Ipswich (UK Parliament constituency)

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Ipswich
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Ipswich in Suffolk.
Outline map
Location of Suffolk within England.
County Suffolk
Electorate 75,195 (December 2010)[1]
Major settlements Ipswich
Current constituency
Created 1295
Member of Parliament Ben Gummer (Conservative)
Number of members One
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency East of England

Ipswich Listeni/ˈɪpswɪ/ is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Ben Gummer, a Conservative.[n 2]

Boundaries[edit]

The present-day constituency consists of most of the Borough of Ipswich, although the north-western part was transferred to the Central Suffolk constituency at the 1983 general election. Previous to this, the Parliamentary and Municipal Boroughs were always the same. Before the Reform Act 1832, the franchise in Ipswich was in the hands of the Ipswich Corporation and the Freemen. It has generally been favourable to Labour since World War II, although they have lost the seat on three occasions, and have sometimes won with very sparse majorities. From 1997 until a Conservative gain in 2010, Labour won the contests with safer margins.

Boundary review[edit]

Following their review of parliamentary representation in Suffolk the Boundary Commission for England has recommended minor alterations to the existing constituency arrangement. The electoral wards used in the creation of this seat are:

  • Alexandra, Bixley, Bridge, Gainsborough, Gipping, Holywells, Priory Heath, Rushmere, St John’s, St Margaret’s, Sprites, Stoke Park and Westgate from the town of Ipswich.

Constituency profile[edit]

The constituency includes Ipswich town centre and docks, with its mix of historic buildings and new developments. Ipswich is a bustling town that serves as a centre for the rest of Suffolk which is predominantly rural and remote, and is the only serious concentration of Labour voters in the county, other than in Lowestoft.

Portman Road Football Ground to the West of the centre, and the new University to the East are both in the seat, as is the vast Chantry council estate to the South.

Ipswich's Tory-leaning suburbs, such as Castle Hill, Westerfield and Kesgrave, extend beyond the constituency's boundaries – the northernmost wards are in the Suffolk Central constituency, and several strong Conservative areas are just outside the borough's tightly-drawn limits, making Ipswich a favourable seat for Labour.

For many years a small red island in a sea of blue, Ipswich was lost by Labour in the 2010 general election.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Ipswich was entitled to elect two burgesses to the Parliament of England from the fourteenth century. This continued after the 1707 Act of Union with Ipswich sending two burgesses to the Parliament of Great Britain and after 1801 to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, only becoming a single member constituency in 1918.

MPs 1386–1660[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1386 Geoffrey Starling Robert Waleys[2]
1388 (Feb) Geoffrey Starling Robert Waleys[2]
1388 (Sep) John Arnold I Robert Waleys[2]
1390 (Jan) Geoffrey Starling Robert Hethe[2]
1390 (Nov)
1391 Geoffrey Starling Robert Andrew[2]
1393  ?Geoffrey Starling  ?Robert Andrew[2]
1394 John Arnold I Henry Wall[2]
1395 Geoffrey Starling William Master[2]
1397 (Jan) John Arnold I John Bernard[2]
1397 (Sep) William Debenham John Bernard[2]
1399 John Arnold I John Lewe[2]
1401
1402 Richard Church John Starling[2]
1404 (Jan)
1404 (Oct)
1406 Robert Lucas John Starling[2]
1407 John Felbrigg John Bernard[2]
1410 John Rous James Andrew[2]
1411 John Bernard John Starling[2]
1413 (Feb)
1413 (May) James Andrew John Starling[2]
1414 (Apr)
1414 (Nov) William Debenham I John Rous[2]
1415
1416 (Mar)
1416 (Oct)
1417 William Debenham II James Andrew[2]
1419 William Debenham II James Andrew[2]
1420 John Knepping John Wood[2]
1421 (May) William Debenham II James Andrew[2]
1421 (Dec) Thomas Kempstone II William Weatherfeld[2]
1455 Sir Gilbert Debenham
1510 Thomas Hall William Spencer[3]
1512 Thomas Baldry Edmund Daundy[3]
1515 Thomas Baldry Edmund Daundy[3]
1523 Humphrey Wingfield Thomas Rush[3]
1529 Thomas Rush Thomas Hayward, died
and replaced Nov 1534 by
Thomas Alvard[3]
1536  ?
1539 Robert Daundy William Sabine[3]
1542 Ralph Goodwin John Sparrow[3]
1545 William Reynball Richard Smart[3]
1547 John Gosnold John Smith alias Dyer[3]
1553 (Mar) John Smith alias Dyer Richard Bryde alias Byrde[3]
1553 (Oct) John Gosnold John Sulyard[3]
1554 (Apr) Clement Heigham Thomas Poley[3]
1554 (Nov) Ralph Goodwin John Smith alias Dyer[3]
1555 John Sulyard Richard Smart[3]
1558 William Wheatcroft,
repl. Nov 1558 by
Edmund Withypoll
Philip Williams[3]
1558/9 Thomas Seckford I Robert Barker[4]
1562/3 Thomas Seckford I Edward Grimston[4]
1571 Edward Grimston John More[4]
1572 Thomas Seckford I Edward Grimston[4]
1584 (Nov) Sir John Heigham John Barker[4]
1586 (Oct) John Barker John Laney[4]
1588 (Oct) John Barker William Smarte[4]
1593 Robert Barker Zachariah Lok[4]
1597 (Oct) Michael Stanhope Francis Bacon[4]
1601 (Oct) Michael Stanhope Francis Bacon[4]
1604 Sir Henry Glenham Sir Francis Bacon
1614 Nicholas Cage Robert Snelling
1621 Robert Snelling William Gay
1624 Sir Robert Snelling William Cage
1625 Sir Robert Snelling William Cage
1628 William Cage Edmund Day
1629–1640 No Parliaments convened
1640 (Apr) John Gurdon William Cage
1640 (Nov) John Gurdon William Cage
1645 John Gurdon Francis Bacon
1648 John Gurdon Francis Bacon
1653 Not represented in Barebones Parliament
1654 Nathaniel Bacon Francis Bacon
1656 Nathaniel Bacon Francis Bacon
1659 Nathaniel Bacon Francis Bacon

