Iraqi Turkmens

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Iraqi Turkmens
Flag used by Iraqi Turkmen
Total population
567,000 or 9% of the total Iraqi population(According to the 1957 census- considered to be the last reliable census that permitted the minority to register)[1][2][3][4][5]

Recent estimates vary between 500,000 to 3,000,000 (see demographics)
Regions with significant populations
Turkmeneli
Kirkuk  · Arbil  · Tal Afar  · Mosul[6]
Languages
Azerbaijani language[7][8] or a dialect transitional to Ottoman Turkish;[9]
also Arabic  · Kurdish
Religion
Sunni Islam and Shia Islam[10][11]
Related ethnic groups
Turks  · Azerbaijanis  · Syrian Turkmens
Footnotes
a The Iraqi government in its 1957 national census claimed there were 136,800 Turks in Iraq. However, the revised figure of 567,000 was issued by the Iraqi government after the 1958 revolution. The Iraqi government admitted that the minorities population was actually more than 400% from the previous year's total.[2][12][13]

The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Iraqi Turkmans), Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (Azerbaijani: Iraq Türkmanları/Iraq Türkləri) are the ethnic kin of the Turks and the third largest ethnic group in Iraq[14][15] behind pan-ethnic Arabs and Kurds. They mainly reside in northern Iraq and share close cultural ties with Turkey[16] and linguistic ties with South Azeri.

The Iraqi Turkmens are the descendants of various waves of Turkic migration to Mesopotamia dating from the 7th century until Ottoman rule. The first wave of migration dates back to the 7th century when some 5,000 Turkmen soldiers were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad;[17][18] however, most of today's descendants of these first migrants have been assimilated into the local Arab population.[19] The second wave of migrants were the Turks of the Great Seljuq Empire;[20] finally, the third wave, and largest number of Turkmen migrants into Iraq arose during the Ottoman Empire.[20] With the conquest of Iraq by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534, followed by Sultan Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, a large influx of Turks settled down in the region.[18][10] Thus, most of today's Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of the Ottoman soldiers, traders and civil servants who were brought into Iraq during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[21][22][10][20]

Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmen wanted Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet and for them to become part of an expanded Turkish state.[23][24] However, due to the end of the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen found themselves increasingly discriminated against by policies of successive regimes, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1923, 1947, 1959 and in 1979 when the Ba’th Party increasingly discriminated against the community.[23] Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq (alongside the Arabs and Kurds) in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status.[23]

Claims of their population range between 500,000 to 3 million, regardless of this uncertainty, it is generally accepted that the Iraqi Turks are the third-largest ethnic group in Iraq.[6][25][26][27] According to the 1957 census, which is recognized as the last reliable census, as later censuses were reflections of the Arabization policies of the Ba’ath regime,[28] Arabs formed the largest ethnicity followed by Kurds (13%) and Iraqi Turkmen (9%).[29]

The Iraqi Turkmens predominantly live in the north of Iraq, especially in Tal Afar, Mosul, Arbil, Altunkupri, Kirkuk, and Baghdad.[30]

History[edit]

The presence of Turkic peoples in Iraq first began in the seventh century when approximately 2,000 Oghuz Turks were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad.[19] However, it was the wider migration of the Oghuz Turks towards Anatolia which took place at the end of the ninth century that established a substantial Iraqi Turkmen presence.[17] Successive waves of immigration continued under the rule of the Seljuk Turks who assumed positions of military and administrative responsibilities in the Seljuk Empire. Furthermore, with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the conquest of northern Iraq by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534, followed by Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, resulted in the largest number of Turkish immigration into northern Iraq.[31][20]

Early settlement[edit]

The first wave of Turkmen in Iraq occurred in the seventh century when some 5,000 Turkmen soldiers who were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad.[17] During the subsequent Abbassid era, thousands more Turkmen warriors were brought into Iraq; however, the number of Turkmen who had settled in Iraq were not significant, as a result, the first wave of Turkmen became assimilated into the local Arab population.[19]

Seljuk era (1055–1194)[edit]

