Iraqi Air Force

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Iraqi Air Force
Iraqi Air Force Emblem.svg
Founded April 22, 1931
Country  Iraq
Branch Air force
Size Approximately 14,000 personnel (2013)[1][2]
Anniversaries April 22 (Air Force Day)[3]
Equipment 418 aircraft[4]
Engagements

Anglo-Iraqi War
Six-Day War
Yom Kippur War
Iran–Iraq War
Invasion of Kuwait
Gulf War
1991 uprisings in Iraq
Iraqi no-fly zones
Iraq War
Iraqi insurgency (2011—present)

Commanders
Current
commander
Staff Lieutenant General Anwar Hamad Amin
Insignia
Fin flash Flag of Iraq.svg
Air Force Ensign Iraqi Air Force Flag.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack Su-25, Su-22
Fighter F-16IQ
Reconnaissance CH 2000, Ce 208 ISR, KA 350 ISR
Trainer Ce172, Ce 208, T-6A, Bell 206B, OH-58C, Utva Lasta 95
Transport C-130E, C-130J, An-32B, KA 350ER, Mi-17, UH-1H

The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) (Arabic: القوة الجوية العراقية; Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets. The IQAF also acts as a support force for the Iraqi Navy and the Iraqi Army and it also allows Iraq to rapidly deploy its developing Army.

The Iraqi Air Force was first founded in 1931, during British rule of Iraq with only a few pilots. Aside from a brief period during the Second World War, The Iraqi Air Force operated mostly British aircraft until the 14 July Revolution in 1958, when the new Iraqi government began increased diplomatic relationships with the Soviet Union. The air force used both Soviet and British aircraft throughout the 1950s and 1960s. When Saddam Hussein came to power in 1979, the air force grew very quickly when Iraq ordered more Soviet and French aircraft. Its peak came a few years after the long and bloody Iran-Iraq War, in 1988, when it consisted of over 950 aircraft, becoming one of the largest air forces in the region. Its downfall came during the Gulf War and continued while coalition forces enforced no-fly zones. The remains of Iraq's air force was destroyed during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Currently, the IQAF is rebuilding and receiving most of its training and aircraft from the United States.

History[edit]

The Royal Iraqi Air Force (RIrAF) considered its founding day as 22 April 1931, when the first pilots flew in from training in the United Kingdom.[3] Before the creation of the new air force, the RAF Iraq Command was in charge of all British Armed Forces elements in Iraq in the 1920s and early 1930s.[5] The RIrAF was based at the airport in the Washash neighborhood of Baghdad, and consisted of five pilots, aeronautics students trained at the RAF College Cranwell, and 32 aircraft mechanics.[3] The original five pilots were Natiq Mohammed Khalil al-Tay, Mohammed Ali Jawad, Hafdhi Aziz, Akrem Talib Mushtaq, and Musa Ali.[3] During the early years of the Royal Iraqi Air Force, it mainly received aircraft from the United Kingdom as well as Breda Ba.65 attack planes and SM-79 bombers from Italy.[5]

In the years following Iraqi independence, the Air Force was still dependent on the Royal Air Force. The Iraqi government allocated the majority of its military expenditure to the Iraqi Army and by 1936 the Royal Iraqi Air Force had only 37 pilots and 55 aircraft. The following year, the Air Force showed some growth, increasing its number of pilots to 127.[6]

1940s[edit]

The RIrAF was first used in combat against the revolts by tribes in Diwaniya and Rumaytha southern Iraq in 1934 under order of Bakr Sidqi, where it suffered its first combat loss. Its first combat against another conventional military was in the 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War when the Iraqi government made a bid for full independence following a coup by Rashid Ali against pro-British Iraqi leaders. The RIrAF was destroyed as a fighting force, resulting in an alliance with the Axis which involved Luftwaffe aircraft (painted in Iraqi markings) and Italian Regia Aeronautica aircraft assisting Iraqi ground forces. The German units were Special Staff F and Fliegerführer Irak. However losses, a lack of spares and replacements resulted in their departure, following which the coup was defeated by British forces.

A roughly 1946 order of battle for the Air Force can be found in Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II.

The RIrAF was still recovering from its destruction by the British in 1948[5] when they joined in the war against the newly created state of Israel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.[5] Even though the RIrAF now had some modern aircraft, the RIrAF played a small role in the first war against Israel. From 1948 to 1949 the RIrAF operated Avro Anson training-bombers from Jordan from where they flew a number of attacks against the Israelis.[5] Some of the Ansons were replaced by the modern Hawker Fury fighter however these aircraft flew only two missions against Israel in Iraqi markings before most were transferred to the Egyptians.[5] 14 Hawker Furies had been delivered but by June 7, 1948 only 6 remained operational.[5] Despite these early problems the RIrAF purchased more Furies, acquiring a total of 38 F.Mk.1s single seaters and 4 two-seaters.[5] which equipped numbers 1 and 7 Squadrons RIrAF. The only RIrAF Fury victory was an Israeli Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber.

1950s and early 1960s[edit]

An Iraqi Air Force De Havilland Vampire FB.52, before delivery in 1953

During the 1950s, the RIrAF was affected when the monarchy was toppled in 1958 resulting in the cessation of arms imports from western countries such as Great Britain.[5] From 1950 to 1958 most of the RIrAF aircraft were from the United Kingdom. The first jet fighters, the de Havilland Vampire of the RIrAF were delivered in 1953. The RIrAF also received de Havilland Venoms and Hawker Hunters during the mid-1950s.[5] In 1954 and 1956, 19 de Havilland Vampire jet fighters 14 ex-RAF Hawkers funded by the U.S. were delivered.[5] They also received 4 Bristol 170 Freighters in 1953.[5]

Iraqi air force roundel since its foundation in the 1930s until the 2003 invasion

During the 14 July Revolution in 1958, the King of Iraq was overthrown and the country established diplomatic and political relationships with Warsaw Pact countries, while simultaneously severing relations with western nations.[5] The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) dropped the "Royal" from its name after the revolution.[5] The Soviets were quick to supply MiG-17s, and later MiG-19 and MiG-21 fighters, as well as Ilyushin Il-28 bombers to the new Iraqi government.[5] They also received 13 Ilyushin Il-14 transports in 1959 from Poland.[citation needed] The first MiG-17s were first delivered in 1958 to replace the de Havilland Vampire.[citation needed] During the late 1960s and or early 1970s additional MiG-17 examples may have been purchased and then forwarded to either Syria or Egypt.[5]