MPs 1660–1832[edit]

Election 1st Member [5] 1st Party 2nd Member[5] 2nd Party
Apr 1660 Nathaniel Bacon Francis Bacon
Oct 1660 Sir Frederick Cornwallis, Bt
Apr 1661 John Sicklemore William Blois
Nov 1670 John Wright
Jan 1674 Gilbert Lindfield
Dec 1680 Sir John Barker, Bt
Mar 1685 Sir Nicholas Bacon
Jan 1689 Sir Peyton Ventris
May 1689 Sir Charles Blois, Bt
Oct 1695 Charles Whitaker
Nov 1696 Richard Phillips
Jul 1698 Sir Samuel Barnardiston, Bt
Jan 1701 Joseph Martin Sir Charles Duncombe
Dec 1701 Charles Whitaker Richard Phillips
Jul 1702 John Bence
May 1705 Henry Poley
Nov 1707 William Churchill
May 1708 Sir William Barker, Bt
Sep 1713 William Thompson
Apr 1714 Richard Richardson Orlando Bridgeman
Jan 1715 William Thompson William Churchill
Dec 1717 Francis Negus
Jan 1730 Philip Broke
Jan 1733 William Wollaston
Apr 1734 Samuel Kent
May 1741 Edward Vernon
Dec 1757 Thomas Staunton
Nov 1759 George Montgomerie
Mar 1761 Lord Orwell
Mar 1768 William Wollaston
Apr 1784 William Middleton John Cator
declared void
Jun 1784 Charles Alexander Crickitt
Jun 1790 Sir John D'Oyly
May 1796 Sir Andrew Hamond
Feb 1803 William Middleton
Oct 1806 Richard Wilson Robert Stopford
May 1807 Sir Home Riggs Popham Robert Alexander Crickett
Oct 1812 John Round
Jul 1818 William Newton
Apr 1820 William Haldimand Thomas Barrett-Lennard
Jun 1826 Robert Torrens
Feb 1827 Robert Adam Dundas Charles Mackinnon
May 1831 James Morrison Rigby Wason

MPs 1832–1918[edit]