See also: Seljuk Empire

The second wave of Turkmen to descend on Iraq were the Turks of the Great Seljuq Empire.[20] Large scale migration of the Turkmen in Iraq occurred in 1055 with the invasion of Sultan Tuğrul Bey, the second ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, who intended to repair the holy road to Mecca. For the next 150 years, the Seljuk Turks placed large Turkmen communities along the most valuable routes of northern Iraq, especially Tel Afar, Arbil, Kirkuk, and Mandali, which is now identified by the modern community as Turkmeneli.[32]

Ottoman era (1534–1918)[edit]

Suleiman the Magnificent defeated the Safavids on December 31, 1534, gaining Baghdad and, later, southern Iraq. Throughout the Ottoman reign, the Ottomans encouraged Turkish migration along northern Iraq.[20]

The third wave, and largest number, of Turkmen migrants into Iraq arose during the Ottoman Empire.[20] By the first half of the sixteenth century the Ottomans had begun their expansion into Iraq, waging wars against their arch rival, the Persian Safavids.[33] In 1534, under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, Mosul was sufficiently secure within the Ottoman Empire and became the chief province (eyalet) responsible for all other administrative districts in the region.[34] The Ottomans encouraged migration from Anatolia and the settlement of immigrant Turkmen along northern Iraq, religious scholars were also brought in to preach Hanafi (Sunni) Islam.[34] With loyal Turkmen inhabiting the area, the Ottomans were able to maintain a safe route through to the southern provinces of Mesopotamia.[20] Following the conquest, Kirkuk came firmly under Turkish control and was referred to as "Gökyurt",[35] it is this period in history whereby modern Iraqi Turkmen claim association with Anatolia and the Turkish state.[35]

After defeating the Safavids on December 31, 1534, Suleiman entered Baghdad and set about reconstructing the physical infrastructure in the province and ordered the construction of a dam in Karbala and major water projects in and around the city’s countryside.[36] Once the new governor was appointed, the town was to be composed of 1,000 foot soldiers and another 1,000 cavalry.[37] However, war broke out after 89 years of peace and the city was besieged and finally conquered by Abbas the Great in 1624. The Persians ruled the city until 1638 when a massive Ottoman force, led by Sultan Murad IV, recaptured the city.[34] In 1639, the Treaty of Zuhab was signed that gave the Ottomans control over Iraq and ended the military conflict between the two empires.[38] Thus, more Turks arrived with the army of Sultan Murad IV in 1638 following the capture of Baghdad whilst others came even later with other notable Ottoman figures.[35][39]

Modern era (1918–present)[edit]

Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmen wanted Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet and for them to become part of an expanded state;[23] this is because, under the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen enjoyed a relatively trouble-free existence as the administrative and business classes.[23] However, due to the demise of the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen participated in elections for the Constituent Assembly; the purpose of these elections was to formalise the 1922 treaty with Britain and obtain support for the drafting of a constitution and the passing of the 1923 Electoral law.[40] The Iraqi Turkmen made their participation in the electoral process conditional that the preservation of the Turkish character in Kirkuk's administration and the recognition of Turkish as the liwa's official language.[40] Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq, alongside the Arabs and Kurds, in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status.[23]

Demography[edit]

Population[edit]

Official statistics[edit]

The Iraqi Turkmen are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq.[41][42] According to the 1957 Iraqi census, which is considered to be the last reliable census in Iraq, there was 567,000 Turks out of a total population of 6.3 million, forming 9% of the total Iraqi population.[1][3][4][5] However, due to the undemocratic environment, their number has always been underestimated and has long been a point of controversy. For example, in the 1957 census, the Iraqi government first claimed that there was 136,800 Turks in Iraq. However, the revised figure of 567,000 was issued after the 1958 revolution when the Iraqi government admitted that the Iraqi Turkmens population was actually more than 400% from the previous year's total.[2] Subsequent censuses, in 1967, 1977, 1987 and 1997, are all considered highly unreliable, due to suspicions of regime manipulation.[21] The 1997 census states that there was 600,000 Iraqi Turkmen[26] out of a total population of 22,017,983,[43] forming 2.72% of the total Iraqi population; however, this census only allowed its citizens to indicate belonging to one of two ethnicities, Arab or Kurd, this meant that many Iraqi Turkmens identified themselves as Arabs (the Kurds not being a desirable ethnic group in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq), thereby skewing the true number of Iraqi Turkmen.[21]

Estimated population[edit]

