Iranian Space Agency
|Iranian Space Agency|
Official logo of ISA
|Formed||February 1, 2004|
|Jurisdiction||Ministry of Communications and Information Technology|
|Headquarters||Tehran, Mahdasht, Shahrood, Qom|
|Annual budget||$71,753,192 (2014)|
|Agency executive||Hamid Fazeli, Administrator|
The Iranian Space Agency (ISA, Persian: سازمان فضایی ایران Sázmán e Fazái e Irán) is Iran's governmental space agency. Iran is an active participant in the Asian space race[not verified in body] and became an orbital-launch-capable nation in 2009. Iran is one of the 24 founding members of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, which was set up in 1958.
- 1 History
- 2 Budget
- 3 Satellite launch vehicle
- 4 Sub-orbital launches
- 5 Orbital launches
- 6 Launched satellites
- 7 Unlaunched satellites
- 8 Space centers
- 9 Space test laboratory
- 10 Manned space program
- 11 Controversy
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
- 14 References
ISA was established on 1 February 2004 according to the Article 9 of the Law for Tasks and Authorizations of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology passed on 10 December 2003 by the Parliament of Iran. Based on the approved statute ISA mandated to cover and support all the activities in Iran concerning the peaceful applications of space science and technology under the leadership of a Supreme Council of Space chaired by Iran’s President.
The Council’s main goals included policy making for the application of space technologies aiming peaceful uses of outer space, manufacturing, launching and use of the national research satellites, approving the space related state and private sector programs, promoting the partnership of the private and cooperative sectors in efficient uses of space, identifying guidelines concerning the regional and international cooperation in space issues.
To follow and implement the strategies set by the Council, ISA affiliated with the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology in the form of an autonomous organization, was organized. The President of ISA held the position of the Vice-Minister of Communications and Information Technology and the secretariat of Supreme Council of Space at the same time.
The proposed budget for the year 1393 (2014-2015) is 1,865,583 million rials ($71,753,192). Other related organizations have received separate budget allocations. Iranian Space Research Center has received an additional 1,751,000 million rials ($67,346,100) of budget for the year 1393.
The budget for the year 2008 was mentioned to be $3.9 billion (2008). However it was not apparent whether the allocation was just for one year or a longer period.
Satellite launch vehicle
Iran has developed an expendable satellite launch vehicle named Safir SLV. Measuring 22 m in height with a core diameter of 1.25 m, with two liquid propellant stages, a single thrust chambered first stage and a two-thrust chambered, step-throttled second stage, the SLV has a lift off mass exceeding 26 tons. The first stage consists of a lengthened up-rated Shahab-3C. According to the technical documentation presented in the annual meeting of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs it is a two-stage rocket with all liquid propellant engines. The first stage is capable of carrying the payload to the maximum altitude of 68 kilometer. It is designed to place a lightweight (50–100 kg) payload into a 500 km LEO. The lighter sub-orbital all-liquid two-stage version is known as Kavoshgar. It is the civilian version derived from one of at least four known military ASAT systems still in development, thus the Safir SLV is 40% taller.
The Safir-1B is the second generation of Safir SLV and can carry a satellite weighing 60 kilograms into an elliptical orbit of 300 to 450 kilometers. The thrust of the Safir-1B rocket engine has been increased from 32 to 37 tons.
In 2010 a more powerful rocket named Simorgh was built. Its mission is to carry heavier satellites into orbit. The Simorgh rocket is 27 meters (89 ft) long, and has a mass of 77 tonnes (85 tons). Its first stage is powered by four main engines, each generating up to 29,000 kilograms (64,000 lb) of thrust, plus a fifth which will be used for attitude control, which provides an additional 13,600 kilograms (30,000 lb). At liftoff, these engines will generate a total of 130,000 kilograms (290,000 lb) of thrust. Simorgh is capable of putting a 60-kilogram (130 lb) payload into a 500-kilometer (310 mi) low Earth orbit. The first flight of the Simorgh rocket is scheduled to occur by 2013.
