Bronson 2003, p. 674
  25. ^ Trust, Gary (April 28, 2013). "Weekly Chart Notes: Fall Out Boy Covers ... Fall Out Boy; Taylor Swift, Pink Floyd Set Marks". Billboard (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved May 3, 2013. 
  26. ^ Chin, Brian (June 1, 1985). "Hot Dance/Disco Club Play". Billboard (New York) 97 (22): 68. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  27. ^ Chin, Brian (June 29, 1985). "Hot Dance/Disco Club Play". Billboard (New York) 97 (25): 64. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  28. ^ a b "American single certifications – Madonna – Angel_Into the Groove". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved February 19, 2010.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
  29. ^ Grein, Paul (May 14, 1989). "New Golden Rule: 500,000 Sales Mark for All Singles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 
  30. ^ Grein, Paul (August 10, 1985). "Hot Madonna: July Fills Her Coffers With RIAA Metal". Billboard (New York) 97 (32): 7. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 16, 2010. 
  31. ^ a b Chin, Brian (December 28, 1985). "Dance Trax". Billboard (New York) 97 (52): 45. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  32. ^ Chin, Brian (August 3, 1985). "12 Inch Singles Sales". Billboard (New York) 97 (31): 64. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  33. ^ a b c "Archive Chart: 1985-07-27". Official Charts Company. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  34. ^ a b c McAleer 2004, p. 262
  35. ^ a b "British single certifications – Madonna – Into the Groove". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved February 19, 2010.  Enter Into the Groove in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select single in the field By Format. Click Go
  36. ^ a b Myers, Justin (February 7, 2014). "Madonna’s Official Number One Singles' Sales Revealed!". Official Charts Company. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 
  37. ^ a b c Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. Australian Chart Book, St Ives, N.S.W. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. 
  38. ^ a b "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Into the Groove". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  39. ^ a b "Madonna: Discografia Italiana" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  40. ^ a b 外相关网站,请准备 [Japanese Singles Chart] (in Japanese). Oricon. September 2, 1985. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  41. ^ a b Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2. 
  42. ^ a b "Officialcharts.de – Madonna – Into the Groove". GfK Entertainment. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  43. ^ a b "Eurochart Hot 100 Singles". Billboard (New York) 97 (37): 50. September 19, 1985. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  44. ^ Clerk 2002, p. 41
  45. ^ Clerk 2002, p. 49
  46. ^ Madonna (1985). Live – The Virgin Tour (VHS). Warner Home Video. 
  47. ^ Metz & Benson 1999, p. 319
  48. ^ Morton 2002, p. 200
  49. ^ Layton 2004, p. 110
  50. ^ Madonna (1987). Who's That Girl – Live in Japan (VHS). Warner Home Vdieo. 
  51. ^ Madonna (1987). Ciao Italia: Live from Italy (VHS). Warner Home Video. 
  52. ^ Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 73
  53. ^ Madonna (1990). Blond Ambition – Japan Tour 90 (VHS). Warner-Pioneer Japan. 
  54. ^ Madonna (1990). Blond Ambition World Tour Live (Laserdisc). Pioneer Artists. 
  55. ^ Hand, John (August 13, 2004). "Madonna's loyal following". BBC (BBC Online). Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  56. ^ a b Kreps, Daniel (October 27, 2009). "Madonna Exclusive Sticky & Sweet Tour Video: 'Into The Groove". Billboard. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  57. ^ Albiston, Isabel (August 24, 2008). "Madonna at Cardiff's Millennium Stadium: Review". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  58. ^ "Kids Incorporated: Weekly Video's". Kids Incorporated. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  59. ^ Torreano, Bradley (September 9, 1998). "Whitey Album > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  60. ^ Huey, Steve (May 23, 1999). "Virgin Voices: A Tribute to Madonna, Vol. 2 > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  61. ^ Bonanich, Drago. "Mad'House > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  62. ^ "Aeromusical: Superbus Album". Yahoo!. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  63. ^ a b "Madonna > Songs > Songs Composed By". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  64. ^ Slomowicz, Ron (September 12, 2005). "Dannii Minogue Interview". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  65. ^ "Glee Cast – MP3 downloads". amazon.com. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  66. ^ Into the Groove (UK 7-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1985. 928 934-7. 
  67. ^ Into the Groove (UK Limited Edition Shaped Picture Disc Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1985. W 8934 P. 
  68. ^ Into the Groove (Japanese 7-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records, Warner-Pionner Corporation. 1985. P-1988. 
  69. ^ Into the Groove (UK 12-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1985. 920352-0. 
  70. ^ Into the Groove (German 1994 CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1994. 7599 20352-2. 
  71. ^ Into the Groove (Promo 12" vinyl liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. PRO-A-2906. 
  72. ^ Into the Groove (German CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records, WEA Musik. 1989. 7599-21141-2. 
  73. ^ You Can Dance (LP, Cassette, CD). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. 7599-25535-2, WX 76. 
  74. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Madonna – Into the Groove" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  75. ^ "Ultratop.be – Madonna – Into the Groove" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  76. ^ "Madonna – Into the Groove – Song details" (in Dutch). VRT Top 30. August 10, 1985. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 
  77. ^ "Lescharts.com – Madonna – Into the Groove" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  78. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – Madonna search results" (in Dutch) Dutch Top 40. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  79. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Madonna – Into the Groove" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
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  81. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Madonna – Into the Groove". VG-lista. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
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