An Iraqi Turkmen protest in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Today, the figure mostly referred to by Kurdish groups, alongside some Western scholars, is that the Iraqi Turkmen make up 2–3% of the Iraqi population, or approximately 500,000–800,000;[11] however, not all Western scholars accept this view, for example, in 2004 Scott Taylor suggested that the Iraqi Turkmen accounted for 2,080,000 of Iraq's 25 million inhabitants[2] whilst Patrick Clawson has stated that the Iraqi Turkmen make up about 9% of the total population.[42] Furthermore, international organizations such as the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization has stated that the Iraqi Turkmen community is 3 million or 13% of the Iraqi population.[44][45] Iraqi Turkmen claim that their total population is over 3 million.[46][47] They mainly live in an area called Turkmeneli, which stretches from the northwest to the east at the middle of Iraq. They consider their capital city to be Kirkuk.[41]

Areas of settlement[edit]

The Iraqi Turkmen community stretches from Talafar in the northwest to Badra and al-Aziziyya in the al-Kut province in mid-eastern Iraq.[45] Their strongest presence is in northern Iraq, near Kirkuk, Mosul and Arbil.[6] The 1957 census determined that those who declared their mother tongue as "Turkish" made up close to 40% of the population in the City of Kirkuk,[46][48] which made up the majority of the population. Hence, Kirkuk is regarded as the heart of the Iraqi Turkmen community.[46] The second-largest Iraqi Turkmen city is Tel Afar were they make up 95% of the inhabitants.[49] According to the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, at least 180,000 Iraqi Turkmen currently live in the city of Kirkuk; there is also at least 250,000 living in Arbil, 300,000 in Baghdad, 500,000 living in Mosul, and 227,000 in the Talafar district. The community also constitute a considerable part of the population of Badra in al-Kut province.[45] However, the once mainly Turkoman cities of the Diyala Province and Kifri have been heavily Kurdified and Arabified.[45]

Diaspora[edit]

Most Iraqi Turkmen migrate to Turkey followed by Germany, Denmark, and Sweden.[50] Smaller communities have been formed in Canada, the United States, Australia,[50] Greece,[51] and the United Kingdom.[52]

Culture[edit]

An Iraqi Turkmen girl

Language[edit]

The dialect spoken by most Iraqi Turkmens is considered either South Azeri[53][54] or intermediate between that and Anatolian Turkish,[9] and is close to the dialects of Diyarbakır and Urfa in south-eastern Turkey.[55] Many Iraqi Turkmens are bilingual or trilingual, Arabic is acquired through the mass media and through education at school whilst Kurdish is acquired in their neighbourhoods and through marriage.[9]

Anatolian Turkish has long been the prestige dialect among Iraqi Turkmen and has exerted a profound historical influence on their dialect, to the extent that Iraqi Turkmen grammar differs sharply from that of other varieties of Azeri.[55] Under the 1925 constitution, the use of Anatolian Turkish in schools, government offices and the media was allowed. Modern Turkish influence remained strong until the Arabic language became the new official language in the 1930s, and a degree of Turkmen–Turkish diglossia is still observable.[56] Restrictions on the Turkish language began in 1972 and intensified under Saddam Hussein's regime.[6][57] Currently, Anatolian Turkish is used as the formal written language. In 1997, the Iraqi Turkoman Congress adopted a Declaration of Principles, Article Three of which states the following:

The official written language of the Turkmans is Istanbul Turkish, and its alphabet is the new Latin alphabet.[58][59]

The Iraqi Turkmen dialect is often called "Turkoman",[60] "Turkmenelian"[41] or "Turkmen",[9] but should not be confused with the Turkmen language spoken in Turkmenistan.[61]

Religion[edit]

The majority of the Iraqi Turkmen community adhere to Islam and are divided into two sectors: Sunni (about 45%) and Shiite (about 55%).[10][11]

Discrimination[edit]

