Iranians in the Netherlands
|Regions with significant populations|
|Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and other urban areas|
Agnosticism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Iranian citizens abroad|
Iranians in the Netherlands are sometimes referred to by hyphenated terms such as "Dutch-Iranians", "Iranian-Dutch", "Dutch-Persian", or "Persian-Dutch". Similar terms Iraanse Nederlanders, Nederlandse Iraniërs, and Perzische-Nederlanders may be found in Dutch-language media. However, one scholar who uses the term "Dutch-Iranians" also expresses reservations over the validity of such a "hyphenated notion of identity" in the Dutch context, in comparison to the less problematic term "Iranian American".
Though other European countries such as Germany and France have had Persian communities since the early 20th century, the Iranian population in the Netherlands is of relatively recent provenance; virtually all came to the country after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The overall migration was quite significant relative to the whole size of Iranian emigration to Europe; from 1990–1999, the Netherlands was Europe's second most-popular destination for Iranian asylum seekers, behind Germany. However, from 1981 to 2001, only 1,292 were formally recognised as "invited refugees" (Uitgenodigde vluchtelingen), the vast majority in the period 1987-1990.
- 24,535 Iranian-born persons (13,603 men, 10,932 women)
- 6,082 locally born persons of Iranian background (3,159 men, 2,923 women), of which:
- 2,491 persons with one parent also born locally (1,321 men, 1,170 women)
- 3,591 persons with both parents born abroad (1,838 men, 1,753 women)
For a total of 30,617 persons (16,758 men, 13,855 women). This represented nearly double the 1996 total of 16,478 persons. Numerically, most of the growth was in the foreign-born segment of the population, whose numbers increased from 14,628 over the period in question; however, the rate of growth was fastest in the locally born segment of the population, which almost tripled in size from 1,850 persons.
Iran is a largely Muslim country, a fact reflected in the backgrounds of Iranian migrants to the Netherlands. However, most migrants do not continue to practise their religion. Those who do often find themselves viewed as threats and suffer exclusion from Dutch society; this trend strengthened with the growth of political Islam in the 1980s.
In 2007, Ehsan Jami, a Dutch politician of Iranian descent, criticised the Islamic prophet Muhammad, describing him as a "criminal". Together with Loubna Berrada (founder of the Advisory Committee for Integration, part of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy), Jami founded the Central Committee for Ex-Muslims in 2007. The organisation, supported by Afshin Ellian, aims to support apostates from Islam and to bring forth the reality of women's rights violations in the religion. On 4 August 2007, Jami was attacked in his hometown Voorburg by three men. The attack was widely believed to be linked to his activities for the committee. The national anti-terrorism coordinator's office, the public prosecution department, and the police decided during a meeting on 6 August that "additional measures" were necessary for the protection of Jami, who subsequently received extra security.
Iranians in the Netherlands are regarded as one of the highest educated and best integrated ethnic groups, according to various sources such as the Erasmus University Rotterdam and the Statistics Netherlands.
Due to the Iranian government's nuclear activities, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737, which among other matters called on UN member states to prevent Iranian students from receiving specialised training which might be of use to the nuclear programme of Iran, the Dutch government implemented a variety of restrictions on Iranian students in the Netherlands.
However, there were controversial happenings regarding Iranian students in the Netherlands. At the recommendation of the government, the University of Twente went so far as to halt its admissions of students from Iran entirely, stating that it could not ensure they would have no access to nuclear-related information. However, the government later backed away from this policy. In July, they announced that Iranian students could be admitted but would be restricted from taking certain courses and visiting certain places related to the development of nuclear weapons. In response, a group of Iranian students filed suit against the government, alleging that the restrictions violated the prohibition against all forms of discrimination established by Article 1 of the Constitution of the Netherlands.
The first serious conflicts between the Pahlavi government and students in the Netherlands began in the 1970s. In 1974, a group of Iranians based in the Netherlands and other European countries occupied the Embassy of Iran in Wassenaar. Another group occupied the embassy in August 1978, and were arrested by the police. Their lawyer stated to Dutch daily Nieuwsblad van het Noorden that "Wassenar Police gives information to Persia".
The early migration of political activists and their applications for asylum in the Netherlands following the 1979 Iranian Revolution had a major effect on the development of the Iranian community; the suspected links between the Islamic Republic embassies in Europe and the murders of prominent exiles such as the France-based former prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar, as well as rumours of information leaks to the Iranian embassy in The Hague from within the Dutch government, led to suspicion by Iranians both towards their fellow Iranians and towards the Dutch authorities. In 1996, Dutch daily Trouw revealed that one fairly prominent man in the Iranian community in Amsterdam, Mahmoed Jafhari (known by the alias "Anoosh"), had been working for the Iranian intelligence service to gather information on exiles; he had recorded on tape every conversation held in his house with his fellow Iranians, a fact which was discovered only after his death. The social environment created by that event has resulted in numerous difficulties for later academic research.