Tom Cooper and Stefan Kuhn list the air force's squadrons in 1961 as:[7]

  • No.1 Squadron, Venom FB.Mk.1, based at Habbaniyah AB, CO Capt. A.-Mun'em Ismaeel
  • No.2 Squadron, Mi-4, based at Rashid AB, CO Maj. Wahiq Ibraheem Adham
  • No.3 Squadron, An-12B, based at Rashid AB, CO Capt. Taha Ahmad Mohammad Rashid
  • No.4 Squadron, Fury FB.Mk.11, based at Kirkuk Air Base, CO Maj. A. Latif
  • No.5 Squadron, MiG-17F, based at Rashid AB, CO Maj. Khalid Sarah Rashid
  • No.6 Squadron, Hunter, based at Habbaniyah AB, CO Capt. Hamid Shaban
  • No.7 Squadron, MiG-17F, based at Kirkuk, CO Maj. Ne'ma Abdullah Dulaimy
  • No.8 Squadron, Il-28, based at Rashid AB, CO Maj. Adnan Ameen Rashid
  • No.9 Squadron, MiG-19, in process of formation.

The IQAF received about 50 MiG-19s during the early 1960s but most of these remained in their crates and were subsequently re-delivered to Egypt and only the 6th squadron ever operated the (roughly) 18 MiG19P and missile armed MiG19PMs, which it did From Rasheed Air Base in Baghdad. Iraq also received MiG21F-13 fighters in 1962 and Tu-16 bombers after 1963.

The November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état realigned Iraq with NATO powers, and as a result, more second-hand Hawker Hunters were delivered to the IQAF.[5] For several years aircraft imports from the Communist Eastern European nations had been suspended until 1966, when MiG-21PF interceptors was purchased from the Soviet Union.[5] after the death in an aircraft accident of Abdelsalam Aref, the Iraqi president, who was then replaced by his brother.

In 1966, Assyrian Iraqi Captain Munir Redfa defected with his MiG-21F-13 to Israel who in turn gave it to the United States for evaluation under the code-name "Have Donut".[8] However by then the MiG21-F13s had been replaced by MiG21FL and PFM in the Iraqi air force's frontline units and the MiG21-F13s were being used as operational conversion trainers.

Six-Day War[edit]

During the Six-Day War, it bombed several air bases and land targets including strikes by Tu-16 bombers on Israeli airbases, where one of the striking bombers was shot down by Israelis, but the rest of the bombers returned safely. It also played a significant role in supporting Jordanian troops.[3] As well, the Iraqi Air Force had one Pakistani pilot Saiful Azam who claimed two kills of Israeli fighters over H3 in an Iraqi Hawker Hunter. Iraqi pilots in Hawker Hunters made a further five claims against Israeli planes in air combat.[5] Due to Hunters and MiG21PFMs the IQAF were successfully able to defend their air bases in western Iraq from additional Israeli attacks.[5] On the same day the IQAF also were able to break through Israeli air spaces and destroyed five Israeli aircraft in air fighting.[3]

1970s and the Yom Kippur War[edit]

Throughout this decade, the IQAF grew in size and capability, as The 20 year Treaty of friendship with the USSR signed in 1971 brought large numbers of relatively modern fighter aircraft to the air force.[citation needed] The Iraqi government was never satisfied with the Soviet supplying them and while they were purchasing modern fighters like the MiG-21 and the Sukhoi Su-20, they began persuading the French to sell Mirage F-1s fighters (which were bought) and later Jaguars (which were however never ordered).[5]

Before the Yom Kippur War, the IQAF sent 12 Hawker Hunters to Egypt where they stayed to fight; only 1 survived the war.[5] The IQAF first received their Sukhoi Su-7s in 1968; they were originally stationed in Syria. Aircraft deployed to Syria suffered heavy losses due to Israeli aircraft and SAMs.[citation needed] In addition, they were hit with friendly fire from Syrian SAMs.[citation needed] A planned attack on the 8th of October was canceled due to these heavy losses as well as disagreements with the Syrian government.[citation needed] Eventually, all aircraft besides several Sukhoi Su-7s were withdrawn from bases in Syria. During the war in October 1973, the first air strike against Israeli bases in Sinai was composed of Iraqi planes; they hit artillery sites and Israeli tanks, and they also claimed to have destroyed 21 Israeli fighters in air combat.[9] Shortly after the war, the IQAF ordered 14 Tu-22Bs and two Tu-22Us from the USSR as well as Raduga Kh-22 missiles from Soviet Union.[citation needed] By 1975, 10 Tu-22Bs and 2 Tu-22Us were delivered.[citation needed]

The 1970s also saw a series of fierce Kurdish uprisings in the north of the country against Iraq.[citation needed] With the help of the Shah of Iran, the Kurds received arms and supplies including modern SAMs as well as some Iranian soldiers.[citation needed] The IQAF suffered heavy casualties fighting the Kurds, so they began using their new Tu-22s in combat against them (using 3 tonne bombs from high altitude to avoid the Iranian HAWK SAM batteries that the Shah had set up near the Iraqi border to cover the Kurdish insurgents) as they were able to avoid a greater percentage of SAMs due to their higher bombing altitude and improved electronic countermeasures.[5] During the mid-1970s, tensions with Iran were high but was later resolved with the Algiers Treaty.[citation needed]

1980s and war with Iran [edit]

Between 1980 and the summer of 1990, the number of combat aircraft in the IQAF went from 332 to over 950.[3] Before the Iraqi invasion of Iran, the IQAF had expected 16 modern Dassault Mirage F.1EQs from France and were also in the middle of receiving a total of 240 new aircraft and helicopters from their Eastern European allies. When Iraq invaded Iran in late September 1980, the Soviets and the French stopped delivery of additional aircraft to Iraq but resumed deliveries a few months later.[10]

The IQAF had to instead fight with obsolete Su-20, MiG-21 Fishbeds and MiG-23 Floggers.[10] The MiG-21 was the main interceptor of the force while their MiG-23s were used for ground attack and interception.[citation needed] The Su-20 were pure ground attack aircraft. On the first day of the war, a formation of MiG-23s and MiG-21s raided airports and airfields of the Iranian Air Force, but the Iranian aircraft were not heavily damaged because of strong concrete hangars that housed the planes.[citation needed] In retaliation for these aerial attacks, the Iranian Air Force launched Operation Kaman 99 a day after the war was launched.