On February 25, 2007, the Iranian state-run television announced that a rocket, created by the ministries of science and defense and which carried an unspecified cargo, was successfully launched.This could have been the maiden test flight of the three staged Safir SLV which ended in a failure. Later on it was noted by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that the failure was due to a technical problem in the last stage of the SLV. On February 4, 2008, Iran successfully launched a two-stage all solid-fuel sub-orbital sounding rocket Kavoshgar-1 (Explorer-1), for a maiden sub-orbital test flight from Shahroud, its newly inaugurated domestic space launch complex. The first stage of the rocket detached after 90 seconds and returned to earth with the help of a parachute while the second stage reached a 200 km altitude before reentering the Earth's atmosphere after 300 seconds. The third section of the rocket, containing an atmospheric probe, climbed to 250 km while successfully transmitting scientific data on the atmosphere and the electromagnetic waves on its path back to Earth. It deployed a parachute after six minutes at a lower altitude. The second kavoshgar (Kavoshgar-2), which carried a space-lab and a restoration system, was launched in November 2008.
Animals in space
- On February 3, 2010, ISA launched a Kavoshgar-3 (Explorer-3) rocket with one rodent, two turtles, and several worms into sub-orbital space and returned them to Earth alive. The rocket was enabled to transfer electronic data and live footage back to Earth. The Iranian Aerospace Organization (IAO) showed live video transmission of mini-environmental lab to enable further studies on the biological capsule. This was the first biological payload launched by Iran. Iran is the sixth country to send animals in space.
- On March 15, 2011, the ISA launched the Kavoshgar-4 (Explorer-4) rocket carrying a test capsule designed to carry a monkey but without living creatures on board.
- Kavoshgar-5 (Explorer-5) carrying a live monkey was launched for a 20-minute sub-orbital flight in September 2011, however the mission failed. On October 3, Iran indefinitely postponed further plans while scientists reviewed readiness for future missions. In May 2012, Iran announced that it would send more living creatures into the space by the summer.
Following the last failed attempt, ISA was seeking to successfully send a monkey into space by 2013. ISA head Hamid Fazeli told the Iranian news agency Mehr that the designated monkeys are currently in quarantine.
- On January 29, 2013, Iranian state media announced that a monkey was sent into space and returned safely aboard the Pishgam capsule, after having reached a height of 120 kilometers. This was the first time that Iran has sent a primate into space, 54 years after the first monkeys Able and Baker returned safely. No details on the timing or location of the launch were given.
- On December 14, 2013, Iran launched a second monkey, named Fargam, on a suborbital flight. The monkey is reported to have been retrieved successfully and safe, after the short 15 minute flight.
On August 17, 2008, Iran proceeded with the second test launch of a two-stage Safir SLV from a site south of Semnan in the northern part of the Dasht-e-Kavir desert. Reza Taghizadeh, head of the Iranian Aerospace Organization, told state television "The Safir (Ambassador) satellite carrier was launched today and, for the first time, we successfully launched a dummy satellite into orbit". On February 2, 2009, Iranian state television reported that Iran's first domestically made satellite Omid (from the Persian امید, meaning "Hope") had been successfully launched into LEO by a version of Iran's Safir rocket, the Safir-2 and therefore Iran became the 9th country to put a domestically built satellite into orbit. The operation was made to coincide with the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution. In February 2011, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced that there will be many launches of indigenously produced orbiters in 2011-2012 period.
Iran plans to send one-ton satellites into an orbit of 1,000 kilometers and is setting up a new launch base for this purpose. Iran is also planning to launch satellites into orbits of up to 36,000 kilometers in 2016.
- On October 28, 2005, a Kosmos-3 booster rocket launched Sinah-1. The joint Iranian Russian Sinah-1 project cost 15 million U.S. dollars, and the launch made Iran the 43rd country to possess its own satellite.
