Ioan P. Culianu
Ioan Petru Culianu or Couliano (5 January 1950 – 21 May 1991) was a Romanian historian of religion, culture, and ideas, a philosopher and political essayist, and a short story writer. He served as professor of the history of religions at the University of Chicago from 1988 to his death, and had previously taught the history of Romanian culture at the University of Groningen.
An expert in gnosticism and Renaissance magic, he was encouraged and befriended by Mircea Eliade, though he gradually distanced himself from his mentor. Culianu published seminal work on the interrelation of the occult, Eros, magic, physics, and history.
Culianu was murdered in 1991. It has been much speculated his murder was in consequence of his critical view of Romanian national politics. Some factions of the Romanian political right openly celebrated his murder. The Romanian Securitate, which he once lambasted as a force "of epochal stupidity", has also been suspected of involvement and of using puppet fronts on the right as cover.
Culianu was born in Iaşi. He studied at the University of Bucharest, then traveled to Italy where he was granted political asylum while attending lectures in Perugia in July 1972. He later graduated from the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan. He lived briefly in France and the Netherlands, before leaving Europe for Chicago, in the United States. There, after a stint as visiting professor, he became a professor at the University of Chicago. He took a Ph.D. at the University of Paris IV in January 1987, with the thesis Recherches sur les dualismes d'Occident. Analyse de leurs principaux mythes ("Research into Western Dualisms. An Analysis of their Major Myths"), coordinated by Michel Meslin.
Having completed three doctorates and being proficient in six languages, Culianu specialized in Renaissance magic and mysticism. He became a friend, and later the literary executor, of Mircea Eliade, the famous historian of religions. He also wrote fiction and political articles.
Culianu had divorced his first wife, and at the time of his death was engaged to Hillary Wiesner, a 27-year-old graduate student at Harvard University.
Minutes after concluding a conversation with his doctoral student, Alexander Arguelles, at noon on a day when the building was teeming with visitors to a book sale, Culianu was murdered in the bathroom of the divinity school, Swift Hall, of the University of Chicago. He was shot once in the back of the head. The identity of the killer and the motive are still unknown.
Speculation arose that he had been killed by former Securitate agents, due to political articles in which he attacked the Communist regime. The murder occurred a year and a half after the Romanian Revolution and Nicolae Ceauşescu's death.
Before being killed, he had published a number of articles and interviews that heavily criticized the Ion Iliescu post-Revolution regime, making Culianu one of the government's most vocal adversaries. Several theories link his murder with Romanian Intelligence, which was widely perceived as the successor of the Securitate; several pages of Culianu's Securitate files are inexplicably missing. Some reports suggest that Culianu had been threatened by anonymous phone calls in the days leading up to his killing.
Ultra-nationalist and neo-fascist involvement, as part of an Iron Guard revival in connection with the nationalist discourse of the late years of Ceauşescu's rule and the rise of the Vatra Românească and România Mare parties, was not itself excluded from the scenario; according to Vladimir Tismăneanu: "[Culianu] gave the most devastating indictment of the new union of far left and far right in Romania". As part of his criticism of the Iron Guard, Culianu had come to expose Mircea Eliade's connections with the latter movement during the interwar years (because of this, relations between the two academics had soured for the final years of Eliade's life). However, Vladimir Tismăneanu omits some "details", of which he is very aware of: Romanian Securitate have never activated outside Romania, but the KGB using Romanian speaking agents, among many others. People speaking foreign languages were preferred instead of Russians, and they were recruited by some other agents speaking their own language, presenting their commandments as if in interest of their own country, not the KGB's ones. His parents were such KGB agents speaking Romanian which however were aware of the fact that they are KGB agents. Actually, the reason why Culainu was murdered was because he was reaching too fast the fact that in December 1989 the KGB network acting in Romania since always has taken over Romania's government and it's key positions in the state. All the govern's members except Petre Roman -the prime minister- were well known KGB agents being filed at Securitate. The reason they were filed was that Ceausescu was afraid Moscow was double-checking him instead of trusting his own reports. Petre Roman was only used for some time and eliminated soon after, however. All the govern members' files at Securitate has disappeared immediately after December 1989. Vladimir Tismăneanu's one commandment was probably to write an article about Culianu's death omitting these facts, but mixing in some artificial parties that were incommoding KGB at that time, like Vatra Românească and România Mare parties.
