Iranian presidential election, 2013

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Iranian presidential election, 2013
Iran
2009 ←
14 June 2013
→ 2017

Turnout 72.77%
  Hassan Rouhani.jpg Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf.jpg
Nominee Hassan Rouhani Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
Party MDP ISE
Popular vote 18,692,500 6,077,292
Percentage 50.88% 16.46%

نتیجهٔ انتخابات ۱۳۹۲.png

Results of the election: the candidate with the plurality of votes in each district. Rouhani: violet; Ghalibaf: yellow; Jalili: red; Rezaee: blue

President before election

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Abadgaran

Elected President

Hassan Rouhani
MDP

Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013. Hassan Rouhani won with a landslide victory, elected in the first round of voting with 50.88% of the vote.[1][2] Tehran Mayor Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf finished second with 16.46% of the vote.[1] Nearly 36.792 million Iranians voted, 72.77% of eligible voters.[2]

The Guardian Council screened 680 registered candidates, approving eight to run in the election; Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel, Ali Akbar Velayati, Saeed Jalili, Mohsen Rezaee, Mohammad Gharazi, Hassan Rouhani and Mohammad Reza Aref. Haddad-Adel and Aref later withdrew from the race in the days leading up to the election. Incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was not able to run for re-election as he was limited to two terms or 8 years in office under the Iranian constitution.

Background[edit]

Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009,[3] with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers. The next morning the Islamic Republic News Agency, Iran's official news agency, announced that with two-thirds of the votes counted, Ahmadinejad had won the election with 62% of the votes cast,[4] and that Mir-Hossein Mousavi had received 34% of the votes cast.[5][6] The European Union,[7] the United Kingdom[8] the United States, and several western countries expressed concern over alleged irregularities during the vote,[7] and many analysts and journalists from the United States, Europe and other western based media voiced doubts about the authenticity of the results.[9][10][11] Meanwhile many OIC member states, as well as Russia, China, India, and Brazil, congratulated Ahmadinejad on his victory.

Electoral system[edit]

A man in Sarakhs casts his vote.

The President of Iran is the country's highest directly elected official, the chief of the executive branch, and the second most important position after the Supreme Leader. Duties are similar to heads of governments in other countries, except that the armed forces, Chief judiciary system, state television, and other key governmental organizations are under the control of the Supreme Leader of Iran. It is also an informal custom that cabinet ministers for sensitive departments like foreign relations and intelligence are coordinated with the Supreme Leader.

Any Iranian citizen born in Iran, believing in God and the official religion of Iran (Islam), who has always been loyal to the Constitution and is above 21 years of age may register as a presidential candidate. An institution called the Election Monitoring Agency (EMA) and managed by the Guardian Council vets registered candidates (in the 2009 election 36,000 people signed up as candidates) and selects a handful to run in the election. The Guardian Council does not announce publicly the reason for rejections of particular candidates although those reasons are explained to each candidate. Females who register as candidates have invariably been excluded from standing for election by the Council.[12][13]

Electoral law[edit]

One of the issues that has been raised in the pre-election debate over electoral reforms, especially regarding enforcement, situations of candidates. Executive of elections under previous law was ministry of interior (Government) and there were statements about changing of maintaining law. In addition, the law provided that the candidates must be political men and the meaning of men was not known. The changes began after the protests to the previous election. According to Iranian law, candidates more than 75 years old are eligible to run but their health issues must be checked by the Guardian Council.

The new act of the elections was approved by the parliament on 17 December 2012 and was significated by speaker of the parliament, Ali Larijani, to the president for official implementation.[14][15] Some of the changes are explained:

Act Before After (changed)
18 / 31
  • Ministry of Interior must announce the results
  • Ministry of Interior is the only official reference of the election.
  • Electoral Commission will announce the results after the Ministry of Interior confirmation*.
  • Ministry of Interior, under the Electoral Commission are the official references of the election.
64
  • Debates can be recorded.
  • Debates must be live.
  • If extortion about one candidate, he has the mandate to defend him/herself in next programs.

Timeline[edit]

  • 7 May – The official registration of candidates began at the ministry of interior.[16]
  • 11 May – The time for registration was ended at 18:00 IRDT.
  • 21 May – The final list of candidates was announced by the Minister of Interior, Mostafa Mohammad Najjar. A number of 8 candidates are eligible to participate in the election.[17]
  • 24 May – Official propagation campaigns for the final candidates began.
  • 13 June – End of campaigns.
  • 14 June – Election date.
  • 15 June – Official results announced by Interior Ministry with Hassan Rouhani elected as the seventh President of Iran.
  • 25 June – Guardian Council confirmed the election results.
  • 1 August – President-elect will meet with Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei.
  • 3 August – Inauguration of new President, replacing Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

Electoral Commission[edit]