Since the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests, the Iranian community in the Netherlands organised many solidarity demonstrations in Amsterdam, The Hague, Delft and Groningen. In January 2010, when the Islamic Republic Embassy in The Hague organized a "Peace Concert" at Rotterdam's De Doelen Concert Hall, it had to be stopped in the middle, because of physical confrontations between angry protesters and the embassy agents.
In April 2010 a group of Iranian and Dutch protesters occupied parts of Islamic Republic Embassy in the Hague in protest to Iran's oppressive and violent policies. During this act of protest, the flag of the Islamic Republic has been lowered and replaced with a banner bearing an image of Neda Agha Soltan, the woman who was shot to death in Tehran's street protests after the disputed June presidential elections.
In June 2010 the Dutch TV Channel NOS organized a visit for Ezzatollah Zarghami, director of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, to its headquarters in Hilversum. Radio Zamaneh revealed this news, creating a wave of anger in the Iranian community. The Hague-based Iranian Progressive Youth Network also published a press release entitled "NOS Welcomes the Terrorist". The event was canceled a few days before the visit. The whole affair was reported in mainstream Dutch media such as NRC Handelsblad.
In 2011, Iran executed Zahra Bahrami, a naturalised Dutch citizen of Iranian origin, after holding her in prison since 2009 on drugs charges. The Dutch ambassador in Tehran was not allowed to offer her assistance.
In 2004 the Dutch Parliament agreed with the proposal for allocating 15 million Euros to set up a television station, which would broadcast in the Persian language. This was the first time that a European Union country had been involved in establishing a Persian television station on its own.
The Persian-language Radio Zamaneh began operating in Amsterdam in August 2006 with support from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Islamic Republic of Iran has on various occasions criticised the Netherlands for funding the station. During the 2009 public unrest and demonstrations in Iran, Majid Ghahremani, Iranian ambassador to The Netherlands, accused the Dutch government of interfering in Iran's internal affairs. At the same time, a Dutch foreign ministry spokeswoman told Reuters that they had decided to continue to provide funding to the radio station, with the aim of improving the situation of human rights in Iran.
In January 2010 also Persian Dutch Network has been registered in Amsterdam to introduce Persian culture to Dutch people and make two nations more close to each other. PDN has also released various videos of cultural events, social gatherings and political demonstrations of Persian community in the Netherlands on the Internet.
Integration and community
Iranians in the Netherlands have founded relatively few community organisations compared to Turkish or Moroccan migrants; this may be due to the general atmosphere of distrust and divisiveness among Iranians abroad. In contrast to other migrant groups, there is little sense of community among them. Possibly as a result of this, many Iranians have redirected their ideological energies into participation in mainstream Dutch politics; prominent examples include politician Farah Karimi of the GreenLeft party or commentator and professor Afshin Ellian.
Women tend to report far lower levels of discrimination than men. However, they still often confront mainstream stereotypes of Muslim women, such as the idea that they are victims of domestic violence in need of emancipation from Muslim men.
Art and culture
- There is an active "Persian Language and Culture" Department at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands.
- There are Persian artists, writers, musicians, etc. who are active in the Netherlands, among them filmmaker Reza Allamehzadeh.
- In 2006, graphic designer Reza Abedini received 2006 Principal Prince Claus Award.
- In the summer 2008 Amsterdam Branch of Hermitage Museum organized the exhibition "Persia: Thirty Centuries of Culture and Art" for six months.
- Kader Abdolah, author
- Biurakn Hakhverdian, water polo player, olympic gold medalist and former captain of the Dutch national junior water polo team
- Afshin Ellian, university professor
- Farah Karimi, politician and former MP
- Gegard Mousasi, mixed martial artist
- Reza Allamehzadeh, filmmaker
- Pejman Akbarzadeh, musician and journalist
- Reza Ghoochannejhad, footballer
- Alireza Jahanbakhsh, footballer
- Touraj Atabakii, Professor of Social History of the Middle East and Central Asia, Leiden University.
Persian-language books section at the Amsterdam Public Library
A Persian carpet Gallery in Old center Amsterdam, July 2010
A Persian restaurant in Amsterdam, 2006
Haft-Sin table for Nowruz / Persian New Year Celebration in Uitgeest, 2010
- Population; sex, age, origin and generation, 1 January
- Ghorashi 2002, p. 140
- Ghorashi 2002, p. 228
- Hunter, Shireen. Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape. p. 102.
