Inverted roller coaster
|Inverted roller coaster|
|No. of installations||106|
|Manufacturers||Beijing Shibaolai, Bolliger & Mabillard, Fabbri Group, Giovanola, Hoei Sangyo Co., Ltd., Intamin, Pinfari, Vekoma|
|Restraint Style||Over-the-shoulder (most common style)|
An inverted roller coaster is a roller coaster in which the train runs under the track with the seats directly attached to the wheel carriage. This latter attribute is what sets it apart from the older suspended coaster, which runs under the track, but "swings" via a pivoting bar attached to the wheel carriage. Inverted coasters are notable for their "reversed" orientation compared to a traditional roller coaster, with the passengers' legs, rather than arms, exposed.
The inverted coaster was pioneered by the Swiss roller coaster designers Bolliger & Mabillard in the early 1990s. The first installation came at Six Flags Great America in 1992. Batman: The Ride opened to much fanfare, quickly being "cloned" and installed at many Six Flags and independent parks. The inverted coaster quickly became an industry favorite with custom designs being installed almost every year. The tallest inverted coaster is Alpengeist at Busch Gardens Williamsburg with a lift hill standing 195 feet.
Besides Bolliger & Mabillard, companies that manufacture inverted coasters in various designs include Vekoma, Intamin and other smaller companies. Intamin has few designs classified as inverted coasters, although they do install inverted coaster trains on some of their launched designs. Vekoma, on the other hand, usually mass-produces the same design (SLC (689m Standard)) with 23 identical coasters  (and a few variations of that design) installed around the world. Also, in recent years, Vekoma has become the first manufacturer to install a family-friendly inverted roller coaster. Giovanola also has a single inverted coaster operating. Only Bolliger & Mabillard inverted coasters have positions on the Amusement Today Top 50 Steel Coasters list for 2005.
The inversions usually include vertical loops, zero gravity rolls, Immelmann loops, cobra rolls, and corkscrews.