During late 1981, it was soon clear that the modern Mirage F-1s and the Soviet MiG-25s were effective against the Iranians.[10] The IQAF began to use their new Eastern weaponry which included Tu-22KD/KDP bombers, equipped with Kh-22M/MP air-to-ground missiles, MiG-25s equipped with Kh-25 air-to-ground missiles as well as Kh-25 and Kh-58 anti-radar missiles and even MiG-23BNs, equipped with Kh-29L/T missiles.[10] In 1983, to satisfy the Iraqis waiting for their upgraded Exocet-capable Mirage F-1EQ5s, Super Etendards were leased to Iraq. The Iranian gunboats and the Iranian oil tanker fleet suffered severe damage at the hand of the 5 Super Etendards equipped with Exocet anti ship missiles. One of these was lost during their 20 month combat use and 4 returned to the Aeronavale in 1985 interceptors.[10]

USS Stark listing following two hits by Iraqi Exocet missiles

While the IQAF generally played a minor role in the war against Iran, it had bombed airfields in Tehran and other Iranian cities.[3] The air force had a more successful role attacking tankers and other vessels using Exocet missiles on their French built Mirage F-1s. On May 17, 1987, an Iraqi F-1 mistakenly launched two Exocet anti-ship missiles into the American frigate USS Stark crippling the vessel and killing 37 sailors.[3]

By 1987, the air force consisted of 40,000 men, of whom about 10,000 were a part of the Air Defense Command.[3] Its main base was in Tammuz (Al Taqqadum), Al Bakr (Balad), Al Qadisiya (Al Asad), Ali Air Base, Saddam Airbase (Qayarrah West) and other major bases including Basra. The IQAF operated from 24 main operating bases and 30 dispersal bases, with nuclear-hardened shelters and extensive runways.[3]

Notable Iraqi Pilots of the Iran-Iraq War[edit]

Unlike many other nations with modern air forces, Iraq was engaged in a long and protracted war. The 8 year long conflict with Iran gave the Air Force the opportunity to develop some battle-tested and hardened fighter pilots. Though information about the IQAF is, at best, hard to access, two men stand out as the best Iraqi fighter aces.

Mohommed Rayyan, nicknamed "Sky Falcon," who flew MiG-21 MFs in 1980-81, and claimed two confirmed kills against Iranian F-5Es in 1980. With the rank of Captain, Rayyan qualified on MiG-25Ps in late 1981 and went on to claim another eight kills, two of which are confirmed, before being shot down and killed by IRIAF F-14s in 1986.[11]

Captain Omar Goben was another successful fighter pilot. While flying a MiG-21 he scored air kills against two F-5E Tiger IIs and one F-4E Phantom II in 1980. He later transferred to the MiG-23 and survived the war, but was killed in January 1991 flying a MiG-29 versus an American F-15C.[11]

1990s – Persian Gulf War and no-fly zones[edit]

In August 1990, Iraq had one of the largest air forces in the region even after the long Iran–Iraq War. The air force at that time contained more than 500 aircraft in their inventory. Theoretically, the IQAF should have been 'hardened' by the conflict with Iran, but post-war purges of the IQAF leadership and other personnel decimated the air force, as the Iraqi regime struggled to bring it back under total control.[10] Training was brought to the minimum during the whole of 1990.

The table below shows the Iraqi Air Force at the start of the Persian Gulf War, its losses, damaged aircraft, flights to Iran and remaining assets at the end of the Persian Gulf War. This is a combination of losses both in the air (23 aircraft)[12] and on the ground (227 aircraft) and exclude the helicopters and aircraft that belonged to Iraqi Army Aviation, Iraqi Navy and the Aviation wing of the Iraqi Department of Border Enforcement.[13]

Iraqi Air Force strength at start of war, losses, flights to Iran and remaining aircraft after war.[13]
Aircraft 1990 destroyed damaged to Iran survived
France Mirage F1EQ 76 23 6 24 23
France Mirage F1K (Kuwaiti) 8 2 2 0 4
USSR MiG-23BN 38 17 0 4 18
USSR Su-20 18 4 2 4 8
USSR Su-22R 10 1 0 0 9
USSR Su-22M2 24 2 6 5 11
USSR Su-22M3 16 7 0 9 0
USSR Su-22M4 28 7 0 15 6
USSR Su-24MK 30 5 0 24 1
USSR SU-25 66 31 8 7 20
USSR MiG-21/China F7 236 65 46 0 115
USSR MiG-23ML 39 14 1 7 17
USSR MiG-23MF 14 2 5 0 7
USSR MiG-23MS 15 2 4 0 9
USSR MiG-25RB 9 3 3 0 3
USSR MiG-25PDS 19 13 1 0 5
USSR MiG-29B 37 17 4 4 12
USSR MiG-23UM 21 8 0 1 12
USSR Tu-16 3 3 0 0 0
China Xian H-6 4 4 0 0 0
USSR An-26 5 0 3 0 2
USSR Il-76 19 3 1 15 0
France Dassault Falcon 20 2 0 0 2 0
France Dassault Falcon 50 3 0 0 3 0
USA Lockheed Jetstar 6 4 0 1 1
USSR MiG-25U 7 3 2 0 2
USSR Su-22-UM3 25 3 1 0 21
Czechoslovakia L-39 67 0 1 0 66
Brazil Tucano 78 1 6 0 64
Switzerland FFA AS-202 Bravo 34 5 5 0 17
Eloris trainer 12 0 0 0 12
United Kingdom Jet Provost 15 0 0 0 15
BK-117 14 1 6 0 6
France Mirage F1BQ 10 0 0 0 10
USSR MiG-29UB 4 0 0 0 4

During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the Iraqi Air Force was devastated by the United States, the United Kingdom and their allies. Most airfields were heavily struck, and in air combat Iraq was only able to obtain four confirmed kills (and 4 damaged and one probable kill), while sustaining 23 losses.[12] All of the out of service (six) Tupolev Tu-22s that Iraq possessed were destroyed by bombing at the start of Operation Desert Storm, though they had already been withdrawn from the inventory of the Iraqi Air Force and were simply used as decoys and do not appear on the operational list of lost aircraft from the Iraqi Air Force (like all other old aircraft which were used solely to deflect raids from operational assets).

