Iranian languages

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This article is about the language family. For languages spoken in Iran, see Languages of Iran. For the official language of Iran, see Persian language.
Iranian
Ethnicity: Iranian peoples
Geographic
distribution:
Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and western South Asia
Linguistic classification: Indo-European
Proto-language: Proto-Iranian
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-5: ira
Linguasphere: 58= (phylozone)
Glottolog: iran1269[1]


The Iranian languages or Iranic languages[2][3] form a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family. The speakers of Iranian languages are known as Iranian peoples. Historical Iranian languages are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BCE), Middle Iranian (400 BCE – 900 CE), and New Iranian (since 900 CE). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian (a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan (the language of the Avesta). Middle Iranian languages included Middle Persian (a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian, and Bactrian.

As of 2008, there were an estimated 150–200 million native speakers of Iranian languages.[4] Ethnologue estimates there are 86 Iranian languages,[5][6] the largest amongst them are Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, and Balochi.

Term[edit]

Iranian language family tree

The term Iranian is applied to any language which descends from the ancestral Proto-Iranian language.[7] Iranian derives from the Persian equivalent of the Sanskrit origin word Aryan.

The use of the term for the Iranian language family was introduced in 1836 by Christian Lassen.[8] Robert Needham Cust used the term Irano-Aryan in 1878,[9] and Orientalists such as George Abraham Grierson and Max Müller contrasted Irano-Aryan (Iranian) and Indo-Aryan (Indic). Some recent scholarship, primarily in German, has revived this convention.[10][11][12][13]

Proto-Iranian[edit]

Historical distribution in 100 BC: shown is Sarmatia, Scythia, Bactria (Eastern Iranian, in orange); and the Parthian Empire (Western Iranian, in red)

All Iranian languages are descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Iranian. In turn, and together with Proto-Indo-Aryan and the Nuristani languages, Proto-Iranian descends from a common ancestor Proto-Indo-Iranian. The Indo-Iranian languages are thought to have originated in Central Asia. The Andronovo culture is the suggested candidate for the common Indo-Iranian culture ca. 2000 BC.

It was situated precisely in the western part of Central Asia that borders present-day Russia (and present-day Kazakhstan). It was in relative proximity to the other satem ethno-linguistic groups of the Indo-European family, like Thracian, Balto-Slavic and others, and to common Indo-European's original homeland (more precisely, the steppes of southern Russia to the north of the Caucasus), according to the reconstructed linguistic relationships of common Indo-European.

Proto-Iranian thus dates to some time after Proto-Indo-Iranian break-up, or the early second millennium BCE, as the Old Iranian languages began to break off and evolve separately as the various Iranian tribes migrated and settled in vast areas of southeastern Europe, the Iranian plateau, and Central Asia.

Innovations of Proto-Iranian compared to Proto-Indo-Iranian include (from Witzel, 2001):[14]

  • *s other than *[ʃ] turns into *[h]
  • *bʰ, *dʰ, *gʰ merge into *b, *d, *g
  • Fricativization of voiceless stops
    • *p, *t, *k become *f, *θ, *x before another consonant
    • in all positions, *pʰ, *tʰ, *kʰ become *f, *θ, *x

Old Iranian[edit]

The multitude of Middle Iranian languages and peoples indicate that great linguistic diversity must have existed among the ancient speakers of Iranian languages. Of that variety of languages/dialects, direct evidence of only two have survived. These are:

Indirectly attested Old Iranian languages are discussed below.

Old Persian is the Old Iranian dialect as it was spoken in south-western Iran by the inhabitants of Parsa, who also gave their name to their region and language. Genuine Old Persian is best attested in one of the three languages of the Behistun inscription, composed circa 520 BC, and which is the last inscription (and only inscription of significant length) in which Old Persian is still grammatically correct. Later inscriptions are comparatively brief, and typically simply copies of words and phrases from earlier ones, often with grammatical errors, which suggests that by the 4th century BC the transition from Old Persian to Middle Persian was already far advanced, but efforts were still being made to retain an "old" quality for official proclamations.