For the first time in the history of Iranian presidential elections, a commission of eleven persons (three legal, seven experts, one from parliament, supervised the elections.[18][19]

Candidates[edit]

Registration for candidates took place from 7 to 11 May 2013.[20][21] Registered candidates' qualifications were then reviewed by the Guardian Council.[22] On 21 May 2013 eight candidates were approved for placement on the ballot. BBC News commented that all eight approved candidates were "considered hardline conservatives," with reformist candidates, notably former president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, having been barred from standing.[23] In contrast, Lebanon's Daily Star newspaper described attempts by former presidents Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami to unite behind one or the other of two "reformist candidates," Hassan Rouhani and Mohammad Reza Aref.[24] Two of the eight, Aref and Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel, withdrew from the race on 10 and 11 June.[25][26]

Name Party Slogan Political background
Ghalibaf 2013.png
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf[27]
Islamic Society of Engineers
(supported by Conservatives Majority Alliance, United Front of Conservatives)

Change, Life, People
A glorious Iran
Ghalibaf has been Mayor of Tehran since 2005. During the Iran-Iraq War, he was chief commander of Iran's Imam Ridha troops in 1982 and of its Nasr Troops from 1983 to 1984. After the war he became managing director of Khatam al-Anbia, an engineering firm controlled by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps and also commander of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, in 1996. In 2000, he became chief of the Iranian Police Forces. He was also a candidate in 2005 presidential election.
MohmmadGharazi.jpg
Mohammad Gharazi[28]
Independent

Government against Inflation
Gharazi was Minister of Petroleum from 1981 to 1985 and Minister of Posts from 1985 to 1997. He was a member of the Iran's Parliament from 1980 to 1984 and Governor of Khuzestan from 1979 to 1980.
Saeed Jalili cropped.jpg
Saeed Jalili[29][30]
Front of Islamic Revolution Stability
(supported by Abadgaran, Modern Thinkers of Islamic Iran)

Hayat-e-Taiba
Since 2007 Jalili has been Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council and therefore Iran's chief nuclear negotiator. He was previously Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2005 to 2007.
Mohsen Rezaee in seminar.jpg
Mohsen Rezaee[31]
Development and Justice Party
(supported by Green Party, Isargaran)

Say hello to life
Rezaee has been Secretary of the Expediency Discernment Council since 1997. From 1981 to 1997 he was chief commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps. He has run for the presidency twice, in 2005 and 2009.
Hassan Rouhani.jpg
Hassan Rouhani[32]
Moderation and Development Party
(supported by Green Movement, Iranian Reform Movement, Executives of Construction, Freedom Movement, Labour Coalition, Nationalist-Religious movement, Islamic Iran Participation Front, Democracy Party)

Government of Prudence and Hope
Rouhani has been a member of the Assembly of Experts since 1999, head of the Center for Strategic Research since 1992, and a member of the Expediency Discernment Council since 1991. He has also served on the Supreme National Security Council since 1989; he was secretary of the council and therefore Iran's chief nuclear negotiator from 1989 to 2005. Rouhani was Deputy Speaker of Iran's parliament from 1992 to 2000.

Ali Akbar Velayati[29][33]
Islamic Coalition Party
(supported by Society of Seminary)

Complementarity Government
Velayati was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1981 to 1997 and Deputy Minister of Health from 1980 to 1981. He was a member of the Parliament from 1980 to 1981.

Withdrawn[edit]

During the electoral campaign[edit]

The following two candidates registered for the election and their nominations were approved by the Guardian Council, but withdrew their candidacies during the electoral campaign.

Before the electoral campaign[edit]

The following candidates registered for the election campaign but withdrew their candidacies before the electoral campaign.

Rejected[edit]

The following candidates registered for the election but their nominations were rejected by the Guardian Council. All thirty registered female candidates were promptly disqualified on constitutional grounds.[45]

Declined[edit]

The following people did not register for the election and declined to enter the race.

Party conventions[edit]

While Rouhani is a high-ranking member of the Combatant Clergy Association,[74] his candidacy in the election was not supported by CCA which has conservative tendency.[75] He was supported by some moderate and reformist parties such as Moderation and Development Party and Islamic Iran Participation Front as well as the Iranian reform movement. Rouhani's motto in the election is "E'tedal" which is translated to "Moderation" and he is described as a moderate politician by some western sources.[76][77]

Campaign[edit]

Emblem of Iran.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Iran

Debates[edit]

From 25 May to 12 June 2013, each of the eight final candidates has the right to use National TV and Radio (IRIB) for their presidential election campaigns. In total, each candidate will use 405 minutes on Public TV and 285 minutes on Public Radio. This time comprises the candidates' own campaign programs as well as participation in the specific discussion shows. In addition, there will be three main live group debates on TV. The debates are held in three chapters: the first was held on 31 May, and second on 5 May and third on 7 May between all eight candidates. They differed from the previous election debates, which were held person-by-person. The 2013 debates and TV shows are moderated by Morteza Heidari and Hassan Abedini.[82]