The MiG-25 force (NATO reporting name 'Foxbat') recorded the first Iraqi air-to-air kill during the war. A MIG-25PDS, piloted by Lt. Zuhair Dawood of the 84th Fighter Squadron, shot down an U.S. Navy F/A-18 Hornet from VFA-81 on the first night of the war. In 2009 the Pentagon announced they had identified the remains of the pilot, U.S. Navy Captain Michael "Scott" Speicher, solving an 18-year mystery. Captain Speicher, who was a Lieutenant Commander at the time, was apparently buried by nomadic Bedouin tribesmen close to where his jet was shot down in a remote area of Anbar province.

The second air-air kill was recorded by a pilot named Jameel Sayhood on January nineteenth. Flying a MIG-29 he shot down a Royal Air Force Tornado GR.1A with R-60 missiles. The RAF aircraft serial ZA396/GE was piloted by Flight Lieutenant D J Waddington, and Flight Lieutenant R J Stewart, and crashed 51 nautical miles South-East of Tallil air base.[14]

In another incident, an Iraqi Foxbat-E eluded eight USAF F-15C Eagles, firing three missiles at a USAF EF-111 electronic warfare aircraft, forcing them to abort their mission. In yet another incident, two MiG-25's approached a pair of F-15 Eagles, fired missiles (which were evaded by the F-15s), and then out-ran the American fighters. Two more F-15s joined the pursuit, and a total of ten air-to-air missiles were fired at the Foxbats; none of which could reach them.

In an effort to demonstrate their own air offensive capability, on 24 January the Iraqis attempted to mount a strike against the major Saudi oil refinery in Abqaiq. Two Mirage F-1 fighters laden with incendiary bombs and two MiG-23s (along as fighter cover) took off from bases in Iraq. They were spotted by USAF E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft, and two Royal Saudi Air Force F-15s were sent to intercept. When the Saudis appeared the Iraqi MiGs turned tail, but the Mirages pressed on. Captain Iyad Al-Shamrani, one of the Saudi pilots maneuvered his jet behind the Mirages and shot down both aircraft. After this episode, the Iraqis made no more air efforts of their own, sending most of their jets to Iran in hopes that they might someday get their air force back. (Iran never returned the jets.)[15]

The ethnic Assyrian Air Vice Marshall Georges Sada was sacked and imprisoned by Saddam Hussain for refusing to execute prisoners of war.

During the Persian Gulf War, most Iraqi pilots and aircraft (of French & Soviet origin) fled to Iran to escape the bombing campaign because no other country would allow them sanctuary. The Iranians impounded these aircraft after the war and returned seven Su-25s in 2014, while putting the rest in the service of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force[16] – claiming them as reparations for the Iran–Iraq War. Because of this Saddam Hussein did not send the rest of his Air Force to Iran just prior to Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, instead opting to bury them in sand. Saddam Hussein, preoccupied with Iran and regional power balance, is reported to have had commented: "The Iranians are even stronger than before, they now have our Air Force."[17]

These included: Mirage F1s, Su-20 and Su-22M2/3/4 Fitters, Su-24MK Fencer-Ds, Su-25K/UBK Frogfoots, MiG-23 Floggers, MiG-29A/UB Fulcrums and a number of Il-76s, including the one-off AEW-AWACS prototype Il-76 "ADNAN 1". Also, prior to Operation Desert Storm, ten Iraqi MiG-23s were sent to Yugoslavia for servicing, but were never returned due to the Yugoslav Wars.

Abandoned Iraqi FT-7 in front of the Al Asad ATC Tower.
An Iraqi MiG-29 aircraft lies in ruins after it was destroyed by Allied forces during Operation Desert Storm.

Persian Gulf War aircraft losses claimed by the Allies[edit]

Aircraft Origin No. Shot Down No. To Iran
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 USSR 4 0
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 USSR 9 12
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 USSR 2 0
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 USSR 6 4
Dassault Mirage F-1 France 9 24
Sukhoi Su-7/17 USSR 4 0
Sukhoi Su-20 USSR 0 4
Sukhoi Su-22 USSR 2 40
Sukhoi Su-24 USSR 0 24
Sukhoi Su-25 USSR 2 7
Ilyushin Il-76 USSR 1 15
Mil Mi-8 USSR 1 0
Observation helicopter 1 0
U/I helicopter 1 0
Total Number Loss[18] 44 137

The Iraqi air force itself lists its air-to-air losses at 23 airframes[12] compared to the US claims of 44. Similarly the Allies initially acknowledged 0 losses in air combat to the Iraqi air force, and only in 1995 acknowledged one loss, and after 2003 another one loss a further two Iraqi claims and one probable are still listed by the Allies as lost to "ground fire" rather than an Iraqi fighter.

As well as the Persian Gulf war, the IQAF was also involved in the 1991 uprisings in Iraq. Alongside Army aviation Mi-8, Mi-24, Gazelle, Alouette and Puma helicopters were used to counter the attempted Shi'ite and Kurdish revolts between 1991 and 1993.

After the Gulf War, the air force consisted only of a sole SU-24 (nicknamed "waheeda" in the Iraqi airforce which translates to roughly "the lonely") and a single squadron of MiG-25s purchased from the Soviet Union in 1979, Some Mirages, MiG-23ML and SU-22s also remained in use with the MiG-29s being withdrawn from use by 1995 due to engine TBO limits and MiG-21s withdrawn due to obsolescence. During the period of sanctions that followed, the Air Force was severely restricted by no-fly zones established by the coalition and by restricted access to spare parts due to United Nations sanctions. Many aircraft were unserviceable and a few were hidden from American reconnaissance to escape potential destruction. In patrols of the no-fly zones, three Iraqi MiGs were lost. Despite several attacks from U.S. F-15s and F-14s firing AIM-54 and AIM-120 missiles at the Iraqi fighters, the Iraqi maneuvers ensured they were able to avoid any casualties in their dispute over Iraqi airspace. The last recorded air-to-air kill was on 23 December 2002, when a MiG-25 Foxbat shot down an American RQ-1 Predator.[19]

Recent information released by the DTIC containing the top-secret archives of the defunct Iraqi Airforce sheds light on the true losses and operations of the airforce during 1991.[13]

Operation Iraqi Freedom – 2003[edit]

An Iraqi MiG-25 Foxbat found buried under the sand west of Baghdad.