The other directly attested Old Iranian dialects are the two forms of Avestan, which take their name from their use in the Avesta, the liturgical texts of indigenous Iranian religion that now goes by the name of Zoroastrianism but in the Avesta itself is simply known as vohu daena (later: behdin). The language of the Avesta is subdivided into two dialects, conventionally known as "Old (or 'Gathic') Avestan", and "Younger Avestan". These terms, which date to the 19th century, are slightly misleading since 'Younger Avestan' is not only much younger than 'Old Avestan', but also from a different geographic region. The Old Avestan dialect is very archaic, and at roughly the same stage of development as Rigvedic Sanskrit. On the other hand, Younger Avestan is at about the same linguistic stage as Old Persian, but by virtue of its use as a sacred language retained its "old" characteristics long after the Old Iranian languages had yielded to their Middle Iranian stage. Unlike Old Persian, which has Middle Persian as its known successor, Avestan has no clearly identifiable Middle Iranian stage (the effect of Middle Iranian is indistinguishable from effects due to other causes).

In addition to Old Persian and Avestan, which are the only directly attested Old Iranian languages, all Middle Iranian languages must have had a predecessor "Old Iranian" form of that language, and thus can all be said to have had an (at least hypothetical) "Old" form. Such hypothetical Old Iranian languages include Carduchi (the hypothetical predecessor to Kurdish) and Old Parthian. Additionally, the existence of unattested languages can sometimes be inferred from the impact they had on neighbouring languages. Such transfer is known to have occurred for Old Persian, which has (what is called) a "Median" substrate in some of its vocabulary.[16] Also, foreign references to languages can also provide a hint to the existence of otherwise unattested languages, for example through toponyms/ethnonyms or in the recording of vocabulary, as Herodotus did for what he called "Scythian".

Isoglosses[edit]

Conventionally, Iranian languages are grouped in "western" and "eastern" branches.[17] These terms have little meaning with respect to Old Avestan as that stage of the language may predate the settling of the Iranian peoples into western and eastern groups. The geographic terms also have little meaning when applied to Younger Avestan since it isn't known where that dialect (or dialects) was spoken either. Certain is only that Avestan (all forms) and Old Persian are distinct, and since Old Persian is "western", and Avestan was not Old Persian, Avestan acquired a default assignment to "eastern". Confusing the issue is the introduction of a western Iranian substrate in later Avestan compositions and redactions undertaken at the centers of imperial power in western Iran (either in the south-west in Persia, or in the north-west in Nisa/Parthia and Ecbatana/Media).

Two of the earliest dialectal divisions among Iranian indeed happen to not follow the later division into Western and Eastern blocks. These concern the fate of the Proto-Indo-Iranian first-series palatal consonants, *ć and *dź:[18]

  • Avestan and most other Iranian languages have deaffricated and depalatalized these consonants, and have *ć > s, *dź > z.
  • Old Persian, however, has fronted these consonants further: *ć > θ, *dź > *ð > d.

As a common intermediate stage, it is possible to reconstruct depalatalized affricates: *c, *dz. (This coincides with the state of affairs in the neighboring Nuristani languages.) A further complication however concerns the consonant clusters *ćw and *dźw:

  • Avestan and most other Iranian languages have shifted these clusters to sp, zb.
  • In Old Persian, these clusters yield s, z, with loss of the glide *w, but without further fronting.
  • The Saka language, attested in the Middle Iranian period, and its modern relative Wakhi fail to fit into either group: in these, palatalization remains, and similar glide loss as in Old Persian occurs: *ćw > š, *dźw > ž.

A division of Iranian languages in at least three groups during the Old Iranian period is thus implied:

  • Persid (Old Persian and its descendants)
  • Sakan (Saka, Wakhi, and their Old Iranian ancestor)
  • Central Iranian (all other Iranian languages)

It is possible that other distinct dialect groups were already in existence during this period. Good candidates are the hypothethical ancestor languages of Alanian/Scytho-Sarmatian subgroup of Scythian in the far northwest; and the hypothetical "Old Parthian" (the Old Iranian ancestor of Parthian) in the near northwest, where original *dw > *b (paralleling the development of *ćw).