- "A Conference for Persian Christians", FCNN, 5 November 2009, retrieved 2010-08-06
- Hessels 2002, p. 20
- van den Bos & Achbari 2007, p. 171
- Lindert et al. 2008, p. 581
- Ghorashi 2002, pp. 141, 182
- "First Documentary on "Hayedeh, Legendary Persian Diva"", Payvand News, 5 January 2009, retrieved 2009-08-20
- "Nederlandse Iraniër zit gevangen in Syrië", De Volkskrant, 20 May 2006, retrieved 2009-06-01
- "Executie verijdeld van Iraanse Nederlander", De Volkskrant, 30 June 2003, retrieved 2009-06-01
- "Iraniërs debatteren in ‘Tehrangeles’ – daar wel", Volkskrant, 15 January 2009, retrieved 2009-01-15
- Ghorashi 2002, pp. 227–233
- "Perzische Referendum", ANP, 8 January 1953, retrieved 2010-08-08
- "De illusoire dialoog", IranPY, 1 August 2010, retrieved 2010-08-08
- Mulder, Eildert (27 July 1996), "Spionnen von de ajatollah's", Trouw, retrieved 2010-07-23
- Hessels 2002, p. 19
- CBS 2009
- Hessels 2002, p. 10
- Hessels 2004, p. 57
- Benneker, Bas (23 June 2007), "Ex-moslim PvdA: Mohammed was een crimineel (Labour party Ex-Muslim: "Muhammad was a criminal")", Elsevier (in Dutch), retrieved 2010-08-03
- "Ex-moslims krijgen een stem: Ehsan Jami vecht voor geloofsvrijheid met nieuw Comité" [Ex-Muslims get a voice: Ehsan Jami fighting for religious freedom in new committee], Spits (in Dutch), 6 May 2007, retrieved 2010-08-03
- "Reacties stromen binnen bij Comité voor Ex-moslims" [Reactions flows within the Committee for Ex-Muslims], NU.nl (in Dutch), 2 June 2007
- "Extra security for Ehsan Jami", Expatica.com, 7 August 2007, archived from the original on 27 May 2008, retrieved 2010-07-03
- 24-04-2013 Iraniers en voormalig Joegoslaven zijn hoog opgeleid, retrieved 2013-04-24
- Iraniërs zijn vaak hoog opgeleid, 24 April 2013, retrieved 2013-04-24
- "Fardad Zand wint The Rectors Student Prize for Internationalisation 2006". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Tenming, Ruben (3 January 2008), "Dutch university bans Iranian students", Radio Netherlands Worldwide, retrieved 2009-06-01
- Bhattacharjee, Yudhijit (2008), "News of the Week: Dutch Revise Policy Blocking Iranian Students", Science 319 (5863): 556, doi:10.1126/science.319.5863.556b, PMID 18239096
- de Jong, Perro (3 September 2008), "Iranian students take Dutch state to court", Radio Netherlands Worldwide, retrieved 2009-06-01
- "Dutch-Persians Shout for Freedom on Bike", Iranian.com, 2 June 2010, retrieved 2010-06-21
- "Perzische bezetters mogen hier blijven", Nieuwsblad van het NoordenNieuwsblad van het Noorden, 4 April 1974, retrieved 2010-08-08
- "Advocate Perzische Bezetters: "Politie Wassenaar gaf Perzië inlichtingen"", Nieuwsblad van het Noorden, 30 August 1978, retrieved 2010-08-06
- Ghorashi 2002, p. 141
- Ghorashi 2002, p. 12. The newspaper article cited there is available online: "Iraanse broers blijken spionnen voor Teheran", Trouw, 27 July 1996, retrieved 2009-06-01
- "Holland's Persian artists in SOLIDARITY with their People", Payvand News, 7 February 2009, retrieved 2009-02-07
- "Protesters occupy parts of Iranian Embassy in the Hague", Payvand News, 7 April 2010, retrieved 2010-08-20
- "Protests against Dutch TV's invitation to head of Iranian TV", Payvand News/RadioZamaneh, 30 June 2010, retrieved 2010-06-30
- "NOS verwelkomt terroristen!", Iranian Progressive Youth, 29 June 2010, retrieved 2010-06-29
- "Hilversum schrapt onder druk bezoek staats-tv Iran", NRC, 2 July 2010, retrieved 2010-07-02
- "Death sentence fears for Dutch-Iranian woman", Radio Netherlands Worldwide, 24 August 2010, retrieved 2010-08-25
- "Iran hangs Iranian-Dutch woman Sahra Bahrami", BBC News, 29 January 2011, retrieved 2011-01-29
- "Haal ambassadeur terug uit Iran", De Pers, 29 January 2011, retrieved 2011-01-29
- "Dutch Parliament Gives 15 Million Euro to set up a Persian TV Station", Payvand News, 22 December 2004, retrieved 2010-08-02
- "About Us", Radio Zamaneh, 27 October 2009, retrieved 2009-12-18
- "Iran boos over hulp Den Haag aan radio oppositie", NRC, 25 June 2009, retrieved 2010-06-23