By 2003, Iraq's air power numbered an estimated 180, of which only about a half were flyable.[20] In late 2002, a Yugoslav weapons company provided servicing for the MiG-21s and MiG-23s, violating the UN sanctions.[20] An aviation institute in Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, supplied the engines and spare parts.[21] These however, were too late to improve the condition of Iraq's air force.

On the brink of the US led invasion, Saddam Hussein disregarded his air force's wishes to defend the country's airspace against coalition aircraft and ordered the bulk of his fighters disassembled or buried. Air Vice Marshal Abed Hamed Mowhoush was apparently the air force commander immediately prior to the war. Some were later found by US excavation forces around the Al Taqqadum and Al Asad air bases, including MiG-25s and Su-25s.[22] The IQAF proved to be totally non-existent during the invasion; a few helicopters were seen but no fighters flew to combat coalition aircraft.[23]

During the occupation phase, most of Iraq's combat aircraft (mainly MiG-23s, MiG-25s and Su-25s) were found by American and Australian forces in poor condition at several air bases throughout the country while others were discovered buried.[24] Most of the IQAF's aircraft were destroyed during and after the invasion, and all remaining equipment was junked or scrapped in the immediate aftermath of the war. None of the aircraft acquired during Saddam's time remained in service.[18]

Post-Invasion to present[edit]

A U.S. Airman conducts post-flight checks on an IQAF C-130 Hercules.

The Iraqi Air Force, like all Iraqi forces after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, is being rebuilt as part of the overall program to build a new Iraqi defense force.[25] The newly created air force consisted only of 35 people in 2004 when it began operations.[26]

In December 2004, the Iraqi ministry of defense signed two contracts with the Polish defence consortium BUMAR.[27] The first contract, worth 132 million USD, was for the delivery of 20 PZL W-3 Sokół helicopters and the training of 10 Iraqi pilots and 25 maintenance personnel.[27] They were intended to be delivered by November 2005, but in April 2005 the company charged with fulfilling the contract announced the delivery would not go ahead as planned, because the delivery schedule proposed by PZL Swidnik was not good enough.[27] As a result only 2 were delivered in 2005 for testing.

The second contract, worth 105 million USD, consisted of supplying the Iraqi air force with 24 second-hand Russian-made, re-worked Mi-17 (Hips).[27] As of 2008, 8 have been delivered and 2 more are on their way. The fleet of Hips is already operational. The Mi17s are reported to have some attack capability.[28]

An Iraqi Air Force C-130 Hercules on the flightline at Al Basrah International Airport on May 1, 2005.

The Air Force primarily serves as a light reconnaissance and transport operation.[29] On March 4, 2007, the IQAF carried out its first medical evacuation in the city of Baghdad when an injured police officer was airlifted to a hospital.[30]

In 2007, the USAF's Second Air Force, part of Air Education and Training Command, was given responsibility to provide curricula and advice to the Iraqi Air Force as it stands up its own technical training and branch specific basic training among others. This mission is known as "CAFTT" for Coalition Air Forces Training Team.[25][29]

During the 2008 Battle of Basra the Iraqi Air Force planned, executed, and monitored 104 missions in support of Iraqi ground security forces in Basra during Operation Charge of the Knights in the Basra area between March 25 and April 1.[31]

In 2009 the first of several Iraqi officers completed their flying training at RAF Cranwell, a development with echos of the Iraqi Air Force's early beginnings.[32]

On April 29, 2009 the first 3 of an unspecified number of Beech 350 Super King Air light transport airplanes arrived at London-Luton airport on delivery to the Iraqi Air Force.

On August 30, 2009 the Iraq Defense Ministry revealed that they had discovered 19 Soviet Mig-21 and MiG-23 aircraft that had been stored in Serbia. Saddam Hussein sent the 19 jet fighters to Serbia for repairs in the 1980s, during the Iran-Iraq war but was unable to bring them back after sanctions had been imposed on his country. The Serbian Government promised to make two of the aircraft available "for immediate use," and would proceed to restore the remaining aircraft on a rush basis.[33]

An Iraqi Air Force Cessna 172 lands at Kirkuk Air Base.
An Iraqi Air Force Cessna 208 flies over Iraq on a training sortie.
An Iraqi Air Force Commander at an F-16 training session in Arizona.

It was reported in December 2007 that a deal had been reached between the Iraqi government and Serbia for the sale of arms and other military equipment including 36 Lasta 95 basic trainers.[34] It is speculated that Iraq may buy 50 Aérospatiale Gazelle attack helicopters from France.[35] In July 2008, Iraq had formally requested an order for 24 light attack and reconnaissance helicopters. The aircraft would either be the U.S. Army's new ARH-70 helicopter or the more popular MH-6 Little Bird.[36]

On October 14, 2008, Aviation Week reported that two Hellfire-equipped Cessna 208Bs were spotted at an ATK facility in Meacham Airport, Fort Worth, Texas. The Iraqi air force was due to receive 3 armed Cessna Caravans in December 2008, with two more to be delivered in 2009. This represents the first IQAF strike capability since the start of the war in 2003.[37]

The Iraqi government announced in November 2008 that the Iraqi Air Force would purchase 108 aircraft through 2011. Ultimately the force will consist of up to 516 total aircraft by 2015, then 550 total aircraft by 2018. Specific types being purchased included Eurocopter EC 635 and Bell ARH-70 type helicopters. Additionally, 24 T-6 Texan II aircraft would be purchased for the light attack role.[38]

Over the summer of 2008, the Defense Department announced that the Iraqi government wanted to order more than 400 armored vehicles and other equipment worth up to $3 billion, and six C-130J transport planes, worth up to $1.5 billion.[39]

Iraq was due to buy 28 Czech-made L-159 training jets valued at $1 billion (770 million euros) Twenty-four of the planes would be new, while four would come from Czech army surplus stocks. Later the deal fell through. However afterwards the Czech aviation company Aero Vodochody reportedly agreed to sell 12 of the jets, although the deal wasn't yet approved by both countries' governments.[40]

Iraq's air space was unguarded from December 2011 until 18 F-16 jet fighters and their pilots would be ready two years later.[41] November 2011, there are currently six Iraqi F-16 candidates in the U.S. for different phases of pilot training. These students will form the core of Iraq's future F-16 force,[42] which is equipped with the Northrop AN/APG-68v9 radar.[43]

The first Iraqi F-16 Block 52 made its inaugural flight in May 2014.[44] It was officially delivered to the IQAF in a ceremony at Fort Worth, Texas on 5 June 2014.[45]

