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Invadopodia or invasive feet are protrusions in the cell membrane of some cells that are rich in actin and extend into the extracellular matrix (ECM).[1] Researchers have reported that invadopodia formation is initiated with the assembly of actin core structures, followed by the accumulation of matrix metalloproteinase for ECM degradation. They are associated with high levels of proteolysis and cell signaling and are frequently seen in metastatic cancer cells that are invading surrounding tissues.[2] These structures are very similar to the podosomes formed by normal cells that need to cross tissue barriers, such as macrophages and monocytes, or cells such as osteoclasts and fibroblast-like synoviocytes that remodel tissue. However, podosomes are short-lived and do not cause major degradation of the ECM.[3]

In the case of breast cancer cell lines, the ability to form invadopodia is closely related to their invasive and metastatic properties.[4][5] Additionally, during intravasation, invadopodia-like protrusions in tumor cells have been observed in vivo by intravital imaging.[6][7] Therefore, invadopodia are proposed to function in local ECM degradation during cancer invasion and metastasis, although the in vivo relevance of invadopodia has yet to be determined.

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  1. ^ Linder S (March 2007). "The matrix corroded: podosomes and invadopodia in extracellular matrix degradation". Trends Cell Biol. 17 (3): 107–17. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2007.01.002. PMID 17275303. 
  2. ^ Weaver AM (2006). "Invadopodia: specialized cell structures for cancer invasion". Clin. Exp. Metastasis 23 (2): 97–105. doi:10.1007/s10585-006-9014-1. PMID 16830222. 
  3. ^ Ayala I, Baldassarre M, Caldieri G, Buccione R (April 2006). "Invadopodia: a guided tour". Eur. J. Cell Biol. 85 (3–4): 159–64. doi:10.1016/j.ejcb.2005.09.005. PMID 16546558. 
  4. ^ Yamaguchi H; Lorenz, M; Kempiak, S; Sarmiento, C; Coniglio, S; Symons, M; Segall, J; Eddy, R et al. (2005). "Molecular mechanisms of invadopodium formation: the role of the N-WASP-Arp2/3 complex pathway and cofilin". J Cell Biol 168 (3): 441–52. doi:10.1083/jcb.200407076. PMC 2171731. PMID 15684033. 
  5. ^ Yamaguchi H; Takeo, Y; Yoshida, S; Kouchi, Z; Nakamura, Y; Fukami, K (2009). "Lipid rafts and caveolin-1 are required for invadopodia formation and extracellular matrix degradation by human breast cancer cells". Cancer Res 69 (22): 8594–602. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2305. PMID 19887621. 
  6. ^ Sidani M; Wyckoff, J; Xue, C; Segall, JE; Condeelis, J (2006). "Probing the microenvironment of mammary tumors using multiphoton microscopy". J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 11 (2): 151–63. doi:10.1007/s10911-006-9021-5. PMID 17106644. 
  7. ^ Yamaguchi H; Wyckoff, J; Condeelis, J (2005). "Cell migration in tumors". Current Opinion in Cell Biology 17 (5): 559–64. doi:10.1016/ PMID 16098726. 

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