The position of the Iraqi Turkmens has changed from being administrative and business classes of the Ottoman Empire to an increasingly discriminated minority.[23] Since the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the Iraqi Turkmen have been victims of several massacres, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1959. Furthermore, under the Ba’th party, discrimination against the Iraqi Turkmens increased, with several leaders being executed in 1979[23] as well as the Iraqi Turkmen community being victims of Arabization policies by the state, and Kurdification by Kurds seeking to push them forcibly out of their homeland.[62] Thus, they have suffered from various degrees of suppression and assimilation that ranged from political persecution and exile to terror and ethnic cleansing. Despite being recognized in the 1925 constitution as a constitutive entity, the Iraqi Turkmens were later denied this status; hence, cultural rights were gradually taken away and activists were sent to exile.[23]

Massacres[edit]

Massacre of 4 May 1924[edit]

In 1924, the Iraqi Turkmen were seen as a disloyal remnant of the Ottoman Empire, with a neutral tie to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's new Turkish nationalist ideology emerging in the Republic of Turkey.[63] Therefore, the Iraqi Turkmens living in the region of Kirkuk posed a threat to the stability of Iraq, particularly as they did not support the ascendancy of King Faisal I to the throne.[63] The Iraqi Turkmens were targeted by the British in collaboration with other Iraqi elements, of these, the most willing to subjugate the Iraqi Turkmens were the Iraq Levies—troops recruited from the Assyrian community that had sought refuge in Iraq from the Hakkari region of Turkey.[63] The spark for the conflict had been a dispute between a Levi soldier and an Iraqi Turkmen shopkeeper, which was enough for the British to allow the Levies to attack the Iraqi Turkmens, resulting in the massacre of some 200 people.[63]

Kirkuk massacre of 1959[edit]

The Kirkuk massacre of 1959 came about due to the Iraqi government allowing the Iraqi Communist Party, which in Kirkuk was largely Kurdish, to target the Iraqi Turkmens.[23][64] With the appointment of Maarouf Barzinji, a Kurd, as the mayor of Kirkuk in July 1959, tensions rose following the 14 July revolution celebrations, with animosity in the city polarizing rapidly between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmens. On 14 July 1959, fights broke out between the Iraqi Turkmen and Kurds, leaving some 20 Iraqi Turkmens dead.[65] Furthermore, on 15 July 1959, Kurdish soldiers of the Fourth Brigade of the Iraqi army mortared Iraqi Turkmen residential areas, destroying 120 houses.[65][66] Order was restored on 17 July by military units from Baghdad. The Iraqi government referred to the incident as a "massacre"[67] and stated that between 31 and 79 Iraqi Turkmen were killed and some 130 injured.[65]

Assimilation Campaigns[edit]

Arabization[edit]

Turks protesting in Amsterdam, the banner reads: 'Kirkuk is an Iraqi city with Turkmen characteristics'.

In 1980, Saddam Hussein’s government adopted a policy of assimilation of its minorities. Due to government relocation programs, thousands of Iraqi Turkmen were relocated from their traditional homelands in northern Iraq and replaced by Arabs, in an effort to Arabize the region.[68] Furthermore, Iraqi Turkmen villages and towns were destroyed to make way for Arab migrants, who were promised free land and financial incentives. For example, the Ba’th regime recognised that the city of Kirkuk was historically an Iraqi Turkmen city and remained firmly in its cultural orientation.[64] Thus, the first wave of Arabization saw Arab families move from the centre and south of Iraq into Kirkuk to work in the expanding oil industry. Although the Iraqi Turkmens were not actively forced out, new Arab quarters were established in the city and the overall demographic balance of the city changed as the Arab migrations continued.[64]

Several presidential decrees and directives from state security and intelligence organizations indicate that the Iraqi Turkmens were a particular focus of attention during the assimilation process during the Ba’th regime. For example, the Iraqi Military Intelligence issued directive 1559 on 6 May 1980 ordering the deportation of Iraqi Turkmen officials from Kirkuk, issuing the following instructions: "identify the places where Turkmen officials are working in governmental offices [in order] to deport them to other governorates in order to disperse them and prevent them from concentrating in this governorate [Kirkuk]".[69] In addition, on 30 October 1981, the Revolution’s Command Council issued decree 1391, which authorized the deportation of Iraqi Turkmens from Kiruk with paragraph 13 noting that "this directive is specially aimed at Turkmen and Kurdish officials and workers who are living in Kirkuk".[69]