On 26 June 2014, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki said that they "should have sought to buy other jet fighters like British, French and Russian", describing the order of American F-16s as "long-winded" and "deluded".[46] The IQAF instead acquired second-hand jet aircraft from Russia and Belarus to combat ISIS militants in Northern Iraq, with the first batch arriving on 28 June.[46][47] The Iraqi Ministry of Defense confirmed the purchase of 5 Russian Sukhoi Su-25, uploading a video on its YouTube channel of their arrival.[48] The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force also delivered seven Su-25s on 1 July, the majority of which were ex-Iraqi aircraft that fled to Iran during the Gulf War.[49]

Air Force commanders[edit]

Order of battle[edit]

The Iraqi Air Force consists of nine squadrons and one training wing:[59]

Aircraft inventory[edit]

Current inventory[edit]

Antonov An-32B of the Iraqi Air Force in February 2011.
Members of the Iraqi Army board an Iraqi C-130 Hercules in Basra.
Aircraft[63] Origin Type Versions In service[64] Notes
Fighter Aircraft
Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon  USA Multirole Fighter Aircraft
Conversion Trainer
F-16IQ (C Block 52)
F-16IQ (D Block 52)
0 (30)
0 (6)[65]
Initial payment for 18 aircraft made September 2011. Follow on order for 18 additional aircraft (36 total) announced December 2011.[66]


First 24 to be delivered from the middle of 2014.[67] All 36 to be delivered by 2018. However due to ISIS offensive the US may refuse delivery and cancel the deal altogether.[68]

Sukhoi Su-25  Russia Close air support Su-25 12 all the fighter jets have been delivered from 28 June 2014 to 1 July 2014,[69] followed by another seven on July 1.[49] Expected to enter service in "three to four days".
Helicopters
Mil Mi-35  Russia Attack and transports Helicopter Mi-35M 6 Deliveries start October 2013
Bell 206 JetRanger  USA Utility helicopter 206B 10
Bell UH-1 Iroquois  USA Utility helicopter 15 Used for medivac/search and rescue
Bell 412 EP  USA Utility helicopter 0 (12) Used for search and rescue
Bell OH-58C Kiowa  USA Training helicopter 9 On loan from US Army
Mil Mi-28  Russia Attack Helicopter Mi-28NE 15 The first aircraft delivered July 1, 2014. Deliveries should be completed in 2016 [70]
Mi-17/Mi-171  Russia Medium Utility 60 A number have been shot down by ISIS[citation needed]
Bell 407  USA Armed Scout 30
Eurocopter EC635  EU Light Multi-Purpose Helicopter EC635-T2 24
SA342  France Utility Helicopter 6
Trainer Aircraft
Cessna 208 Caravan  USA Advanced Training TC208 5
Cessna 172  USA Basic Training 172R 18
Hawker Beechcraft T-6 Texan II  USA Advanced Training T-6A 15 Option for up to 20 aircraft.
Hawker Beechcraft T-6 Texan II  USA Light attack AT-6C (0)24 Contract signed in 2014. USA to provide training.
PAC Super Mushshak  Pakistan Basic Training/Light Attack 0(20) Contract signed in 2014. PAF to provide training.
Aero L-159 Alca  Czech Republic Light attack / Trainer L-159T1 0 (12)
KAI T-50 Golden Eagle  South Korea Attack and Advanced trainer T-50IQ 0(24)

ordered by Iraqi Government in Dec 2013.[71]

Lasta 95  Serbia Intermediate Trainer/Light Attack 20[72] Delivered between Dec. 2010 and Mar. 2011.
Transport Aircraft
Antonov An-32  Ukraine medium transport An-32B 6 All 6 aircraft delivered as of October 2012.[73]
Beechcraft King Air 350  USA light/ VIP transport 350ER 14 All operated by 87th sqn.
Lockheed C-130 Hercules  USA tactical airlift/ transport C-130E
C-130J-30
3
6
Reconnaissance Aircraft
Beechcraft King Air 350  USA surveillance and reconnaissance 350ISR 11
Cessna 208 Caravan  USA ground surveillance
strike
RC208
AC208
5
3
3 armed with Hellfire missiles.
SAMA CH2000  Jordan liaison 16
Seabird SBL-360 Seeker  Jordan Observation/ liaison SB7L-360A 2 Both aircraft upgraded with Westar reconnaissance sensors and returned to service in 2009.
UAV
RQ-11 Raven  USA Light / Short range reconnaissance 12 [74]
Anti-Aircraft
Name Origin Quantity Notes
Pantsir-S1  Russia 0 42-50 on order[75]
AN/TWQ-1 Avenger  USA 10 40 on order[76]
FIM-92 Stinger  USA 681
MIM-23 Hawk  USA 0 6 on order upgraded to Hawk XXI[77]

Possible sales and acquisitions[edit]

  • The Iraqi government is seeking the return of 8-12 MiG-21s sent to Yugoslavia in 1989; they will need to be refurbished if they are returned to service.[78][79]

On 19 November 2009, the US DSCA announced a formal request from the Iraqi government to buy up to 27 light and medium utility helicopters, in a deal worth up to $1.2 billion.[citation needed] The Government of Iraq has requested a possible sale in a couple of categories.[citation needed]

The Light Utility Observation category already fits the EC635, which reportedly has an option for additional helicopters in the contract. Candidates in these requests include:

In the medium utility category, candidates include:

However these could be delayed, for reasons that go beyond the standard 30-day Congressional blocking period. A drop in global oil prices from their recent $100+/bbl highs has affected Iraq's budgets, and delayed a number of existing military purchases. This combination of budget issues, and a rigid agreement concerning the end of America's combat presence in Iraq, has left the Iraqi government in a position where it is unlikely to be able to properly enforce the military mandates it will assume. American and Iraqi personnel have been assessing what is possible by 2011–2012, and what might be done. Prioritization of requests will be especially tight in this environment.

Throughout 2010 and 2011, the Iraqi government and the MoI announced intentions to buy Dassault Mirage F1 and F-16C Block 52 fighters.[80][81][82] Whereby the Iraqi cabinet specified a sum of $900m as a first installment of $3b worth of aircraft, equipment, spare parts, and training.