Election 1st Member[5] 1st Party 2nd Member[5] 2nd Party
1832 James Morrison Rigby Wason Whig
1835 Fitzroy Kelly Tory Robert Adam Dundas Conservative
Jun. 1835 James Morrison Rigby Wason Whig
Jul 1837 Thomas Milner Gibson Conservative Henry Tufnell Whig
Feb. 1838 Fitzroy Kelly Tory
Jul. 1839 Sir Thomas John Cochrane
1841 Rigby Wason Whig George Rennie Whig
June 1842 The Earl of Desart Conservative Thomas Gladstone Conservative
Aug 1842 John Neilson Gladstone Conservative Sackville Lane-Fox Conservative
1847 John Cobbold Conservative Sir Hugh Adair, Bt Liberal
1868 Henry Wyndham West Liberal
1874 John Cobbold Conservative James Redfoord Bulwer Conservative
1876 Thomas Clement Cobbold Conservative
1880 Jesse Collings Liberal
Dec. 1883 Henry Wyndham West Liberal
Apr. 1886 Sir Charles Dalrymple, Bt Conservative Lord Elcho Conservative
1895 Sir Daniel Ford Goddard Liberal
1906 Felix Thornley Cobbold Liberal
Jan 1910 Charles Silvester Horne Liberal
May 1914 John Ganzoni Conservative

During the period between 1835 and 1842 there were five elections and all were found to have been corrupt. After the 1835 election Dundas and Kelly were unseated on the charge of bribery. After the 1837 election Tufnell was unseated on a scrutiny. Gibson who was elected in 1838 resigned. Cochrane was elected in 1839 after which a petition was presented complaining of gross bribery – it was not progressed because a general election was expected. After the 1841 election Wason and Rennie were unseated, being declared guilty of bribery by their agents.[6]

MPs 1918–present[edit]

Election Member[5] Party
1918 Francis Ganzoni Coalition Conservative
1922 Conservative
1923 Robert Jackson Labour
1924 Sir Francis Ganzoni, Bt Conservative
1938 by-election Richard Stokes Labour
1957 by-election Dingle Foot Labour
1970 Ernle Money Conservative
Oct. 1974 Kenneth Weetch Labour
1987 Michael Irvine Conservative
1992 Jamie Cann Labour
2001 by-election Chris Mole Labour
2010 Ben Gummer Conservative

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2010: Ipswich[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Ben Gummer 18,371 39.1 +8.0
Labour Chris Mole 16,292 34.7 -8.2
Liberal Democrat Mark Dyson 8,556 18.2 -2.9
UKIP Chris Streatfield 1,365 2.9 +0.2
BNP Dennis Boater 1,270 2.7 N/A
Green Tim Glover 775 1.7 N/A
Christian Kim Christofi 149 0.3 N/A
Independent Peter Turtill 93 0.2 N/A
Independent Sally Wainman 70 0.1
Majority 2,079 4.4
Turnout 46,941 59.9 -0.2
Conservative gain from Labour Swing N/A

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Chris Mole 18,336 43.8 0.4
Conservative Paul West 13,004 31.1 2.7
Liberal Democrat Richard Atkins 8,464 20.2 -2.2
UKIP Alison West 1,134 2.7 +1.7
English Democrats Jervis Kay 641 1.5 N/A
Independent Sally Wainman 299 0.7 N/A
Majority 5,332 12.7 -2.2
Turnout 41,878 60.8 +3.8
Labour hold Swing -4.0

Following the death of Jamie Cann on 21 October 2001 a by-election was held on 22 November 2001.

Ipswich by-election, 2001
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Chris Mole 11,881 43.4 -8.0
Conservative Paul West 7,794 28.4 -2.1
Liberal Democrat Tessa Munt 6,146 22.4 +7.2
Christian Peoples David Coope 581 2.1 N/A
UKIP Jonathan Wright 276 1.0
Green Tony Slade 255 0.9 N/A
Legalise Cannabis John Ramirez 236 0.9 N/A
Socialist Alliance Peter Leech 152 0.6
English Independence Party Nicolas Winskill 84 0.3 N/A
Majority 4,087 14.9 -5.9
Turnout 27,405 40.2 -16.8
Labour hold Swing -5.9
General Election 2001: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Jamie Cann 19,952 51.3 -1.4
Conservative Edward Wild 11,871 30.5 -0.6
Liberal Democrat Terence Gilbert 5,904 15.2 +3.0
UKIP William Vinyard 624 1.6 +1.2
Socialist Alliance Peter Leech 305 0.8 N/A
Socialist Labour Shaun Gratton 217 0.6 N/A
Majority 8,081 20.8 -0.8
Turnout 38,873 57.0 -15.2
Labour hold Swing -0.8