As primary victims of these Arabization policies, the Iraqi Turkmen suffered from land expropriation and job discrimination, and therefore would register themselves as "Arabs" in order to avoid discrimination.[70] Thus, ethnic cleansing was an element of the Ba’thist policy aimed at reducing the influence of the Iraqi Turkmens in northern Iraq's Kirkuk.[71] Those Iraqi Turkmens who remained in cities such as Kirkuk were subject to continued assimilation policies;[71] school names, neighbourhoods, villages, streets, markets and even mosques with names of Turkic origin were changed to names that emanated from the Ba’th Party or from Arab heroes.[71] Moreover, many Iraqi Turkmen villages and neighbourhoods in Kirkuk were simply demolished, particularly in the 1990s.[71]

Kurdification[edit]

The formation of the Kurdistan Region in 1991 created high animosity between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmen, resulting in Iraqi Turkmens being victims of Kurdification. The Kurds claimed de facto sovereignty over land still believed by Iraqi Turkmens to be rightfully theirs. For the Iraqi Turkmen, their identity is deeply inculcated as the rightful inheritors of the region as a legacy as the Ottoman Empire.[72] Thus, the Kurdistan Region has constituted a threat to the survival of the Iraqi Turkmen through strategies aimed at eradicating or assimilating them.[72] The largest concentration of Iraqi Turkmens tended to be in the de facto capital of Erbil, a city which they had assumed prominent administrative and economic positions. Thus, they increasingly came into dispute and often conflict with the ruling powers of the city, which after 1996 was the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Massoud Barzani.[73]

In the 1990s, tension between the Kurds and Iraqi Turkmens inflamed as the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan were institutionalized as the political hegemons of the region and, from the perspective of the Iraqi Turkmens, sought to marginalize them from the positions of authority and to subsume their culture with an all-pervading Kurdistani identity. With the support of Ankara, a new political front of Turkmen parties, the Iraqi Turkmen Front, was formed on 24 April 1995.[73] The relationship between the Iraqi Turkmen Front and the Kurdistan Democratic Party was tense and deteriorated as the decade went on. Iraqi Turkmens associated with the Iraqi Turkmen Front complained about harassment by Kurdish security forces.[73] In March 2000, the Human Rights Watch reported that the Kurdistan Democratic Party's security attacked the offices of the Iraqi Turkmen Front in Erbil, killing two guards, following a lengthy period of disputes between the two parties.[73] In 2002, the Kurdistan Democratic Party created an Iraqi Turkmen political organization, the Turkmen National Association, that supported the further institutionalization of the Kurdistan Region. This was viewed by pro-ITF Iraqi Turkmens as a deliberate attempt to "buy off" Iraqi Turkmen opposition and break their bonds with Ankara.[74] Promoted by the KDP as the "true voice" of the Iraqi Turkmens, the Turkmen National Association has a pro-Kurdistani stance and has effectively wakened the ITF as the sole representative voice of the Iraqi Turkmens.[74]

Present status[edit]

Although some have been able to preserve their language, the Iraqi Turkmen today are being rapidly assimilated into the general population and are no longer tribally organized.[75]

Iraqi Turkmen have also emerged as a key political force in the controversy over the future status of northern Iraq and the Kurdish Autonomous Region. The government of Turkey has helped fund such political organizations as the Iraqi Turkmen Front, which opposes Iraqi federalism and in particular the proposed annexation of Kirkuk to the Kurdistan Regional Government.[76]

Tensions between the two groups over Kirkuk, however, have slowly died out and on January 30, 2006, the President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, said that the "Kurds are working on a plan to give Iraqi Turkmen autonomy in areas where they are a majority in the new constitution they're drafting for the Kurdistan Region of Iraq."[77] However, it never happened and the policies of Kurdification by KDP and PUK after 2003 (with non-Kurds being pressed to move) have prompted serious inter-ethnic problems.[78]

Between ten and twelve Turkmen individuals were elected to the transitional National Assembly of Iraq in January 2005, including five on the United Iraqi Alliance list, three from the Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITF), and either two or four from the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan.[79][80]

In the December 2005 elections, between five and seven Turkmen candidates were elected to the Council of Representatives. This included one candidate from the ITF (its leader Sadettin Ergec), two or four from the United Iraqi Alliance, one from the Iraqi Accord Front and one from the Kurdistani Alliance.[80][81]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]