Methyl iodide

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Methyl iodide
Stereo skeletal formula of methyl iodide with all explicit hydrogens added
Ball and stick model of methyl iodide Spacefill model of methyl iodide
Identifiers
Abbreviations
  • Halon 10001
  • MeI
CAS number 74-88-4 YesY
PubChem 6328
ChemSpider 6088 YesY
EC number 200-819-5
UN number 2644
KEGG C18448 YesY
MeSH methyl+iodide
ChEBI CHEBI:39282 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL115849 YesY
RTECS number PA9450000
Beilstein Reference 969135
Gmelin Reference 1233
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula CH3I
Molar mass 141.94 g mol−1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Density 2.28 g mL−1
Melting point −66.5 °C; −87.6 °F; 206.7 K
Boiling point 42.4 to 42.8 °C; 108.2 to 108.9 °F; 315.5 to 315.9 K
Solubility in water 14 g L−1 (at 20 °C)
log P 1.609
Vapor pressure 54.4 kPa (at 20 °C)
kH 1.4 μmol Pa−1 kg−1
Refractive index (nD) 1.530–1.531
Structure
Molecular shape Tetrahedron
Thermochemistry
Specific
heat capacity
C
82.75 J K−1 mol−1
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−14.1–−13.1 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−808.9–−808.3 kJ mol−1
Hazards
GHS pictograms The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
GHS hazard statements H301, H312, H315, H331, H335, H351
GHS precautionary statements P261, P280, P301+310, P311
EU Index 602-005-00-9
EU classification Toxic T
R-phrases R21, R23/25, R37/38, R40
S-phrases (S1/2), S36/37, S38, S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Explosive limits 8.5–66%
LD50
  • 76 mg kg−1 (oral, rat)
  • 800 mg kg−1 (dermal, guinea pig)
Related compounds
Related iodomethanes
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I. It is a dense, colorless, volatile liquid. In terms of chemical structure, it is related to methane by replacement of one hydrogen atom by an atom of iodine. It is naturally emitted by rice plantations in small amounts.[2] It is also produced in vast quantities estimated to be greater than 214,000 tons annually by algae and kelp in the world's temperate oceans and in lesser amounts on land due to terrestrial fungi and bacteria. It is used in organic synthesis as a source of methyl groups.

Methyl iodide had been approved for use as a pesticide by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2007 as a pre-plant biocide used to control insects, plant parasitic nematodes, soil borne pathogens, and weed seeds.[3] The compound was registered for use as a preplant soil treatment for field grown strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, grape vines, ornamentals and turf and nursery grown strawberries, stone fruits, tree nuts, and conifer trees. After the discovery phase in a consumer lawsuit, the manufacturer withdrew the fumigant citing its lack of market viability.[4]

Preparation and handling[edit]

Methyl iodide is formed via the exothermic reaction that occurs when iodine is added to a mixture of methanol with red phosphorus.[5] The iodinating reagent is phosphorus triiodide that is formed in situ:

3 CH3OH + PI3 → 3 CH3I + H3PO3

Alternatively, it is prepared from the reaction of dimethyl sulfate with potassium iodide in the presence of calcium carbonate:[5]

(CH3O)2SO2 + KI → CH3I + CH3OSO2OK

Methyl iodide can also be prepared by the reaction of methanol with aqueous hydrogen iodide:

CH3OH + HI → CH3I + H2O

The generated methyl iodide can be distilled from the reaction mixture.

Methyl iodide may also be prepared by treating iodoform with potassium hydroxide and dimethyl sulfate under 95% ethanol.[6]

Storage and purification[edit]

Like many organoiodide compounds, methyl iodide is typically stored in dark bottles to inhibit degradation caused by light to give iodine, giving degraded samples a purplish tinge. Commercial samples may be stabilized by copper or silver wire.[7] It can be purified by washing with Na2S2O3 to remove iodine followed by distillation.

Reactions[edit]

Methylation reagent[edit]

Methyl iodide is an excellent substrate for SN2 substitution reactions. It is sterically open for attack by nucleophiles, and iodide is a good leaving group. It is used for alkylating carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus nucleophiles.[7] Unfortunately, it has a high equivalent weight: one mole of methyl iodide weighs almost three times as much as one mole of methyl chloride. On the other hand, methyl chloride and methyl bromide are gaseous, thus harder to handle; they are also weaker alkylating agents.