The deal to buy the F-16 fighters seemed to teeter as the GoI reversed its decision on the 12th of February and wanted to divert the initial sum of $900m to economic reconstruction.[66][83] However, on the 12 July 2011, the GoI re-iterated its interest in the F-16s due to the pending withdrawal of American forces from Iraq, and some sources indicate that the GoI is interested in doubling the number of fighters to be purchased to 36.[84][85][86]

There were talks to buy Czech made combat aircraft Aero L-159 ALCA with possible sale or oil trade of either 24 or 36 aircraft from Czech Air Force surplus.[87][88][89] The purchase was not done and as of 2013, the Czech Republic has not been able to secure its first export deal for its L-159 Alca fighter aircraft.[90] The deal for 24/36 Czech L-159 aircraft was cancelled; instead South Korea supersonic KAI T50 have been chosen (24 aircraft). But in April 2014, Iraq decided to buy 12 second-hand (conserved) L-159 for $200 million.[91]

In 2012, Iraq made the announcement of purchases worth $4.2–$5 billion of Russian weapons. As of October 9, 30 Mi-28N Havoc helicopters and 42-50 Pantsir-S1 air defense systems have been ordered.[92] After agreeing with the deal, the Iraqi government reportedly called off the deal due to corruption concerns.[93] The reported cancellation was soon said to be false, and the deals are going ahead.[94] In May 2013, Iraq reopened its investigation of corruption in the deal.[95]

