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Today there are basically three types of Islam in Iran: traditionalism (traditional humanism), modernism, and a variety of forms of revivalism usually brought together as fundamentalism.
Until two hundred years ago, in spite of the many schools and interpretations, many Muslims in Iran lived within the tradition. It was a living tradition, emphasizing the harmony of law, art, and all forms of knowledge. Also a significant Iranian scholar followed the tradition of Persian sufism and pluralism. Currently in Iran there exist three main types of Islam: traditionalists (represented by Hossein Nasr and Yousef Sanei), modernists (represented by Abdolkarim Soroush) and different groups under the conservative umbrella (represented by Ruhollah Khomeini, Ali Khamenei, Mohammad-Taghi Bahjat, Naser Makarem Shirazi, Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi and Hossein Noori Hamedani). Iranian Islam differs from the mainstream Sunni Islam and may be better understood by studying the Shia history in Arabia and Iran.
Some groups of conservatives and Traditionals humanists have tendencies toward mystical spiritualism and some of them are less political (or apolitcal).
In traditional schools, traditional astronomy and geometry are discussed as well as philosophy, sufism and ethics.
traditional nobleman of 20th century 
See also