- Mircea Eliade, Assisi, Cittadella Editrice, 1978; Roma, Settimo Sigillo, 2008(2); Mircea Eliade, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1995, 1998(2); Iaşi, Polirom, 2004(3)
- Iter in Silvis: Saggi scelti sulla gnosi e altri studi, Gnosis, no. 2, Messina, EDAS, 1981
- Religione e accrescimento del potere, in G. Romanato, M. Lombardo, I.P. Culianu, Religione e potere, Torino, Marietti, 1981
- Psychanodia: A Survey of the Evidence Concerning the Ascension of the Soul and Its Relevance, Leiden, Brill, 1983
- Eros et magie a la Renaissance. 1484, Paris, Flammarion, 1984
- Expériences de l'extase: Extase, ascension et récit visionnaire de l'hellénisme au Moyen Age, Paris, Payot, 1984; Experienze dell'estasi dall'Ellenismo al Medioevo, Bari, Laterza, 1986
- Gnosticismo e pensiero moderno: Hans Jonas, Roma, L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1985
- Éros et Magie à la Renaissance. 1484, Paris, Flammarion, 1984; Eros and Magic in the Renaissance, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Eros e magia nel Rinascimento: La congiunzione astrologica del 1484, Milano, Il Saggiatore - A. Mondadori, 1987; Eros şi magie în Renaştere. 1484, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1994, 1999(2); Iaşi, Polirom, 2003(3); Eros y magia en el Renacimiento. 1484, Madrid, Ediciones Siruela, 1999
- Recherches sur les dualismes d'Occident: Analyse de leurs principaux mythes, Lille, Lille-Thèses, 1986; I miti dei dualismi occidentali, Milano, Jaca Book, 1989
- Les Gnoses dualistes d'Occident: Histoire et mythes, Paris, Plon, 1990; The Tree of Gnosis, New York, HarperCollins, 1992; Gnozele dualiste ale Occidentului. Istorie si mituri, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1995; Iaşi, Polirom, 2002(2)
- Out of this World: Otherworldly Journeys from Gilgamesh to Albert Einstein, Boston, Shambhala, 1991; Mas alla de este mundo, Barcelona, Paidos Orientalia, 1993; Călătorii in lumea de dincolo, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1994, 1999(2); Iaşi, Polirom, 2003(3); Jenseits dieser Welt, Munchen, Eugen Diederichs Verlag, 1995
- I viaggi dell'anima, Milano, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, 1991
- The Tree of Gnosis : Gnostic Mythology from Early Christianity to Modern Nihilism, San Francisco, HarperCollins, 1992; Arborele gnozei. Mitologia gnostică de la creştinismul timpuriu la nihilismul modern, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1999
- Experiences del extasis, Barcelona, Paidos Orientalia, 1994; Experienţe ale extazului, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1997; Iaşi, Polirom, 2004(2)
- Religie şi putere, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1996; Iași, Polirom, 2005
- Psihanodia, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1997, Iași, Polirom, 2006
- Păcatul împotriva spiritului. Scrieri politice, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1999; Iași, Polirom, 2005, 2013
- Studii româneşti I. Fantasmele nihilismului. Secretul Doctorului Eliade, Bucureşti, Nemira, 2000; Iași, Polirom, 2006
- ”Studii românești II. Soarele și Luna. Otrăvurile admirației”, Iași, Polirom, 2009
- ”Iter in silvis I. Eseuri despre gnoză și alte studii”, Iași, Polirom, 2012