- Environment 1, a joint research satellite of Iran, China and Thailand was launched on a Chinese Long March 2C carrier rocket on September 6, 2008, aimed at boosting cooperation on natural disasters such as flooding, drought, typhoon, landslide and earthquake. The twin Earth observation satellites of eight planned were launched from Taiyuan SLC. The satellites will work as a constellation with six other satellites yet to be launched. Its observational footprint is 720 km. With a lifespan of more than three years, they have state-of-the-art imaging systems and infrared cameras and provide a global scan every two days. Iran had shouldered $6.5 million out of the $44 million of the total project cost.
- Omid, Iran's second satellite, was placed in orbit in February 2009, and was described as a "data-processing" satellite for "research and telecommunications".[dead link]
- Rasad-1 is an imaging satellite that has been built and launched successfully by Iran. The satellite was sent into the 260 kilometres orbit by a Safir rocket launcher on June 15, 2011. It beams back to earth pictures with 150-meter resolution.
- Navid-e Elm-o Sanat (also known as 'Ya Mahdi') which is an "experimental satellite" built by students for testing camera and telecommunications equipment was revealed to the public on February 3, 2010. It has store-dump capability and a resolution of 400 meters. On February 3, 2012 Iranian press reported that Iran has successfully launched its domestically-built Navid-e Elm-o Sanat satellite into orbit.
- Fajr, is an imaging satellite which also carries an experimental locally made GPS system. The satellite will have a life span of 1.5 years and an imaging resolution of 500–1000 meters. It is the first Iranian satellite to use "Cold Gas Thruster" and has solar pannels. It is to be launched in 2012. As were alleged, non-announced by Iran two failed launches of Fajr satellites occurred on May, 23 and October in 2012.
- Toloo, is the first of a new generation of reconnaissance satellites being built by Iran Electronics Industries with SIGINT capabilities. It has been designed to spy on Iran's adversaries. Its launch date has been set for 2012.
- Nasir 1, Iran's indigenously designed satellite navigation system (SAT NAV) has been manufactured to find the precise locations of satellites moving in orbit.
- Sharif satellite to be launched in 2012 is an observation satellite with an imaging resolution of better than 12.5 meters. The satellite is manufactured by Sharif University of Technology.
- Zafar-1, is an imaging satellite to be launched in 2012 and will have a resolution better than 80 meters. The satellite will be sent into a geostationary orbit.
- Mesbah (meaning 'Lantern') was to be built by Iran in collaboration with Italy's Carlo Gavazzi Space S.p.A. Mesbah was a low earth orbit telecommunication satellite. The satellite was never launched as both Russia and Italy refused to cooperate with Iran anymore on space projects. The original Mesbah project was later on replaced by indigenous Mesbah-2 which is to be built and launched by Iran alone. It was reported in April 2011 that the $10 million satellite built in Italy, has not been delivered to Iran. Italy has refused to hand over the satellite to Iran under the pretext of international sanctions on Iran. Iran maintains that the satellite be handed over for its launch by an Iranian satellite carrier.
- Mesbah-2 is a limited application communication satellite which was conceived as a locally designed satellite after the original Mesbah project failed to materialize due to international pressures on Iran. It will have a life span of 3 years with store dump capability and its own navigation system. It is scheduled for launch in 2012.
- Qaem, is a geosynchronous communication satellite that is being developed by Iran and is scheduled to be launched on an Iranian carrier by 2016. The satellite is going to have a life expectancy of 15 years, broadcasting TV and Radio channels.
- Pars Sepehr, is a remote sensing satellite being built and to be launched from Iran. Its launch date is not yet confirmed.
- Pars-2, is a remote sensing satellite being built and to be launched from Iran. Its launch schedule has not yet been announced.
- AUT-SAT, is a microsatellite being developed by students of Amirkabir University of Technology. It is designed as a remote sensing satellite with store-dump capability. It is to be launched in 2012. Amir Kabir satellite, weighing 80 kilograms, will reportedly be placed in a sun-synchronous orbit of 660 km in radius, and will remain in space between three and five years.
- ZS4 is an Iranian satellite to be launched by an Iranian launcher. Its mission role and launch date have not been revealed.
- SM2S is an Iranian satellite to be launched by an Iranian launcher. Its mission role and launch date have not been revealed.