Middle Iranian languages[edit]

What is known in Iranian linguistic history as the "Middle Iranian" era is thought to begin around the 4th century BCE lasting through the 9th century. Linguistically the Middle Iranian languages are conventionally classified into two main groups, Western and Eastern.

The Western family includes Parthian (Arsacid Pahlavi) and Middle Persian, while Bactrian, Sogdian, Khwarezmian, Saka, and Old Ossetic (Scytho-Sarmatian) fall under the Eastern category. The two languages of the Western group were linguistically very close to each other, but quite distinct from their eastern counterparts. On the other hand, the Eastern group was an areal entity whose languages retained some similarity to Avestan. They were inscribed in various Aramaic-derived alphabets which had ultimately evolved from the Achaemenid Imperial Aramaic script, though Bactrian was written using an adapted Greek script.

Middle Persian (Pahlavi) was the official language under the Sasanian dynasty in Iran. It was in use from the 3rd century CE until the beginning of the 10th century. The script used for Middle Persian in this era underwent significant maturity. Middle Persian, Parthian and Sogdian were also used as literary languages by the Manichaeans, whose texts also survive in various non-Iranian languages, from Latin to Chinese. Manichaean texts were written in a script closely akin to the Syriac script.[19]

New Iranian languages[edit]

Dark green: countries where Iranian languages are official.
Teal: regional co-official/de facto status.

Following the Islamic Conquest of Persia (Iran), there were important changes in the role of the different dialects within the Persian Empire. The old prestige form of Middle Iranian, also known as Pahlavi, was replaced by a new standard dialect called Dari as the official language of the court. The name Dari comes from the word darbâr (دربار), which refers to the royal court, where many of the poets, protagonists, and patrons of the literature flourished. The Saffarid dynasty in particular was the first in a line of many dynasties to officially adopt the new language in 875 CE. Dari may have been heavily influenced by regional dialects of eastern Iran, whereas the earlier Pahlavi standard was based more on western dialects. This new prestige dialect became the basis of Standard New Persian. Medieval Iranian scholars such as Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa (8th century) and Ibn al-Nadim (10th century) associated the term "Dari" with the eastern province of Khorasan, while they used the term "Pahlavi" to describe the dialects of the northwestern areas between Isfahan and Azerbaijan, and "Pârsi" ("Persian" proper) to describe the Dialects of Fars. They also noted that the unofficial language of the royalty itself was yet another dialect, "Khuzi", associated with the western province of Khuzestan.

The Islamic conquest also brought with it the adoption of Arabic script for writing Persian, Pashto and Balochi. All three were adapted to the writing by the addition of a few letters. This development probably occurred some time during the second half of the 8th century, when the old middle Persian script began dwindling in usage. The Arabic script remains in use in contemporary modern Persian. Tajik script was first Latinised in the 1920s under the then Soviet nationality policy. The script was however subsequently Cyrillicized in the 1930s by the Soviet government.

The geographical regions in which Iranian languages were spoken were pushed back in several areas by newly neighbouring languages. Arabic spread into some parts of Western Iran (Khuzestan), and Turkic languages spread through much of Central Asia, displacing various Iranian languages such as Sogdian and Bactrian in parts of what is today Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Sogdian barely survives in a small area of the Zarafshan valley east of Samarkand, and Saka (as Sariqoli) in parts of southern Xinjiang as well as Ossetic in the Caucasus. Various small Iranian languages in the Pamirs survive that are derived from Eastern Iranian.

Comparison table[edit]

