Iquique

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Iquique
City and Commune
Iquique
Top:View of downtown Iquique, 2nd left:Baquedano Square, 2nd right:Iquique Municipal Theater, Bottom:Cavancha Beach
Flag of Iquique
Flag
Coat of arms of Iquique
Coat of arms
Map of Iquique in Tarapacá Region
Map of Iquique in Tarapacá Region
Location in Chile
Location in Chile
Iquique
Location in Chile
Coordinates: 20°13′S 70°9′W / 20.217°S 70.150°W / -20.217; -70.150Coordinates: 20°13′S 70°9′W / 20.217°S 70.150°W / -20.217; -70.150
Country Chile
Region Tarapacá
Province Iquique
Founded 16th Century
Government[1]
 • Type Municipal council
 • Alcalde Jorge Soria Quiroga
Area[2]
 • City and Commune 2,242.1 km2 (865.7 sq mi)
Elevation 1 m (3 ft)
Population (2012 Census)[2]
 • City and Commune 180,601
 • Density 81/km2 (210/sq mi)
 • Urban 183,997
Sex[2]
Time zone CLT[3] (UTC-4)
 • Summer (DST) CLST[4] (UTC-3)
Postal code 1100000
Twin cities
 • Miami United States US
 • Oruro Bolivia Bolivia
 • Seville Spain Spain
 • Ashkelon Israel Israel
 • Zagreb Croatia Croatia
Website Official website (Spanish)

Iquique (Spanish pronunciation: [iˈkike], ee-KEE-kay) is a port city and commune in northern Chile, capital of both the Iquique Province and Tarapacá Region. It lies on the Pacific coast, west of the Pampa del Tamarugal which is part of Atacama Desert. It had a population of 180,601 according to the 2012 census.[2] It is also the main commune of the Greater Iquique. The city developed during the heyday of the saltpetre mining in Atacama Desert in the 19th century. Originally a Peruvian city with a large Chilean population it was ceded to Chile as result of War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Today it is one of only two free ports of Chile.

History[edit]

Although the city was founded in the 16th century, there is evidence of habitation in the area by the Chango people as early as 7,000 BC. During colonial times, Iquique was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru as much of South America was at the time, and remained part of Peruvian territory until the end of the 19th century. Iquique's early development was due in large part to the discovery of mineral riches, particularly the presence of large deposits of sodium nitrate in the Atacama Desert (then part of Peruvian territory).

In July 1835, Charles Darwin, during his voyage on the Beagle, traveled to Iquique and described it as a town "very much in want of everyday necessities, such as water and firewood". These necessities had to be brought in from considerable distances. Darwin also visited the saltpeter works.

In 1868 and again in 1877, the city was devastated by earthquakes. On June 13, 2005, there was yet another earthquake, with a magnitude of 7.9 on the Richter Scale.

Naval Battle of Iquique during the War of the Pacific (1879–1884).

Territorial disputes between Bolivia and Chile triggered the War of the Pacific in 1879. The Battle of Iquique was fought in the harbor of Iquique on May 21, 1879, now commemorated as Navy Day, an annual public holiday in Chile. The outcome of the war gave Chile this portion of the Peruvian territory.

Over the years there was substantial emigration from other parts of Chile to this area which was called the Norte Grande. In subsequent years the further exportation of Chilean saltpeter (mainly to European countries) significantly helped in the development of the city, attracting foreigners and rapidly expanding housing projects.

In December 1907, the city was marred by the Santa María de Iquique Massacre when the Chilean Army, under the command of Gen. Roberto Silva Renard, opened fire on thousands of saltpeter miners, and their wives and children, who assembled inside the Santa María School. The workers had marched into town to protest their working conditions and wages. Somewhere between 500 and 2,000 people were killed. The folk group Quilapayún recorded an album in remembrance of the event (Cantata Santa María de Iquique) in 1970. In December 2007 a series of cultural and ceremonial activities were planned, culminating in the week between December 14 to 21, to commemorate the centenary year of the massacre.

Prior to becoming Chilean territory, Iquique was home to some of the greatest Peruvian heroes, namely Alfonso Ugarte (who was elected Mayor in 1876), Ramon Zavala, a rich saltpeter entrepreneur; Guillermo Billinghurst, later President of Peru (who after being overthrown in 1914 came to Iquique – then already under Chilean rule – to live out his last years), and Ramon Castilla, three times president of Peru, who was born in San Lorenzo de Tarapacá and died in the Desert of Tiviliche, Tarapacá, who lived in Iquique during his mandate as Governor of Tarapacá in 1825.

On April 1, 2014, the city was damaged by an 8.2-magnitude earthquake.

Governance[edit]

As a commune, Iquique is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2012–2016 alcalde is Jorge Soria.[1]

Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Iquique is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mrs. Marta Isasi (Ind.) and Mr. Hugo Gutiérrez (PC) as part of the 2nd electoral district, which includes the entire Tarapacá Region.The commune is represented in the Senate by Fulvio Rossi Ciocca (PS) and Jaime Orpis Bouchon (UDI) as part of the 1st senatorial constituency (Arica and Parinacota Region and Tarapacá Region).

Economy[edit]

Iquique has one of the largest duty-free commercial port centers of South America, the Zona Franca of Iquique (free zone of Iquique) which has been traditionally called Zofri. There are around 2.4 square kilometres (0.93 sq mi) of warehouses, banking branches, and restaurants.