Iodides are generally expensive relative to the more common chlorides and bromides, though methyl iodide is reasonably affordable; on a commercial scale, the more toxic dimethyl sulfate is preferred, since it is cheap and has a higher boiling point. The iodide leaving group in methyl iodide may cause side reactions, as it is a powerful nucleophile. Finally, being highly reactive, methyl iodide is more dangerous for laboratory workers than related chlorides and bromides.

For example, it can be used for the methylation of carboxylic acids or phenols:[8]

Methylation of a carboxylic acid or phenol with MeI

In these examples, the base (K2CO3 or Li2CO3) removes the acidic proton to form the carboxylate or phenoxide anion, which serves as the nucleophile in the SN2 substitution.

Iodide is a "soft" anion which means that methylation with MeI tends to occur at the "softer" end of an ambidentate nucleophile. For example, reaction with thiocyanate ion favours attack at S rather than "hard" N, leading mainly to methyl thiocyanate (CH3SCN) rather than CH3NCS. This behavior is relevant to the methylation of stabilized enolates such as those derived from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. Methylation of these and related enolates can occur on the harder oxygen atom or the (usually desired) carbon atom. With methyl iodide, C-alkylation nearly always predominates.

Other reactions[edit]

In the Monsanto process, MeI forms in situ from the reaction of methanol and hydrogen iodide. The CH3I then reacts with carbon monoxide in the presence of a rhodium complex to form acetyl iodide, the precursor to acetic acid after hydrolysis. Most acetic acid is prepared by this method.

MeI is used to prepare the Grignard reagent, methylmagnesium iodide ("MeMgI"), a common source of "Me". The use of MeMgI has been somewhat superseded by the commercially available methyllithium. MeI can also be used to prepare dimethylmercury, by reacting 2 moles of MeI with a 2/1-molar sodium amalgam (2 moles of sodium, 1 mol of mercury).

Use as a pesticide[edit]

Methyl iodide had also been proposed for use as a fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, nematicide, and as a soil disinfectant, replacing methyl bromide (also known as bromomethane) (banned under the Montreal Protocol). Manufactured by Arysta LifeScience and sold under the brand name MIDAS, methyl iodide is registered as a pesticide in the U.S., Mexico, Morocco, Japan, Turkey, and New Zealand and registration is pending in Australia, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Chile, Egypt, Israel, South Africa and other countries.[9] The first commercial applications of MIDAS soil fumigant in California began in Fresno County, in May, 2011.[citation needed]

The use of methyl iodide as a fumigant has drawn concern. For example, 54 chemists and physicians contacted the U.S. EPA in a letter, saying "We are skeptical of U.S. EPA’s conclusion that the high levels of exposure to methyl iodide that are likely to result from broadcast applications are 'acceptable' risks. U.S. EPA has made many assumptions about toxicology and exposure in the risk assessment that have not been examined by independent scientific peer reviewers for adequacy or accuracy. Additionally, none of U.S. EPA’s calculations account for the extra vulnerability of the unborn fetus and children to toxic insults."[10] EPA Assistant Administrator Jim Gulliford replied saying, "We are confident that by conducting such a rigorous analysis and developing highly restrictive provisions governing its use, there will be no risks of concern," and in October the EPA approved the use of methyl iodide as a soil fumigant in the United States.

The California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) concluded that methyl iodide is "highly toxic," that "any anticipated scenario for the agricultural or structural fumigation use of this agent would result in exposures to a large number of the public and thus would have a significant adverse impact on the public health", and that adequate control of the chemical in these circumstances would be "difficult, if not impossible."[11] Methyl iodide was approved as a pesticide in California that December.[12] A lawsuit was filed on January 5, 2011, challenging California's approval of methyl iodide. Subsequently, the manufacturer withdrew the fumigant and requested that California Department of Pesticide Regulation cancel its California registration, citing its lack of market viability.[4]

Safety[edit]

Toxicity and biological effects[edit]

According to the United States Department of Agriculture methyl iodide exhibits moderate to high acute toxicity for inhalation and ingestion.[13] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, and eye contact as possible exposure routes with target organs of the eyes, skin, respiratory system, and the central nervous system. Symptoms may include eye irritation, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, ataxia, slurred speech, and dermatitis.[14]

Methyl iodide has an LD50 for oral administration to rats 76 mg/kg, and in the liver it undergoes rapid conversion to S-methylglutathione.[15]

In its risk assessment of methyl iodide, the U.S. EPA conducted an exhaustive scientific and medical literature search over the past 100 years for reported cases of human poisonings attributable to the compound. Citing the EPA as its source, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation concluded, “Over the past century, only 11 incidents of iodomethane poisoning have been reported in the published literature.” (Hermouet, C. et al. 1996 & Appel, G.B. et al. 1975) “An updated literature search on May 30, 2007 for iodomethane poisoning produced only one additional case report.” (Schwartz MD, et al. 2005). All but one were industrial—not agricultural—accidents, and the remaining case of poisoning was an apparent suicide. Methyl iodide is routinely and regularly used in industrial processes as well as in most university and college chemistry departments for study and learning related to a variety of organic chemical reactions.