English Zazaki Kurmanji/Sorani
(Kurdish)
Pashto Balochi Mazandarani Persian Middle Persian Parthian Old Persian Avestan Ossetic
beautiful rind, delal, ciwan rind, nayab, bedew, delal/cwan x̌kwәlay, x̌āista sharr, soherâ, mah rang ṣəmxâl/xəş-nəmâ zibā/xuš-čehr(e) hučihr, hužihr hužihr naiba vahu-, srîra ræsughd
blood gunî xwîn/xwên wina hon xun xūn xōn gōxan vohuni- tug
bread nan nan ḍoḍəi, məṛəi nān, nagan nûn nān nān nān dzul
bring ardene anîn/hênan/weranîn, hawirdin rā wṛəl âurten, yārag, ārag biyârden āwurdan, biyār ("(you) bring!") āwurdan, āwāy-, āwar-, bar- āwāy-, āwar-, bar- bara- bara, bar- xæssyn
brother bira brader, bra, bira wror brāt, brās birâr barādar brād, brâdar brād, brādar brātar brātar- æfsymær
come amayene hatin rā tləl āhag, āyag,hatin biyamona, enen āmadan āmadan, awar awar, čām āy-, āgam āgam- cæwyn
cry berbayene girîn, giryan žəṛəl greewag, greeten bərmə/ qâ gerīstan/gerīye griy-, bram- kæwyn
dark tarî tarî/tarîk, sîya skəṇ, skaṇ, tyara thár siyo tārīk tārīg/k tārīg, tārēn sâmahe, sâma tar
daughter kêna keç, kîj, qîz, dot/kiç, kîj, kenîşk, düet(kelhur) lūr dohtir, duttag kijâ, dether doxtar duxtar duxt, duxtar duxδar čyzg (Iron), kizgæ (Digor)
day roce/roje/roze roj wrəd͡z roç rezh rūz rōz raucah- raocah- bon
do kerdene kirin/kirdin kəwəl kanag, kurtin hâkerden kardan kardan kartan kạrta- kәrәta- kænyn
door ber, kêber/çêber derî, derge/derke, derga wər gelo, darwāzag bəli dar dar dar, bar duvara- dvara- dwar
die merdene mirin/mirdin mrəl mireg mərnen murdan murdan mạriya- mar- mælyn
donkey her ker xər har,her, kar xar xar xar xæræg
egg hak hêk/hêlke, tuxm hagəi heyg, heyk, ā morg merqâna toxm, xāya ("testicle") toxmag, xâyag taoxmag, xâyag taoxma- ajk
earth erd ('Arabic (origin)') zemîn, zewî d͡zməka (md͡zəka) zemin zemi zamīn zamīg zamīg zam- zãm, zam, zem zæxx
evening şan êvar/êware māx̌ām begáh nəmâşun begáh ēvārag êbêrag izær
eye çim çav/çaw stərga ch.hem, chem bəj, çəş čashm čašm čašm čaša- čašman- cæst
father pî, baw, babî, bawk bav/bab, bawk, ba plār pit, piss piyer pedar, pidar pidar pid pitar pitar fyd
fear ters tirs wēra (yara), bēra turs, terseg təşəpaş tars tars tars tạrsa- tares- tas
fiancé waşte, nîşanbîyaye xwestî, nîşankirî, dezgîran čənghol [masculine], čənghəla [feminine] nāmzād nāmzād - - usag
fine weş xweş x̌a, səm, ṭik wash, hosh xaar xoš, xūb, beh dārmag srîra xorz, dzæbæx
finger gişte, engişte, bêçike til/qamik, bêçî, pêçîk, engust, pence gwəta lenkutk, mordâneg,changol angoos angošt angust dišti- ængwyldz
fire adir agir/awir, agir or âch, âs tesh ātaš, āzar âdur, âtaxsh ādur âç- âtre-/aêsma- art
fish mase masî kəb māhi, māhig mahi māhi māhig māsyāg masya kæsag
food / eat werdene xwarin / xwardin xwāṛə, xurāk / xwaṛəl warag, warâk xərak / xəynen xordan / xurāk / ġhazā parwarz / xwâr, xwardīg parwarz / xwâr hareθra / ad-, at- xærinag
go şîyayene çûn, rroştin tləl jwzzegh, shutin shunen / burden raftan raftan ay- ai- ay-, fra-vaz cæwyn
god heq, homa xwedê/xwa, xudê xwdāi hwdâ homa, xəda xudā yazdān baga- baya- xwycaw
good baş, rind baş, rind/baş, çak x̌ə jawáin, šarr,zabr xâr xub, nīkū, beh xūb, nêkog vahu- vohu, vaŋhu- xorz
grass vaş giya/gya wāx̌ə rem, sabzag sabzeh, giyāh giyâ giya urvarâ kærdæg
great girs/gird, pîl, xişn mezin, gir/gewre, mezin loy, stər mastar, mazan,tuh gat, belang, pila bozorg,setabr wuzurg, pīl vazraka- uta-, avañt styr
hand dest dest lās dast dess dast dast dast dasta- zasta- k'ux / arm
head ser ser sər saghar,sar, sarag kalə sar, kalle sar sairi sær