- ”Iter in silvis II. Gnoză și magie”, Iași, Polirom, 2013
- Jocurile minţii. Istoria ideilor, teoria culturii, epistemologie, Iaşi, Polirom, 2002
- Iocari serio. Ştiinţa şi arta în gîndirea Renaşterii, Iaşi, Polirom, 2003
- Cult, magie, erezii. Articole din enciclopedii ale religiilor, Iaşi, Polirom, 2003
- With Mircea Eliade and H.S. Wiesner: Dictionnaire des Religions, Avec la collaboration de H.S. Wiesner. Paris, Plon, 1990, 1992(2); The Eliade Guide to World Religions, Harper, San Francisco, 1991 ; Handbuch der Religionen, Zürich und München, Artemis-Winkler-Verlag, 1991; Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch, 1995; Diccionario de las religiones Barcelona, Paidos Orientalia, 1993; Dicţionarul religiilor, Bucureşti, Humanitas, 1993, 1996(2);Iași, Polirom,2007
- The Encyclopedia of Religion, Collier Macmillan, New York, 1987
- The HarperCollins Concise Guide to World Religions, Harper, San Francisco, 2000
- La collezione di smeraldi. Racconti, Milano, Jaca Book, 1989
- Hesperus, Bucureşti, Univers, 1992; Bucureşti, Nemira, 1998(2); Iaşi, Polirom, 2003(3)
- Pergamentul diafan. Povestiri, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1994
- Pergamentul diafan. Ultimele povestiri, Bucureşti, Nemira, 1996(2); Iaşi, Polirom, 2002(3)
- Arta fugii. Povestiri, Iaşi, Polirom, 2002
- Jocul de smarald, Iaşi, Polirom, 2005, 2011(2)
- ”Tozgrec, Iași, Polirom, 2010
- Dialoguri întrerupte. Corespondenţa Mircea Eliade - Ioan Petru Culianu, Iaşi, Polirom, 2004
Works about Culianu
A biography and an analysis of his death was published by Ted Anton under the title Eros, Magic, and the Death of Professor Culianu (alluding to Culianu's most influential work, Eros and Magic in the Renaissance). See also: Elemire Zolla, Ioan Petru Culianu, Alberto Tallone Editore, 1994; Umberto Eco, Murder in Chicago, in The New York Review of Books, April 10, 1997; Sorin Antohi (ed.), Religion, Fiction, and History. Essays in Memory of Ioan Petru Culianu, Volumes I-II, Bucharest, Nemira, 2001; Sorin Antohi (coordinator), Ioan Petru Culianu. Omul şi opera, Iaşi, Polirom, 2003; Matei Calinescu, Despre Ioan Petru Culianu si Mircea Eliade. Amintiri, lecturi, reflectii, Iasi, Polirom, 2002, 2005(2); and Andrei Oişteanu, Religie, politică şi mit. Texte despre Mircea Eliade şi Ioan Petru Culianu, Polirom, Iaşi, 2007; Marcello De Martino, Mircea Eliade esoterico. Ioan Petru Culianu e i "non detti", Roma, Settimo Sigillo, 2008; Olga Gorshunova, Terra Incognita of Ioan Culianu, in Ètnografičeskoe obozrenie, 2008, n° 6, pp. 94-110, (Russian); ; Dorin David, "De la Eliade la Culianu", Cluj, Eikon, 2010.
- Sorin Antohi, "Exploring the Legacy of Ioan Petru Culianu", in the Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen Post, Spring 2001
- Ted Anton, "The Killing of Professor Culianu", in Lingua Franca, Volume 2, No. 6 - September/October 1992
- (Romanian) Vladimir Tismăneanu, "Cei pe care zeii îi iubesc mor tineri - despre I. P. Culianu" ("Those Whom the Gods Love Die Young - on I. P. Culianu"), in Cotidianul, May 19, 2006
- (Russian) Olga Gorshunova, Ioan Culianu: v chetvjortom izmerenii ( Ioan Culianu: In The Fourth Dimension), in Etnoragraficheskoe Obozrenie Online, September, 2008.