Copper mining, mainly in Quebrada Blanca, Cerro Colorado, and Doña Inés de Collahuasí, is also an important industry in Iquique.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2002 census of National Statistics Institute (INE), the commune of Iquique had an area of 2,835.3 km2 (1,095 sq mi)[2] and 216,419 inhabitants (108,897 men and 107,522 women). Of these, 214,586 (99.2%) lived in urban areas and 1,833 (0.9%) in rural areas. The township has an area of 2,262.4 km2 (874 sq mi) and a population of 166,204 inhabitants. The population grew by 42.7% (64,742 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses.[2] Iquique is home to 56% of the total population of the Tarapacá region. In 2008, the city had 226,204 habitants.

Iquique commune is divided into the following districts:[5]

District 2002 Population Census Area (km²)
Port 3,721 0.8
Industrial District 12,800 65.4
Hospital 11,087 5.1
Caupolicán 19,486 2.2
Playa Brava 18,580 2.1
Cavancha 13,729 1.4
Parque Balmaceda 10,843 1.1
Arturo Prat 10,773 1.0
Punta Lobos 1,592 2,127.8
Gómez Carreño 23,165 1.7
La Tirana 40,428 33.5
Iquique geographical position in the Region of Tarapaca.

There is a significant percentage of ethnic group colony residents. The most numerous communities are Croatian, Italian, Greek, Chinese, Arabic nationalities, Peruvians and Bolivians, British peoples (i.e. Scots), and the French.

Around 25% of the residents are of Chinese descent. In the late Qing Dynasty, the Taiping rebellion was defeated and around 30,000 rebels were sold to other countries as miners. Of these, around 10,000 were sold to Iquique, working to dig bird faeces and open mines. Although enduring much discrimination, they were scared of dying and quietly accepted their position.

In 1866, the War of the Pacific erupted, and the Taiping army helped Chile,conquering Iquique and Moquegua and occupying Peru's Pacific saltpeter production sites. When the war ended, Chile's government designated Iquique as a self-governing township for the Taiping army, on condition that they help Chile attack Peru. However, the Taiping army refused and chose to assimilate into the local society.[citation needed]

In the 1910s and 1920s, about a thousand East Indian (from India and Pakistani) salitre[disambiguation needed] mine workers hired by British mine companies appeared in Iquique and today, their descendants mixed into the local population.[citation needed] Lately, a wave of North American and Australian immigrants came to retire and enjoy the city's beach climate. Immigrants currently correspond to 9.2% of the total population.[6]

Population evolution of the commune of Iquique:[5]
1992 2002
146,089 166,204
Population evolution of the city of Iquique:[5]
1992 2002
145,139 164,396

Climate[edit]

Iquique has a rare mild desert climate (Köppen BWn) with low extremes of temperatures all year round and almost no rainfall.

Climate data for Iquique
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
(86)
30.2
(86.4)
30.3
(86.5)
27.4
(81.3)
26.1
(79)
25.8
(78.4)
22.4
(72.3)
30.8
(87.4)
25.8
(78.4)
23.6
(74.5)
30.6
(87.1)
29.8
(85.6)
30.8
(87.4)
Average high °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
25.5
(77.9)
24.9
(76.8)
22.7
(72.9)
20.7
(69.3)
19.0
(66.2)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
18.8
(65.8)
20.1
(68.2)
21.7
(71.1)
23.7
(74.7)
21.5
(70.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.2
(72)
22.2
(72)
21.5
(70.7)
19.7
(67.5)
18.0
(64.4)
16.7
(62.1)
15.9
(60.6)
15.8
(60.4)
16.4
(61.5)
17.5
(63.5)
18.9
(66)
20.7
(69.3)
18.8
(65.8)
Average low °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
19.0
(66.2)
18.4
(65.1)
16.9
(62.4)
15.7
(60.3)
14.7
(58.5)
14.0
(57.2)
14.2
(57.6)
14.6
(58.3)
15.4
(59.7)
16.5
(61.7)
17.8
(64)
16.4
(61.5)
Record low °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
13.9
(57)
12.1
(53.8)
9.0
(48.2)
10.9
(51.6)
9.3
(48.7)
8.4
(47.1)
9.0
(48.2)
7.0
(44.6)
10.5
(50.9)
10.2
(50.4)
8.4
(47.1)
7.0
(44.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.5
(0.02)
0.4
(0.016)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.1
(0.004)
1.0
(0.039)
Avg. precipitation days 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.0
 % humidity 68 68 69 71 72 73 72 73 72 71 70 69 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 316.2 288.2 294.5 240.0 213.9 177.0 164.3 161.2 183.0 241.8 279.0 313.1 2,872.2
Source #1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile[7]
Source #2: Universidad de Chile (sunshine hours only)[8]

Sport[edit]

Iquique is home to football team Deportes Iquique.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b (Spanish) "Municipality of Iquique". Retrieved @Day @Month @YYYY31.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f (Spanish) "National Statistics Institute". Retrieved @Day @Month @YYYY9.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ "Chile Time". WorldTimeZones.org. Retrieved @Day @Month @YYYY9.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. ^ "Chile Summer Time". WorldTimeZones.org. Retrieved @Day @Month @YYYY9.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. ^ a b c "Territorial division of Chile" (PDF). Retrieved @Day @Month @YYYY31.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ http://latercera.com/contenido/680_194898_9.shtml Iquique has almost 10% of its foreign population.
  7. ^ "Estadisca Climatologica Tomo I" (in Spanish). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. March 2001. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Medias mensuales de horas de sol diarias extraıdas del WRDC para las ciudades Chilenas" (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. September 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2014.