heart zerrî dil/dill/dir(Erbil)/zil zṛə dil, hatyr dil/dill del dil dil aηhuš zærdæ
horse estor hesp/esp, hês(t)ir ās [male], aspa [female] asp istar asp, astar asp, stōr asp, stōr aspa aspa- bæx
house keye mal/mall, xanu kor log, dawâr,ges səre xāna xânag demâna-, nmâna- xædzar
hunger vêşan birçî/birsî lwəga shudhagh veyshna gorosna(gi) gursag, shuy strong
language (also tongue) ziwan, zon ziman, ziwan žəba zevān, zobān ziwān zabān zuwān izβān hazâna- hizvā- ævzag
laugh huyayene kenîn/pêkenîn, kenîn xandəl/xənda khendegh, hendeg xandidan xandīdan, xanda karta Syaoθnâvareza- xudyn
life cu/cuye, jewiyaene jiyan žwəndūn, žwənd zendegih, zind zendegi zīndagīh, zīwišnīh žīwahr, žīw- gaêm, gaya- card
man merd, lacek merd, mêr, pîyaw səṛay, mēṛə merd merd mard mard mard martiya- mašîm, mašya adæjmag
moon aşme, meng (for month) heyv, meh/mang (for month) spoẓ̌məi máh mithra mâh māh māh mâh- måŋha- mæj
mother maye, daye, dayike dayek, dayk, daye, mak mor mât, mâs mâr mâdar mâdar dayek mâtar mâtar- mad
mouth fek dev, fek/dem xwla dap dahân dahân, rumb åŋhânô, âh, åñh dzyx
name name nav/naw, nam, nêw nūm nâm num nâm nâm nâman nãman nom
night şewe şev/şew špa šap, shaw sheow shab shab xšap- xšap- æxsæv
open akerdene vekirin/kirdinewe prānistəl pabožagh, paç vâ-hekârden bâz-kardan abâz-kardan, višādag būxtaka- būxta- gom kænyn
peace aştî aştî, aramî rogha, sokāli ârâm âshti, ârâmeš, ârâmî âštih, râmīšn râm, râmīšn šiyâti- râma- fidyddzinad
pig xoz, xonz beraz, soḍər, xənd͡zir khug xi xūk xūk xwy
place ca cî/cih/jê d͡zāi hend, jâgah jâh/gâh gâh gâh gâθu- gâtu-, gâtav- ran
read wendene xwendin/xwêndin lwastəl wánagh baxinden xândan xwândan kæsyn
say vatene gotin/gutin, witin wayəl gushagh baotena goftan, gap(-zadan) guftan, gōw-, wâxtan gōw- gaub- mrû- dzuryn
sister waye xweh, xweşk, xoşk, xuşk xor gwhâr xâxer xâhar/xwâhar xwahar x ̌aŋhar- "sister" xo
small qic/qicik, wurdî/hurdî biçûk, giçke, qicik, hûr kūčnoṭay, waṛūkay gwand, hurd pətik, bechuk, perushk kuchak, kam, xurd, rîz kam, rangas kam kamna- kamna- chysyl
son qij, lac/laj kur, law/kurr d͡zoy (zoy) baç, phusagh pisser pesar, pûr, baça pur, pusar puhr puça pūθra- fyrt
soul gan gan, gyân, rewan, revan rawân ravân rūwân, gyân rūwân, gyân urvan- ud
spring wisar/wesar/usar behar, bihar, wehar spərlay bhârgâh wehâr bahâr wahâr vâhara- θūravâhara-
tall berz bilind/berz lwəṛ, ǰəg bwrz, borz boland / bârez buland, borz bârež barez- bærzond
ten des deh/de ləs deh da dah dah datha dasa dæs
three hîrê sê, sisê drē sey se se hrē çi- θri- ærtæ
village dewe gund, dêhat, dê kəlay helk, kallag, dê deh deh, wis wiž dahyu- vîs-, dahyu- vîs qæw
want waştene xwastin, xwestin, wîstin ghux̌təl lotagh bexanen xâstan xwâstan fændyn
water awe av/aw obə/ūbə âp ab âb/aw âb aw âpi avô- don
when key kengê/key, kengê kəla kadi,ked key kay ka čim- kæd
wind va ba, wa (kelhurî) siləi gwáth bâd wâd wa vâta- dymgæ / wad
wolf verg gur/gurg, wurg lewə, šarmux̌ gurkh varg gorg gurg varka- vehrka birægh
woman cenî jin x̌əd͡za jan,jinik zhənya zan zan žan gǝnā, γnā, ǰaini-, sylgojmag / us
year serre sal/sall kāl sâl sâl sâl θard ýâre, sarәd az
yes / no ya, belê / ne, ney erê, belê, a / na, ne Hao (ao) / na, ya ere / na baleh, ârē, hā / na, née ōhāy / ne hâ / ney yâ / nay, mâ yâ / noit, mâ o / næ
yesterday vizêr duh/dwênê parūn direz diruz dêrûž diya(ka) zyō znon
English Zazaki Kurmanji/Sorani Pashto Balochi Mazandarani Persian Middle Persian Parthian Old Persian Avestan Ossetic