- "Dutch-based Persian radio website defaced by hackers", Reuters, 31 January 2009, retrieved 2010-06-23
- "About "Persian Dutch Network"", PDN, 29 January 2010, retrieved 2011-10-03
- Ghorashi 2003, pp. 147–148
- Lindert et al. 2008, p. 578
- Ghorashi 2003, p. 150
- "Faculty of Humanities: Persian Language and Culture", Leiden University, 6 March 2010, retrieved 2010-07-29
- "Reza Abedini: The Principal Prince Claus Award of €100,000", Prince Claus Fund, 10 December 1996, retrieved 2010-07-29
- Perzië Geschiedenis van Perzië, Hermitage Amsterdam, 6 May 2008, retrieved 2010-07-29
- Ghorashi, Halleh (2002), Ways to survive, battles to win: Iranian women exiles in the Netherlands and United States, Nova Publishers, ISBN 978-1-59033-552-9
- Hessels, Thomas (2002), Iraniërs in Nederland, een profiel (PDF), The Hague: Ministry of Justice, retrieved 2009-06-01
- Ghorashi, Halleh (2003), "Iraanse vrouwen, transnationaal of nationaal? Een (de)territoriale benadering van 'thuis' in Nederland en de Verenigde Staten", Migrantenstudies 19 (3): 140–155, ISSN 0169-5169
- Hessels, Thomas (2004), "Iraniërs in Nederland", Bevolkingstrends 52 (2): 54–58, ISSN 1571-0998
- van den Bos, Matthijs; Achbari, Wahideh (2007), "Cultural migration: Networks of Iranian Organizations in the Netherlands", Migration Letters 4 (2): 171–181, ISSN 1741-8992
- Lindert, Annette; Korzilius, Hubert; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Kroon, Sjaak; Arends-Tóth, Judit (2008), "Perceived discrimination and acculturation among Iranian refugees in the Netherlands", International Journal of Intercultural Relations 32 (6): 578–588, doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.09.003
- Population by origin and generation, 1 January, The Hague: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, 11 April 2011, retrieved 2011-04-01
- Koser, Khalid (1997), "Social Networks and the Asylum Cycle: The Case of Iranians in the Netherlands", International Migration Review 31 (3): 591–611, doi:10.2307/2547287, JSTOR 2547287, PMID 12292955
- Verkuyten, M.; Nekuee, S. (1999), "Ingroup bias: the effect of self-stereotyping, identification and group threat", European Journal of Social Psychology 29 (2-3): 411–418, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199903/05)29:2/3<411::AID-EJSP952>3.0.CO;2-8, ISSN 0046-2772. A study of self-stereotyping among Iranians living in the Netherlands.
- Verkuyten, Markel; Nekuee, Shervin (2004), "Subjective Well-Being, Discrimination and Cultural Conflict: Iranians Living in The Netherlands", Social Indicators Research 47 (3): 281–306, doi:10.1023/A:1006970410593
- van den Bos, Matthijs (2005), "Relocating Dutch-Iranian Exile: On- And Off-line Dutch-Iranian Transnational Networks (And Their Comparison with Turkish-Kurdish Networks)", Annual Meeting of the Middle East Studies Association, Washington, D.C., archived from the original on 9 December 2006, retrieved 2009-06-01
- van den Bos, Matthijs; Nell, Liza (2006), "Territorial bounds to virtual space: Transnational online and offline networks of Iranian and Turkish-Kurdish immigrants in the Netherlands", Global Networks 6 (2): 201–220, doi:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2006.00141.x
- van den Bos, Matthijs (2006), "Landmarks for 'Nowhereland': Scratching the surface of transnational Dutch-Iranian hyperlink networks", Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 12 (3): 643–661, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9655.2006.00357.x
- van den Bos, Matthijs (2006), "Hyperlinked Dutch-Iranian Cyberspace", International Sociology 21 (1): 83–99, doi:10.1177/0268580906059292
- Safdar, Saba; Struthers, Ward; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter (2009), "Acculturation of Iranians in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands", Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 40 (3): 468–491, doi:10.1177/0022022108330990
- The Information Center of Persian (Iranian) Community in the Netherlands (English & Dutch)
- Radio Zamaneh website (English and Persian)