On the fifth of June 2014 following the ISIS invasion Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki announced a purchase of more than a dozen Sukhoi Su-25s from Russia worth up to $500 million (368 million euros).[96][97] According to a report from the International Institute of Strategic Studies the tail numbers seen on of some of the new Sukhoi ground attack aircraft match those that had been delivered to Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps Aerospace Force who has agreed to aid Iraq against the terrorist ISIS invasion.[98]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Iraqi Air Force executes over 100 missions in support of Operation Charge of the Knights -Sale-". Salem-News.com (2008). Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  2. ^ Zavis, Alexandra (2008-09-07). "Iraq's air force taking to the skies again – Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Iraqi Air Force". Global security IQAF. globalsecurity.org. 2005. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  4. ^ http://www.globalfirepower.com/country-military-strength-detail.asp?country_id=iraq
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Cooper, Tom (2003). "Iraqi Air Force Since 1948 Part 1". Air Combat Information Group. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  6. ^ a b Al-Marashi, Ibrahim; Salama, Sammy (2008). Iraq’s Armed Forces. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 0-415-40078-3. 
  7. ^ Tom Cooper and Stefan Kuhn, Kuwait Emergency, Air Combat Information Group, accessed January 2014.
  8. ^ "Stealing a Soviet MiG". Jewish virtual library (2005). Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  9. ^ "IRAQ". Arabs At War. 1. University of Nebraska Press. 2002 [1997]. p. 167. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Cooper, Tom (2003). "Iraqi Air Force Since 1948 Part 2". Air Combat Information Group. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  11. ^ a b David Nicolle; Tom Cooper (2004). Arab MiG-19 and MiG-21 Units in Combat. Osprey Publishing. p. 82. 
  12. ^ a b c ("The First Night" by Cooper/Sadik (IAPR, Vol.26))
  13. ^ a b c Iraqi Perspectives Project Phase II. Um Al-Ma'arik (The Mother of All Battles): Operational and Strategic Insights from an Iraqi Perspective, Volume 1 (Revised May 2008)
  14. ^ Aviatsya i Vremya 5/2005 , Ahmad Sadik & Diego Fernando Zampini " The third day (and beyond...)" pages 45-46
  15. ^ "The Persian Gulf War – The Air Campaign". indepthinfo.com. 2005. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  16. ^ "Iran 'makes own warplane'". BBC News. 1999-06-29. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  17. ^ Woods, Kevin; Michael R. Pease; Mark E. Stout; Williamson Murray; James G. Lacey (2006). The Iraqi Perspective Report. Naval Institute Press. p. 40. ISBN 1-59114-457-4. 
  18. ^ a b "Iraqi Air Force Equipment – Introduction". globalsecurity.org. 2005. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  19. ^ "Pilotless Warriors Soar To Success". CBS News.com. 2003-04-25. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  20. ^ a b "Analysis: Iraq's air force". BBC News. 2003-03-17. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  21. ^ Air Force News – Air Force Times HOME
  22. ^ "Iraqi Air Force". Scramble on the Web. Retrieved 2010-03-19. 
  23. ^ "Scramble on the Web – Iraqi Air Force". Scramble. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  24. ^ a b "U.S. Airmen Help Iraqi Air Force Fly". Air Force News. March 29, 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  25. ^ a b c d "(New) Iraqi Air Force (IqAF) and Iraqi Army Air Corps". MILAVIA. 2007-05-01. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  26. ^ "Iraq to Have Some Air Strike Capability, U.S. Says". Reuters. 2007-12-06. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  27. ^ a b Schloeffel, Senior Airman Eric (2008-06-24). "Iraqi airmen reach maintenance goals, keep fleet soaring". 506th Air Expeditionary Group Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  28. ^ Kent, Cpl. Jess (March 22, 2007). "Iraqi Air Force performs first MEDEVAC". Blackanthem Military News. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  29. ^ Iraqi Air Force News Story
  30. ^ http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/TrainingAndAdventure/IraqiPilotGraduatesFromRafCranwell.htm[dead link]
  31. ^ Remnants of Iraq Air Force Are Found
  32. ^ Limun.hr – Iraq to buy 35 airplanes from Serbia
  33. ^ Iraqi Security Forces Order of Battle: July 2008 Update – The Long War Journal
  34. ^ Iraq Seeks Armed Reconnaissance Helicopters
  35. ^ "New Iraqi Airborne Strike Capability". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  36. ^ http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2008/11/plans_for_iraqi_air.php
  37. ^ Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters
  38. ^ Tag Archive "Aero L-159", iraq-businessnews.com, last updated 10 April 2014
  39. ^ Ziezulewicz, Geoff. "USAF general: Iraqi air defenses to have two-year 'gap'." Stars and Stripes, 7 November 2011.
  40. ^ http://archive.is/20120719080603/http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123280298
  41. ^ http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/Iraq-Seeks-F-16-Fighters-05057/?utm_campaign=newsletter&utm_source=did&utm_medium=textlink&utm_term=The%20New%20Iraqi%20Air%20Force:%20F-16IQ%20Block%2052%20Fighters&utm_campaign=newsletter&utm_source=did&utm_content=Offshore+Patrol+Cutter+%7C+LCS+Costs%2C+Plans+%7C+F-16s+for+Iraq%2C+Oman%2C+Thailand&date_sent=2012-03-16+14%3A16%3A34
  42. ^ PICTURE: Iraqi Air Force F-16 Flies For First Time, Defense News, 7 May 2014, retrieved 14 June 2014 
  43. ^ Iraq Accepts First Lockheed Martin F-16 Aircraft, Lockheed Martin, 5 June 2014, retrieved 14 June 2014 
  44. ^ a b Iraqi PM Nouri Maliki: Russian jets will turn tide, BBC News, 26 Jun 2014, retrieved 27 Jun 2014 
  45. ^ http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20140626/1013733742.html#ixzz35lfIKhEK
  46. ^ http://arabic.cnn.com/middleeast/2014/06/29/urgent-iraq-russia-jetfighters?hpt=continous
  47. ^ a b Jonathan Marcus (2 Jul 2014), 'Iranian attack jets deployed' to help Iraq fight Isis, BBC News, retrieved 2 July 2014 
  48. ^ Lyman, Robert (2006). Iraq 1941: The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad. Campaign. Oxford, New York: Osprey Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 1-84176-991-6. 
  49. ^ Sada, 55.
  50. ^ Sada, 64.
  51. ^ The Air War In The Persian Gulf
  52. ^ Sada, 127.
  53. ^ "FOXNews.com – U.S. Forces Capture Iraqi Air Force Commander". FOXNews.com. 2003-06-14. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  54. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/iraq-aircrew-053005.htm
  55. ^ a b "Ambassador Hosts Iraqi Air Force Commander U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Warsaw, Poland". U.S. Diplomatic Mission. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  56. ^ http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2010/09/u-s-air-war-soars-in-post-combat-iraq/ U.S. Air War Soars in 'Post-Combat' Iraq
  57. ^ a b http://home.comcast.net/~djyae/site/?/page/Iraq_Order_of_Battle
  58. ^ a b c d "Iraqi Air Force". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  59. ^ "Iraqi air force takes flight with help from U.S. Airmen". U.S. Air Force. 2007-03-29. Archived from the original on 2012-07-29. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  60. ^ mnf-iraq.com
  61. ^ http://www.longwarjournal.org/multimedia/OOBpage15-Equipment.pdf[verification needed]
  62. ^ World Air Forces 2013 - Flightglobal.com, pg 18-19, December 11, 2012
  63. ^ Iraq regains fighter power with F-16IQ delivery - Flightglobal.com, 5 June 2014
  64. ^ a b Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters, Defense Industry Daily, LLC in association with Watershed Publishing
  65. ^ "Lockheed Martin delivered the first of 36 F-16 Block 52 aircraft to the Iraqi Air Force". June 7, 2014. 
  66. ^ Iraq says signs contract for 18 F-16 fighters - Reuters.com, October 18, 2012
  67. ^ "The arrival of first batch of the aircraft Sakhuy 25". Iraq Ministry of Defense (in Arabic). 2014-06-28. Retrieved 30 June 2014. "the arrival of the first batchl of Russian combat aircraft type Sakhuy 25 (5) into Iraqi territory under contract with the Russian ministry, which will contribute to increasing the combat capability of the Air Force and the rest of the forms of the armed forces to eliminate terrorism." 
  68. ^ http://itar-tass.com/politika/1291652
  69. ^ "Korea Aerospace Industries has signed the contract with Iraq for exporting 24 T-50 jet trainer aircraft". December 12, 2013. 
  70. ^ Serbian MoD visit
  71. ^ Antonov Aircraft 'Halts Work' on Iraqi Contract | Iraq Business News
  72. ^ Iraqi Security Forces Order of Battle 2010: 02/03
  73. ^ http://www.armyrecognition.com/october_2012_new_army_military_defence_industry_uk/russia_will_deliver_30_mi-28ne_attack_helicopters_50_air_defense_systems_pantsir-s1_to_iraq_0910125.html
  74. ^ http://www.almadapress.com/ar/NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=18139.html
  75. ^ http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/iraqs-new-integrated-air-defense-system-016046/
  76. ^ Iraq to fetch MiG fighter planes from Serbia (AFP) – Aug 29, 2009
  77. ^ "Saddam's Lost MiGs", AirForces Monthly, March 2010
  78. ^ France Offers To Sell Iraq Mirage Fighter Jets - Defence News
  79. ^ Iraqi Cabinet Approves US Fighter Jet Deal - Iraq Business News
  80. ^ قرارات الجلسة السادسة بتاريخ 26/1/2011
  81. ^ Menas Associates: Iraq: F-16 deal shelved
  82. ^ Iraq reportedly in talks to buy 36 US F-16 fighter jets in a deal worth billions
  83. ^ Iraq Wants to Double its F-16 Buy (or Does It?)
  84. ^ Iraq looking to buy F-16 fighters – Arabian Aerospace
  85. ^ Aero Vodochody boss optimistic about Iraq L-159 decision
  86. ^ Czechs ready to trade L-159 fighters for Iraqi oil | Czech Position
  87. ^ http://www.en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20110524/164189099.html
  88. ^ "Blow dealt to hopes for L-159s". Prague Post. June 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  89. ^ [1] reuters.com
  90. ^ Iraq is Buying Russian Weapons Again - Defenseindustrydaily.com
  91. ^ "Iraq cancels $4.2bn Russian arms deal over 'corruption'". BBC News. 2012-11-10. 
  92. ^ Iraq to go ahead with billion-dollar Russian arms deal - Globalpost.com, November 10, 2012
  93. ^ Iraq Reopens Russian Arms Deal Probe - Rian.ru, May 21, 2013
  94. ^ http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/140629/iraq-receives-russian-jets-it-takes-fight-militants-0
  95. ^ http://www.thejournal.ie/su-25-russian-jets-iraq-insurgency-1544373-Jun2014/
  96. ^ http://www.defensenews.com/article/20140702/DEFREG04/307020018/

References[edit]

  • Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness 1948–91, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln/London, 2002
  • Sada, Georges; Black, J N (2006). Saddam's Secrets. Integrity Media Europe. ISBN 1-59145-504-9. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Sean Boyle, 'Iraqi boasts air defence network,' Jane's Intelligence Review, June 2002, p. 2-4
  • Craig Caffrey, 'Labour pains: born-again air forces test their new wings,' Jane's International Defence Review, September 2011, 68-74.