The following table shows the programme details and the time schedule for each candidate in Iranian Public TV. The times given are the local time (UTC +4:30 IRDT).[83]

Program title Channel & Time Repetition time 25 May
Sat
26 May
Sun
27 May
Mon
28 May
Tue
29 May
Wed
30 May
Thu
31 May
Fri
1 June
Sat
2 June
Sun
With Camera IRIB1, 20:00–20:30
Rezaei
Jalili
Velayati
Rouhani
Ghalibaf
Haddad
Aref
Gharazi
Special talk IRIB2, 22:45–23:30
Jalili
Velayati
Rouhani
Ghalibaf
Aref
Rezaei
Gharazi
Haddad
Reply Iranian abroad JJ1, 23:30–00:30
Gharazi
Aref 1
Haddad
Jalili
Velayati
Rouhani
Aref
Ghalibaf
Rezaei
Debate 1 IRIB1, 16:00–19:30 IRIB4, 21:00–00:30
All
Program title Channel & Time Repetition time 3 June
Mon
4 June
Tue
5 June
Wed
6 June
Thu
7 June
Fri
8 June
Sat
9 June
Sun
10 June
Mon
11 June
Tue
12 June
Wed
Reply the experts IRIB4, 18:10–19:10
Gharazi
Haddad
Rouhani
Jalili
Ghalibaf
Aref
Rezaei
Velayati
Reply the youth IRIB3, 19:10–20:10
Aref
Ghalibaf
Velayati
Rezaei
Haddad
Gharazi
Jalili
Rouhani
Documentary 1–2 IRIB1, 20:10–20:40 JJ1, 23:30–24:00
Rezaei
Velayati
Ghalibaf
Aref
Jalili
Rouhani
Haddad 2
Gharazi
The talk IRINN, 22:30–23:00
Rouhani
Jalili
Gharazi
Haddad
Velayati
Rezaei
Aref 2
Ghalibaf
Documentary 1–2 IRIB1, 23:30–24:00 JJ1, 00:30–01:00
Jalili
Rouhani
Haddad
Gharazi
Rezaei
Velayati
Ghalibaf
Aref 2
Debate 2–3 IRIB1, 16:00–19:30 IRIB4, 21:00–00:30
All
All

1 The first one-hour TV program of Mohammad-Reza Aref was cut after 15 minutes and did not continue.[84][85] Later, the program was completely shown again on Friday, 31 May 2013.[86]
2 Haddad and Aref's programs were not shown because they withdrew.[87]

State limits on the campaign[edit]

On 9 June Brigadier General Seyyed Masoud Jazayeri, Deputy Chief of Joint Armed Forces Headquarters and head of the Defense Propaganda Headquarters, "warned" a "few of the candidates" that "...we have warned before that it's better that candidates express their opinions within the framework of presidency's authority, and avoid entering in those issues related to security or the armed forces." Jazayeri added that the Pasdaran will confront those candidates "who have spread untrue information and painted a black picture [of the regime], after the election."

According to the Campaign for Human Rights in Iran, Jazayeri was "alluding to the two reformist candidates in the race, Mohammad Reza Aref and Hassan Rouhani". (Aref withdrew from the race 11 June)[88]

Also according to the Campaign, "several political activists and campaign workers have been arrested at political rallies, at their work places, and at their homes" since the beginning of June. In addition, "journalists and activists who had been imprisoned after the 2009 elections" and were later released on furlough "have been recalled to prison in the month leading to the election"[88]

In the run-up to the election, the internet was drastically slowed down with poor connectivity and since March virtual private networks have been blocked, resulting in the inability of Iranians to access thousands of foreign websites, as well as Twitter and Facebook.[89]

Opinion polls[edit]

The main online polls began after announcement of candidates' final list. The polls are divided into three main groups: field polls, telephone polls and internet polls.

