Ion Gheorghe Maurer

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Ion Gheorghe Maurer
Ion Gheorghe Maurer1.jpg
Portrait of Ion Gheorghe Maurer
President of the State Council
Acting
In office
19 March 1965 – 24 March 1965
Serving with Ștefan Voitec (Acting)
Avram Bunaciu (Acting)
Preceded by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
Succeeded by Chivu Stoica
Prime Minister of Romania
In office
21 March 1961 – 29 March 1974
President Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
Preceded by Chivu Stoica
Succeeded by Manea Mănescu
President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
In office
11 January 1958 – 21 March 1961
Prime Minister Chivu Stoica
Preceded by Mihail Sadoveanu (Acting)
Anton Moisescu (Acting)
Succeeded by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (as President of the Council of State)
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
15 July 1957 – 15 January 1958
Preceded by Grigore Preoteasa
Succeeded by Avram Bunaciu
Personal details
Born (1902-09-23)23 September 1902
Bucharest, Romania
Died 8 February 2000(2000-02-08) (aged 97)
Bucharest, Romania
Political party Communist Party
Other political
affiliations
Radical Peasants' Party
Spouse(s) Elena Maurer
Profession Lawyer
Religion Orthodoxy

Ion Gheorghe Iosif Maurer (September 23, 1902 – February 8, 2000) was a Romanian communist politician and lawyer.

Biography[edit]

Maurer was born in Bucharest to an Alsatian father of German descent and a Romanian mother,[1][2] he completed studies in Law and became an attorney, defending in court members of the illegal leftist and Anti-fascist movements.[3] Occasionally, as in the 1936 Craiova Trial of Romanian Communist Party (PCR) activists, including Ana Pauker, Alexandru Drăghici, and Alexandru Moghioroș, he assisted Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu).[4]

Before 1937, he was briefly active in the Radical Peasants' Party, formed by Grigore Iunian as a splinter group of the National Peasants' Party;[5] however, he was by then already a member of the illegal Communist Party[6] and active in the Agitprop section.[7]

In 1942-1943, during World War II he was imprisoned for his political activity (notably, in the camp at Târgu Jiu),[8] and, as a member of a paramilitary grouping,[9] played a secondary part in the events of August 23, 1944 that led to the downfall of the Ion Antonescu regime.[10] During this time, although present among the few active leaders of the Party around general secretary Ștefan Foriș,[11] he became a supporter of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej's faction (dominated by imprisoned activists).[12] In 1944, he played a hand in Foriș's deposition, assisting Emil Bodnăraș and Gheorghiu-Dej.[13]

After the war, Maurer became a member of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers' Party (the new name of the PCR after it had incorporated the Social Democratic Party) and took several ministerial positions in the new communist government of Romania — including that of undersecretary of the Communications and Public Works Ministry under Gheorghiu-Dej in the first Petru Groza government.[14] In 1946-1947, he was a member of Romania's delegation to the Paris Peace Conference (headed by Gheorghe Tătărescu) and was briefly employed by Ana Pauker at the Foreign Ministry, before being dismissed for having an unsatisfactory level of political conviction.[15] He was removed from the forefront for the following decade,[16] working for the Institute of Juridical Research.[17]

He supported Gheorghiu-Dej's nationalist policy, eventually becoming foreign minister of Romania in 1957 (replacing Grigore Preoteasa), holding office for six months, and serving in the delegations establishing closer contacts with the People's Republic of China during the Sino-Soviet Split and a détente with France in 1959.[18]

Regarded, according to some claims,[19] as Gheorghiu-Dej's chosen successor, he was head of state (President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly of Romania) from 1958 to 1961. He took the seat previously occupied by Constantin Pîrvulescu on the Politburo,[20] and then replaced Chivu Stoica as Prime Minister of Romania in 1961.[21] In the latter capacity, he was the recipient of a 1963 letter by the British philosopher and activist Bertrand Russell, who pleaded with the Romanian authorities to free from jail Belu Zilber (a victim of the conflict between the Party leadership and Pătrășcanu, Zilber had been a political prisoner for sixteen years by then).[22] Ion Gheorghe Maurer was also one of three acting Chairmen of the Presidum of the Great National Assembly (heads of state) between March 19 and March 24, 1965.