- Iran is also to implement 10 satellite projects with Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO) members. The organization has defined 10 projects on designing, building and launching light satellites, middle class satellites weighing 500–600 kg, research satellites, remote-sensing and telecommunications satellites.
- Besharat satellite is being built by Iran with collaboration of some OIC members which have volunteered in the project. It is to be launched by Iran. The countries which are jointly working with Iran on the project are Pakistan, Turkey, Malaysia and some Arab countries. Its launch date is not yet confirmed.
- Zohreh is a geosynchronous communication satellite which was originally proposed before the Revolution in the 1970s as part of a joint Indian-Iranian project of four Iranian satellites to be launched by the then upcoming NASA space shuttles. Iran had also negotiated with France to build and launch the satellites but the project never materialized. In 2005, Iran negotiated with Russia to build and launch the first Zohreh satellite under an agreement worth $132 million with the satellite launch date stipulated as 2007-08. The new agreement had followed the earlier failed negotiations with Russia in 2003 when Russia cancelled the project under US pressures. The satellite was to be of Express-1000 type and capable of relaying telephone, fax, data and television signals with a life span of 15 years. In September 2010, Iran announced that it will build and launch the satellite locally as the foreign contractors had refused to complete the project. New launch date for the satellite was announced as 2014. Russia had announced in 2009 that it is not going to cooperate with Iran on any space projects.
- Saar (Starling) will be produced by Iran's Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology. No further details have been given.
On occasion of the inaugural launch of Iran's first Safir-class sub-orbital rocket called Kavoshgar-1 (Explorer-1), Iran unveiled on February 4, 2008, her first Satellite Launch Center in Semnan. The facility includes an underground command and control center, a tracking station and a launchpad among other structures.
In December 2010 it was announced that due to geographical limitations of first space center in injecting satellite into orbit, studies have been carried out for setting up a second (satellite) launch pad. The new national spaceport of Iran, named after Imam Khomeini, is being built in Semnan. This new port is to be used to launch all future Iranian space missions similar to American Kennedy Space Center or the Baikonur Cosmodrome. In March 2011, Jane's Information Group reported on the basis of its satellite imagery analysis of Iranian space launch sites that Iran is aggressively building complex facilities with very rapid pace showing the nation's inclinations towards space readiness.
In June 2013 Iran inaugurated its first space monitoring center located near Delijan in Markazi province, according to Iran's Defense Minister General Ahmad Vahidi the new center which was named Imam Ja'far Sadeq would mostly be used to track and detect space objects and satellites passing overhead using radar, electro-optic and radio systems.
Space test laboratory
In 2011 Iran launched a number of laboratories for testing “space structures and systems” in line with its progressing space program. The laboratory includes ten labs to “reinforce infrastructures of Iran's space industry” and help improve the abilities of human resources.[clarification needed]
Manned space program
Iran expressed for the first time its intention to send a human to space during the summit of Soviet and Iranian Presidents at June 21, 1990. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev reached an agreement in principle with then-President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani to make joint Soviet-Iranian manned flights to Mir space station but this agreement was never realized after the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Almost two decades later the Iranian News Agency claimed on November 21, 2005, that the Iranians have a manned space program along with plans for the development of a spacecraft and a space laboratory.  Iran Aerospace Industries Organization (IAIO) head Reza Taghipour on August 20, 2008, revealed Iran intends to launch a manned mission into space within a decade. This goal was described as the country's top priority for the next 10 years, in order to make Iran the leading space power of the region by 2021.
In August 2010, President Ahmadinejad announced that Iran's first astronaut should be sent into space on board an Iranian spacecraft by no later than 2019. Later on in December 2010, Iranian Communications and Information Technology Minister Reza Taghipour stated that “The initial steps for the plan have been taken, and the study phase on the definition of subsystems, sub-projects, costs, and what projects need to be developed toward that end, has been conducted, which needs to be submitted to the Supreme Council on Space”. According to Iranian manned space program, the first sub-orbital spaceflight with an Iranian on board will take place by 2016 at an altitude below 200 kilometers as preparation for the eventual orbital spaceflight.