Carcinogenicity in mammals[edit]

It is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[16] The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded based on studies performed after methyl iodide was Proposition 65 listed that: “Methyl iodide is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).” As of 2007 the Environmental Protection Agency classifies it as "not likely to be carcinogenic to humans in the absence of altered thyroid hormone homeostatis," i.e. it is a human carcinogen but only at doses large enough to disrupt thyroid function (via excess iodide).[17] However this finding is disputed by the Pesticide Action Network which states that the EPA’s cancer rating "appears to be based solely on a single rat inhalation study in which 66% of the control group and 54-62% of the rats in the other groups died before the end of the study". They go on to state: "The EPA appears to be dismissing early peer-reviewed studies in favor of two nonpeer-reviewed studies conducted by the registrant that are flawed in design and execution."[18] Despite requests by the U.S. EPA to the Pesticide Action Network to bring forth scientific evidence of their claims, they have not done so.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "methyl iodide - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. Identification. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  2. ^ K. R. Redeker, N.-Y. Wang, J. C. Low, A. McMillan, S. C. Tyler, and R. J. Cicerone (2000). "Emissions of Methyl Halides and Methane from Rice Paddies". Science 290 (5493): 966–969. doi:10.1126/science.290.5493.966. PMID 11062125. 
  3. ^ Zitto, Kelly Zito, Kelly (December 2, 2010). "Methyl iodide gains state OK for use on crops". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  4. ^ a b "Maker of methyl iodide scraps controversial pesticide" San Jose Mercury News March 20, 2012
  5. ^ a b King, C. S.; Hartman, W. W. (1943), "Methyl Iodide", Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 2: 399 
  6. ^ J. Chem. Educ., 1933, 10 (12), p 747 Preparation of methyl or ethyl iodide from iodoform.
  7. ^ a b Sulikowski, Gary A.; Sulikowski, Michelle M.; Haukaas, Michael H.; Moon, Bongjin (2005). "Iodomethane". e-EROS. doi:10.1002/047084289X.ri029m.pub2. 
  8. ^ Avila-Zárraga, J. G., Martínez, R. (January 2001). "Efficient methylation of carboxylic acids with potassium hydroxide/methyl sulfoxide and iodomethane". Synthetic Communications 31 (14): 2177–2183. doi:10.1081/SCC-100104469. 
  9. ^ "Iodomethane Approved in Mexico and Morocco". Business Wire. October 25, 2010. 
  10. ^ Keim, Brandon (October 1, 2007). "Scientists Stop EPA From Pushing Toxic Pesticide". Wired. 
  11. ^ "Report of the Scientific Review Committee on Methyl Iodide to the Department of Pesticide Regulation". special Scientific Review Committee of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. February 5, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Calif approves use of pesticide linked to cancer". San Francisco Chronicle. December 1, 2010. [dead link]
  13. ^ Guo, Mingxin; Gao, Suduan (2009). "Degradation of Methyl Iodide in Soil: Effects of Environmental Factors" (PDF). Journal of Environmental Quality (published cooperatively by American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America) 38: 513–519. doi:10.2134/jeq2008.0124. 
  14. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0420.html
  15. ^ Johnson, M. K. (1966). "Metabolism of iodomethane in the rat". Biochem. J. 98 (1): 38–43. PMC 1264791. PMID 5938661. 
  16. ^ "CIB 43: MONOHALOMETHANES". 
  17. ^ "Iodomethane Pesticide Fact Sheet". 2007.  (36 pages, inc 12 pages of refs)
  18. ^ http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/risk/mei/comments/panna_mei_attach1.pdf

Additional sources[edit]

  • March, Jerry (1992), Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (4th ed.), New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-60180-2 
  • Sulikowski, G. A.; Sulikowski, M. M. (1999). in Coates, R.M.; Denmark, S. E. (Eds.) Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Volume 1: Reagents, Auxiliaries and Catalysts for C-C Bond Formation New York: Wiley, pp. 423–26.
  • Bolt H. M., Gansewendt B. (1993). "Mechanisms of carcinogenicity of methyl halides.". Crit Rev Toxicol. 23 (3): 237–53. doi:10.3109/10408449309105011. PMID 8260067. 

External links[edit]