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Jamie Cann 25,484 52.7
Conservative Stephen Castle 15,048 31.1
Liberal Democrat Nigel Roberts 5,881 12.2
Referendum Party Theodore Agnew 1,637 3.4 N/A
UKIP W Vinyard 208 0.4 N/A
Natural Law Eric Kaplan 107 0.2
Majority 10,436 21.6
Turnout 48,365 72.2
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1992: Ipswich[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Jamie Cann 23,680 43.8 +0.7
Conservative Michael Irvine 23,415 43.4 −1.0
Liberal Democrat Joseph White 6159 11.4 N/A
Green Ms. Jane Scott 591 1.1 N/A
Natural Law Eric Kaplan 181 0.3 N/A
Majority 265 0.5 −1.2
Turnout 54,026 80.3 +2.7
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +1.1

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Ipswich[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Michael Irvine 23,328 44.4
Labour Ken Weetch 22,454 42.7
Social Democratic HP Nicholson 6,596 12.5 N/A
Workers Revolutionary DT Lettice 174 0.3 N/A
Majority 874 1.7
Turnout 77.1
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1983: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Ken Weetch 22,191 43.7
Conservative E Cottrell 21,114 41.6
Liberal P Miernik 7,220 14.2
BNP A Pearson 235 0.5 N/A
Majority 1,077 2.1
Turnout 75.4
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Ken Weetch 34,444 48.2
Conservative R Erith 30,703 42.9
Liberal P Keeling 5,772 8.1
National Front P Robinson 449 0.6 N/A
Workers Revolutionary R Hodge 115 0.2 N/A
Majority 3,741 5.2
Turnout 80.8
Labour hold Swing
General Election October 1974: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Ken Weetch 31,566 45.3
Conservative Ernle Money 29,833 42.8
Liberal R B Salt 8,295 11.9
Majority 1,733 2.5
Turnout 79.5
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General Election February 1974: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Ernle Money 29,893 41.2
Labour Ken Weetch 29,634 40.8
Liberal Joan Ruby Knott 11,857 16.3
National Democratic David R M Brown 1,161 1.6
Majority 259 0.4
Turnout 83.6
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1970: Ipswich

Electorate 86,495

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Ernle Money 27,704 44.1
Labour Dingle Foot 27,691 44.1
Liberal Neville S. Lewis 5,147 8.2
National Democratic David R M Brown 2,322 3.7
Majority 13 0.0
Turnout 72.7
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Ipswich

Electorate 78,351

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Rt Hon. Sir Dingle Mackintosh Foot 30,313 49.9
Conservative Trevor A. Hagger 23,440 38.6
Liberal Dr. Stanley Rundle 6,200 10.2
National Democratic Dr. David R. M. Brown 769 1.3
Majority 6,873 11.3
Turnout 77.5
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1964: Ipswich

Electorate 78,463

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Dingle Mackintosh Foot 24,648 39.8 -1.3
Conservative Trevor A. Hagger 22,216 35.8 -0.2
Liberal Manuela Sykes 14,755 23.8 +1.0
National Democratic Dr. David R. M. Brown 349 0.6 n/a
Majority 2,432 3.9 -1.2
Turnout 79.0 -1.9
Labour hold Swing -0.5

Election in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Ipswich

Electorate 77,633

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Dingle Mackintosh Foot 25,858 41.1 -4.7
Conservative John C. Cobbold 22,623 36.0 +3.4
Liberal Manuela Sykes 14,359 22.8 +1.4
Majority 3,235 5.1 -8.1
Turnout 80.9
Labour hold Swing -4.0
Ipswich by-election, 1957
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Dingle Mackintosh Foot 26,898 45.8 -7.1
Conservative John C. Cobbold 19,161 32.6 -14.5
Liberal Manuela Sykes 12,587 21.4 n/a
Majority 7,737 13.2 +7.4
Turnout 27,405
Labour hold Swing +3.7
General Election 1955: Ipswich

Electorate : 75,792

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Richard Rapier Stokes 32,306 52.9
Conservative John C Cobbold 28,724 47.1
Majority 3,582 5.8
Turnout 80.5
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1951: Ipswich

Electorate : 73,622

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Richard Rapier Stokes 33,463 53.4
Conservative Albert E Holdsworth 29,227 46.6
Majority 4,236 6.8
Turnout 85.2
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1950: Ipswich

Electorate : 72,277

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Richard Rapier Stokes 29,386 46.9
Conservative SWL Ripley 24,993 39.8
Liberal J Seward 8,340 13.3
Majority 4,393 7.0
Turnout 86.8
Labour hold Swing