According to unofficial Chinese internet sources, an Iranian participation in the future Chinese space station program has been discussed. This involvement might range from simply sending astronauts to the 60 tons class space station to contributing with development of a space laboratory module. International manned space cooperation has officially been disclosed for the first time after the launch of the Chinese Shenzhou 7 spacecraft.
The Iranian space program has been condemned by United States and Europe because of their concern over its military potential. Some analysts have compared the relatively fast Iranian advancement in space technology to Russia's Sputnik program with the prediction that this advancement will propel Iran's military capability in other areas as well. The recent launches of the Iranian space program has put its rocket technology ahead of North Korea's, especially in multi-stage technologies necessary for orbital launch. The military concerns over Iran's space program has been exacerbated over Safir rocket's advanced 2nd stage which Iran has kept secret by not releasing any technical information related to the second stage of the rocket, keeping outside observers guessing over the technicalities.
- List of first orbital launches by country
- Air Force of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution
- Anousheh Ansari - First Iranian-American cosmonaut
- Economy of Iran
- Iran Aviation Industries Organization
- List of Iranian research centers
- International rankings of Iran in science and technology
- List of future manned lunar missions
- Colonization of Mars
- Colonization of the Moon
- National spacefaring programs
- Iranian Space Agency
- Space Science
- Iranian Space Agencies (listing)
- Iran space program
- Shahab SLV
- Aerospace Industries Organization
- Iran in Space Globalsecurity.org
- Youtube Video on Iran Space Program
- Iran's space technology program - Part I Part II Part III (PressTV documentary)
- Imam Khomeini Space Center - Iran
- "Iran to establish national satellite launch base". PressTV. 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "More significant role for Iran’s space administration". Parviz Tarikhi. November 11, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- Budget Bill of 1393 (لايحه بودجه سال 1393 كل كشور). Secretariat of Planning and Supervision, Office of President. December 2013.
- "اختصاص ۳ هزار و ۹۶۰ میلیارد تومان برای سازمان فضایی ایران". Aftab News Agency. February 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Iran unveils three new home-made satellites". Payvand.com. 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "Iran launches spacecraft carrying animals / Space program breakthroughs signal the dawn of a new era of national development: Ahmadinejad". tehran times. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "Details and revealing of Nahid Satellite, Launch of Nahid with Safir B-1 (Persian)". mehrnews.com. 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Ahmadinejad to unveil Nahid Satellite soon (English)". mehrnews.com. 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - Campaign Documentary (2/4)". YouTube. 2009-05-31. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "Iranians inaugurate space project". BBC Online. February 4, 2008.
- "Iran's Kavoshgar1 lifts off for space". Press TV. February 4, 2008.
- "Fars News Agency : ايران موشك كاوشگر 2 را با موفقيت به فضا پرتاب كرد". Farsnews.net. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "Iran Fires Satellite Carrier Into Space". www.payvand.com. 2010-02-02. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
- "Animals are fired into space in Iranian rocket". Metro.co.uk. February 4, 2010.
- "Iran's monkey does not make it to space". The Express Tribune. AFP. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Iran launching monkey into space
- Times of Israel. Iran to Launch a Monkey into Space
- Dareini, Ali. "Iran Says It Sent Monkey Into Space and Back". Associated Press. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "Iran sends monkey into space". 3 News NZ. January 29, 2013.
- Fredrik Dahl and Edmund Blair (February 3, 2009). "Iran launches first home-made satellite: state TV". Reuters. Retrieved Feb 3, 2009.