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Iranian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Toward a Typology of European Languages edited by Johannes Bechert, Giuliano Bernini, Claude Buridant
  3. ^ Persian Grammar: History and State of its Study by Gernot L. Windfuhr
  4. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. The Iranian languages. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. 
  5. ^ "Ethnologue report for Iranian". Ethnologue.com. 
  6. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Report for Iranian languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Fifteenth ed.) (Dallas: SIL International). 
  7. ^ (Skjærvø 2006)
  8. ^ Lassen, Christian. 1936. Die altpersischen Keil-Inschriften von Persepolis. Entzifferung des Alphabets und Erklärung des Inhalts. Bonn: Weber. S. 182.
    This was followed by Wilhelm Geiger in his Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie (1895). Friedrich von Spiegel (1859), Avesta, Engelmann (p. vii) used the spelling Eranian.
  9. ^ Cust, Robert Needham. 1878. A sketch of the modern languages of the East Indies. London: Trübner.
  10. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1989. History of northern areas of Pakistan. Historical studies (Pakistan) series. National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research.
    "We distinguish between the Aryan languages of Iran, or Irano-Aryan, and the Aryan languages of India, or Indo-Aryan. For the sake of brevity, Iranian is commonly used instead of Irano-Aryan".
  11. ^ Lazard, Gilbert. 1977. Preface in: Oranskij, Iosif M. Les langues iraniennes. Traduit par Joyce Blau.
  12. ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger. 1994. Sprachzeugnisse alt- und mitteliranischer Sprachen in Afghanistan in: Indogermanica et Caucasica. Festschrift für Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. Geburtstag. Bielmeier, Robert und Reinhard Stempel (Hrg.). De Gruyter. S. 168–196.
  13. ^ Lazard, Gilbert. 1998. Actancy. Empirical approaches to language typology. Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015670-9, ISBN 978-3-11-015670-6
  14. ^ Michael Witzel (2001): Autochthonous Aryans? The evidence from Old Indian and Iranian texts. Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 7(3): 1–115.
  15. ^ Roland G. Kent: "Old Persion: Grammar Texts Lexicon". Part I, Chapter I: The Linguistic Setting of Old Persian. American Oriental Society, 1953.
  16. ^ (Skjaervo 2006) vi(2). Documentation.
  17. ^ Nicholas Sims-Williams, Iranica, under entry: Eastern Iranian languages
  18. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot (2009). "Dialectology and Topics". The Iranian Languages. Routledge. pp. 18–21. 
  19. ^ Mary Boyce. 1975. A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian, p. 14.

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]