Election in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Ipswich

Electorate 66,505

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Maj. Richard Rapier Stokes 26,296 49.3
Conservative Frank Guy Clavering Fison 18,177 34.1
Liberal Maj. Duncan Mackay Mowat 8,819 16.5
Majority 8,119 15.2
Turnout 80.1
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

Ipswich by-election, 1938
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Richard Stokes 27,604
Conservative Harry Willink 24,443
Majority 3,161
Turnout
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1935: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir John Ganzoni, Bt. 28,528 57.3
Labour RF Jackson 21,278 42.7
Majority 7,250 14.6
Turnout 82.1
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1931: Ipswich
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir John Ganzoni, Bt. 29,782 63.0
Labour RF Jackson 17,490 37.0
Majority 12,292 26.0
Turnout 47,272 82.9
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929: Ipswich[10]

Electorate 54,474

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Sir Francis John Childs Ganzoni 18,527 39.7 -15.7
Labour Robert Frederick Jackson 17,592 37.7 -6.9
Liberal Frank Ongley Darvall 10,559 22.6 n/a
Majority
Turnout 85.7 -2.0
Unionist hold Swing -4.4
General Election 1924: Ipswich[10]

Electorate 40,379

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Francis John Childs Ganzoni 19,621 55.4
Labour Robert Frederick Jackson 15,791 44.6
Majority 3,830 10.8
Turnout 87.7
Unionist gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1923: Ipswich[10]

Electorate 39,606

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Robert Frederick Jackson 15,824
Unionist Francis John Childs Ganzoni 15,364
Majority
Turnout
Labour gain from Unionist Swing
General Election 1922 : Ipswich[10]

Electorate 38,924

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Sir Francis John Childs Ganzoni 17,134 53.4 -0.1
Labour Robert Frederick Jackson 46.6 +14.5
Majority
Turnout 82.4
Unionist hold Swing

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election 14 December 1918

Electorate 37,348

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Capt. Francis John Childs Ganzoni 13,553 53.5 +2.9
Labour Robert Frederick Jackson 8,143 32.1 +29.0
Liberal George Hay Morgan 3,663 14.4 -31.9
Majority 5,410 21.4 +17.1
Turnout 67.9 -23.5
Unionist hold Swing n/a
  • Ganzoni was the endorsed candidate of the Coalition Government.
General Election 1914/15

Electorate 14,231

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Francis John Childs Ganzoni
Liberal Sir Daniel Ford Goddard
John Ganzoni
Ipswich by-election, 1914

Electorate 13,870

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Francis John Childs Ganzoni 6,406 50.6 +2.6
Liberal Rt Hon. Charles Frederick Gurney Masterman 5,874 46.3 -5.7
Socialist John Scurr 395 3.1 +3.1
Majority 532 4.3 n/a
Turnout 91.4 +1.5
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing
  • Change of vote share and swing calculated from the 1910 party ticket vote.[11]
Sir Daniel Ford Goddard
General Election December 1910

Electorate 12,641

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir Daniel Ford Goddard 5,931 26.2
Liberal Rev. Charles Silvester Horne 5,791 25.7
Conservative Arthur Charles Churchman 5,447 24.1
Conservative Bunnell Henry Burton 5,409 24.0
Majority
Majority
Turnout 89.9
Liberal hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
January 1910 Liberal Election Postcard
General Election January 1910

Electorate 12,641

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir Daniel Ford Goddard
Liberal Rev. Charles Silvester Horne
Conservative
Conservative
Majority
Majority
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Felix Cobbold
12 January 1906*

Electorate 12,146

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Daniel Ford Goddard 6,396
Liberal Felix Thornley Cobbold 6,290
Conservative Sir Charles Dalrymple 4,591
Conservative Samuel John Gurney Hoare 4,232
Majority 2,164
Majority 1,699
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
  • Ipswich was the first result in 1906 to be declared.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures – Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "I" [self-published source][better source needed]
  6. ^ "IPSWICH ELECTION WRIT.". Hansard. Retrieved 2010-01-17. "During the last seven years, or little more, there had been five elections for the borough of Ipswich, and those five elections had produced five petitions" 
  7. ^ Ipswich, UKPollingReport
  8. ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  9. ^ "UK General Election results June 1987". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 11 June 1987. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  10. ^ a b c d Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  11. ^ Craig, F. W. S., British parliamentary election results 1885-1918

Coordinates: 52°04′N 1°10′E / 52.06°N 1.16°E / 52.06; 1.16