IPOS polls[edit]

As one of the few telephone polling systems in Iran, IPOS (Iranian Elections Tracking Polls) institute ran a daily poll system for the election, by claiming that they have the only official poll system in Iranian presidential election.[90][91] The poll is based on the daily phone interviews with a sample size of around 1,000 people per day.[92] The poll also reported that between 60 to 75% of the people confirmed they will participate in the presidential election.[93]

On 6 June 2013 Ghalibaf held a strong lead in the poll with the support of 39% of decided voters. However, the poll notified that 57% of voters are undecided, meaning that the poll result can be changed easily. Rezaee and Jalili had the second and third place with 16.8 and 13.9% of decided voters respectively.[92][94]

On 10 June 2013 Ghalibaf still held a lead in the presidential race, but this time with the support of 27% of decided voters. Ghalibaf votes has started to decrease after the third national TV debate held on 7 June 2013. The percentage of undecided voters decreased to 47%. Jalili and Rezaee had the second and third place with 16.5 and 16% of decided voters respectively. Rouhani's votes started to increase after the third national TV debate reaching from 8 to 14%. After Aref's withdrawal on 11 June 2013 and decreasing the undecided voters percentage, some significant changes in the percentages are expected in the following days.[95][96]

On 12 June 2013 Rouhani made a notable lead in the presidential race, reaching 32% of decided votes. Ghalibaf votes has continued to decrease to 24.4% of decided voters. The percentage of undecided voters decreased to 42%. Jalili, Rezaee and Velayati had the third to fifth place with a rally small margin of difference.[97][98]

On 13 June 2013 in the final results, Rouhani reached 38% of decided votes. Ghalibaf votes remained on 25% of decided voters. The percentage of undecided voters decreased to 38.7%. Rezaee, Jalili and Velayati were in third to fifth place.[99]

Poll source Date Total votes Jalili Haddad Rezaee Rouhani Aref Gharazi Ghalibaf Velayati decided votes (%)
IPOS[100][101] 3–6 June 2013 1,067 13.9% 4.4% 16.8% 8.1% 5.8% 0.7%
39.0%
11.5% 42.9%[102]
5–8 June 2013 1,067 14.8% 4.5% 16.4% 9.6% 6.8% 2.6%
34.1%
11.3% 44.9%[103]
7–10 June 2013 1,067 16.5% 3.5% 16.0% 14.4% 8.4% 2.7%
27.1%
11.4% 53.1%[104]
8–11 June 2013 1,067 13.7% 1.3% 16.3%
26.6%
5.1% 1.5% 24.8% 10.4% 57.6%[105]
9–12 June 2013 1,067 13.7% 0.6% 14.3%
31.7%
1.6% 1.4% 24.4% 12.7% 57.8%[106]
10–13 June 2013 1,067 12.6% - 13.7%
38%
- 1.4% 24.6% 9.7% 61.3%[107]

Results[edit]

Ballot which was used in the election

According to the Ministry of Interior, there are 50,483,192 eligible persons to vote for the first round of voting.[108] Over 66,000 polling stations were set up across the country. Expatriates were also able to cast ballots at 285 polling stations that were set up in their respective countries.[109] Due to its massive population, Tehran Province had the highest number of polling stations, with over 17,000 locations for the voting.[110]

At the 20:30 local time, the ministry announced Rouhani as the new president with 18,692,500 and 50.88 percentages of the votes.[111]

Iranian presidential election, 2013
Candidate Party Votes %
Hassan Rouhani Moderation and Development Party 18,613,329 50.88
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf Society of Engineers 6,077,292 16.46
Saeed Jalili Revolutionary Stability 4,168,946 11.31
Mohsen Rezaee Development and Justice Party 3,884,412 10.55
Ali Akbar Velayati Islamic Coalition 2,268,753 6.16
Mohammad Gharazi Independent 446,015 1.22
Valid votes 35,458,747 96.58
Blank or invalid votes 1,245,409 3.42
Total votes cast 36,704,156 100
Registered voters/turnout 50,483,192 72.70
Sources: Ministry of Interior of Iran
Results chart
Rouhani
  
50.88%
Ghalibaf
  
16.46%
Jalili
  
11.31%
Rezaee
  
10.55%
Velayati
  
6.16%
Gharazi
  
1.22%
Valid votes
  
96.58%
Invalid votes
  
3.42%
Turnout
  
72.70%

Votes by provinces[edit]

The table below displays the official vote tallies by province.

Provinces/districts won by Rouhani
Provinces/districts won by Rezaee

Turnout[edit]

Officials said that 72 percent of the 50 million eligible Iranians had turned out to vote.[139]

Reactions[edit]

Prior to the election, the Foreign Ministry's spokesperson, Abbas Araghchi accused France and the United States of interfering in the electoral process after the two countries' officials criticised the nomination process and the disqualifications.[140] Hours after the announcement of preliminary results, Ali Akbar Velayati and Mohammad Gharazi both conceded their loss in the election and congratulated the president-elect.[141][142] Mohammad Reza Aref, the withdrawing candidate also published via his Twitter account, congratulating the new president and thanked people for voting for the reform movement.[143] Hassan Rouhani, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf and Mohsen Rezaee's campaigns also thanked the nation on their high participation in the election.[144] Tehran Stock Exchange's index also reached more than 46,000 units that was highest since February 2013.[145] Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei also congratulated Rouhani on his election as new president of the country.[146]

Maps[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

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