Alongside Emil Bodnăraș, Maurer was an important member of the Politburo in opposing the ambitions of Gheorghe Apostol and, together with Bodnăraș, helping along the establishment of the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime.[23] Among others, Maurer helped silence potential opposition from inside the Party by withdrawing his support for Corneliu Mănescu and welcoming Ceaușescu's directives, before being himself criticized and sidelined (at the same time as his collaborator Alexandru Bârlădeanu).[24] Pensioned in 1974, he was still present in the forefront at most Party ceremonies.[25]

A prominent member of the nomenklatura for much of his life, he was known for his latent conflict with a large part of the PCR hierarchy.[17] He accumulated a sizable wealth and was known for his ostentatious lifestyle.[17] In 1989, Maurer's earlier support for Ceaușescu led the sidelined PCR members who were planning to state their opposition to the regime by drafting the so-called Letter of the Six (Apostol, Bârlădeanu, and Pîrvulescu, together with Silviu Brucan, Grigore Răceanu, and Corneliu Mănescu) not to enlist his assistance in the process.[26]

He died in Bucharest a decade after the Romanian Revolution, leaving a son, Jean.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dennis Deletant (1999). Romania under communist rule. p. 22. ISBN 973-98392-8-2. 
  2. ^ Partoş; Deletant indicates in passing that Maurer's father was an Alsatian French language teacher, and that his mother was Romanian (Communist Terror..., p.19); he also states that Maurer was of "German origin" (Ceausescu..., p.69)
  3. ^ Betea; Deletant, Communist Terror..., p.19; Tismăneanu, p.298-299
  4. ^ Deletant, Communist Terror..., p.19; Tismăneanu, p.298-299
  5. ^ Alexandrescu et al.
  6. ^ Deletant, Communist Terror..., p.19; Tismăneanu, p.99, 298
  7. ^ Tismăneanu, p.99
  8. ^ Frunză, p.468; Tismăneanu, p.298
  9. ^ Tismăneanu, p.298
  10. ^ Frunză, p.129
  11. ^ Tismăneanu, p.119
  12. ^ Tismăneanu, p.37, 298, 323
  13. ^ Tismăneanu, p.151
  14. ^ Frunză, p.188, 217; Tismăneanu, p.112
  15. ^ Tismăneanu, p.239, 298-299
  16. ^ Frunză, p.437; Tismăneanu, p.299
  17. ^ a b c Tismăneanu, p.299
  18. ^ Frunză, p.240, 439, 448, 452; Tismăneanu, p.215, 219, 299, 342
  19. ^ Frunză, p.462
  20. ^ Tismăneanu, p.207
  21. ^ Tismăneanu, p.207, 299
  22. ^ Griffin, p.572
  23. ^ Frunză, p.463-464, 475-478; Tismăneanu, p.213, 221-222, 299, 323, 344
  24. ^ Deletant, Ceausescu..., p.69-70; Frunză, p.479-480, 483, 510-511; Tismăneanu, p.37, 299
  25. ^ Tismăneanu, p.239
  26. ^ Tismăneanu, p.299, 343

References[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Mihail Sadoveanu
Acting
President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly of Romania
1958–1961
Succeeded by
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
as President of the Council of State
Preceded by
Anton Moisescu
Acting
Preceded by
Chivu Stoica
Prime Minister of Romania
1961–1974
Succeeded by
Manea Mănescu
Preceded by
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
President of the Council of State of Romania
Acting

1965
Served alongside: Ștefan Voitec (Acting)
Avram Bunaciu (Acting)
Succeeded by
Chivu Stoica