- "Iran Plans Multiple Satellite Launches | Global Security Newswire | NTI". Gsn.nti.org. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Alam, Ameer (2009-04-12). "The Emerging Iranian Space Program - PakAlumni Worldwide: The Global Social Network". Pakalumni.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- ""环境减灾"A、B卫星一箭双星发射成功". 人民网. 2008-09-06. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
- "Iran, Russia Sign 'Zohreh' Satellite Deal". Spacedaily.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran puts Omid data-processing satellite into orbit". IRNA. 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- [dead link]
- John Pike. "Iran's Second Satellite Launch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Hello, Guest (2011-06-15). "Iran launches homemade satellite into orbit | UTSanDiego.com". Signonsandiego.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "PressTV - Iran successfully launches new satellite into orbit". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Hansen, Nick (October 1, 2012). "Rocket science - Iran's rocket programme". Jane's Intelligence Review 24 (10).
- "AFP: Iran to unveil three new home-built satellites: report". Google.com. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran unveils three new home-made satellites". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran to Launch Toloo Satellite Next Year". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "رونمایی از 4 ماهواره بومی، موتور ماهوارهبر "سفیرB1 " و "كاوشگر4 "". Tebyan.net. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran, world, political, sport, economic news and headlines". MehrNews.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran to retrieve Mesbah-1 sat from Italy". PressTV. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran to launch satellite on its own by late 2011". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2009-11-21. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Zawya". Zawya. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- BaniComm Co. "ISNA - 04-05-2011 - 90/1/16 - Service: / Science / News ID: 1741444". Isna.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iranian official: Italy deviates from handing over Misbah satellite - Trend". En.trend.az. 2011-04-05. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Sina Shafigh. "سازمان فضایی ایران". Isa.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "سايت اصلي - اخبارو رويدادها". Sri.ac.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Book: Iran: Development - space launch systems and satellites, By: Brian Harvey, Henk H. F. Smid and Théo Pirard.
- "Iran to implement 10 satellite projects with APSCO members". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran plans to join APSCO satellite-building project". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- John Pike. "Iran Space Launch Vehicles". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran, OIC to build satellite 'Besharat'". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2007-12-10. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "The Institute for National Security Studies". INSS. 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- John Pike. "Zohreh". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "ماهواره زهره تا چهارسال آينده به فضا پرتاب مي شود". Peymane.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Behnegarsoft.com. "الف - پرتاب ماهواره زهره تا 4 سال آينده". Alef.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Weinberger, Sharon (2009-06-25). "Russians Say 'Nyet' To Another Iranian Satellite | Danger Room". Wired.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Blog Archive » Iran/Russia and arms sales, pre-Obama visit". All Our Might. 2009-06-26. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "No Operation". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "تاسيس پايگاه ملي پرتاب ماهواره درجنوب شرق کشور - مشرق نیوز". mashreghnews.ir. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "اختصاص ۴ ميليارد تومان اعتبار براي ساخت ابررايانه ملي". Ihrc.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran accelerates space and missile launch projects - Jane's Defence Weekly". Articles.janes.com. 2011-03-18. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran plans manned space mission in 10 years". Reuters. August 21, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- "'First Iranian in space within decade'". Ynetnews. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
- "'Iran to send first astronaut into space within 10 years'". RIA Novosti. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2008-09-11.
- "Iran aims to send man into space by 2019". BBC News. July 23, 2010.
- "Dispatching Iranian astronaut to below 200 km orbit". Iranian Space Agency. 2011-05-31. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "权威发布:神舟飞船将从神八开始批量生产". 新华网. 2008-09-26. Retrieved September 26, 2008.
- Harding, Robert C. (2012). Space Policy in Developing Countries: The Search for Security and Development on the Final Frontier. Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 978-0415538459.
- Lele, Ajey (2012). Asian Space Race: Rhetoric or Reality? (2013ed ed.). Springer. p. 33. ISBN 978-8132207320.
- "Iran's Space Program: The Next Genie in a Bottle?". Meria.idc.ac.il. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Biak Spaceport: The Emerging Iranian Space Program". Biak-spaceport.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iranian missiles have 'worldwide reach': Russia". Spacewar.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- "Iran Launches First Homegrown Satellite". CBS News. February 3, 2009.
- "Travel News - Iran claims first launch of its own satellite". Asemangasht.com. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Foreign, Our (August 17, 2008). "Iran launches rocket capable of carrying satellite". The Daily Telegraph (London).