Iraqi Biradari

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Iraqi biradri/Sunni Iraqis/عراقی برادری
Total population
approx. 35,000 (2011 census)
Regions with significant populations
Kanpur, Karachi, Chennai, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Kolkata
Languages
Arabic, Urdu, Hindi, Bhojpuri, Awadhi
Religion
Sunni Islam (Salafism)
Related ethnic groups
Bani Tamim, Thaheem

Iraqi Biradari, (عراقی برادری) or Iraqi Tamimis a Sunni Muslim community in India. They are a sub-tribe (federation or qabila) of Bani Tamim, most of them belonging to Banu Sa'd clan ('ashira) who migrated to Sindh, Pakistan and further to Eastern Uttar Pradesh. They migrated during 712 AD with Muhammad bin Qasim during Arab Invasion of Sindh. Genetic tests have yield their chromosomal Haplogroup as Haplogroup J-P209 primarily found in Middle East and concentrated in Central Arabian Peninsula.

A child belonging to Iraqi biradri from Kolkata. Iraqis are among the richest Muslim communities in Kolkata

History and origin[edit]

According to Wink, a historian, Umayyad interest in the Sindh was galvanized by the operation of the Meds and others. Meds (a tribe of Scythians living in Sindh) had pirated upon Sassanid shipping in the past, from the mouth of the Tigris to the Sri Lankan coast, in their bawarij and now were able to prey on Arab shipping from their bases at Kutch, Debal and Kathiawar. At the time, Sindh was the wild frontier region of al-Hind, inhabited mostly by semi-nomadic tribes whose activities disturbed much of the Western Indian Ocean.Muslim sources insist that it was these persistent activities along increasingly important Indian trade routes by Debal pirates and others which forced the Arabs to subjugate the area, in order to control the seaports and maritime routes of which Sindh was the nucleus, as well as, the overland passage. During Hajjaj's governorship, the Mids of Debal in one of their raids had kidnapped Muslim women travelling from Sri Lanka to Arabia, thus providing a casus belli to the rising power of the Umayyad Caliphate that enabled them to gain a foothold in the Makran, Balochistan and Sindh regions

Also cited as a reason for this campaign was the policy of providing refuge to Sassanids fleeing the Arab advance and to Arab rebels from the Umayyad consolidation of their rule. All the above reason have their own importance for a first attack on Sindh. but immediate causes for the conquest of Sindh was the plunder of the gifts of Ceylon's ruler to Hijjaj and attack on Arab ships that were carrying the orphans and widows of Muslim soldiers who died in Jihaad against Africa. These Arab were imprisoned later on by the Governor Deebal Partaab Raye. A letter written by the an escaped girl from the Arab that are put in the prison of the Partab Raye. She asked Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf for help. When Hijjaj asked Dahir for release of prisoners and compensation, the later refused on the ground that he had no control over those. Hajjaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for this great expedition in 711 A.D. It was during this time when Spain and many parts of Africa and Central Asia were brought under the Muslim rule; and war was continue so Muslims were not in a position to start a new expedition. The only reason of this conquest was to rescue pilgrims that were taken captive by Hindu governor. Along with Muhammad bin Qasim thousands of people from Bani Tamim of Southern Iraq settled in Sindh after migration. Further in 16th century about a thousand people further migrated to Eastern UP for trade reasons and named themselves as Iraqi to be separated from Shaikh group of India. Thus Iraqi biradri became a sub-tribe of Bani Tamim. The Biradari population practices endogamy according to family Shijra; first cousin marriages are not very common. Recent genetic studies suggest that Pure Clans of Iraqi Biradri or Clans mentioned in various Shijrah books of Iraqi biradri are primarily inhabitant of Iraq.

Geographic distribution[edit]

Iraqis
Place Percent
Karachi
  
5%
Kanpur
  
25%
Kolkata
  
13%
Purvanchal
  
40%
Bihar
  
2%
Assam
  
5%
Others†
  
10%
Distribution of religions
Includes Middle East, England, USA, Nepal, Bangladesh, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Bhopal and Jodhpur (<1%).

Sunni Iraqis live in Pakistan and India. In Pakistan, Iraqis live in high concentrations in the city of Karachi. 0.2% of Muslims in Purvanchal are Iraqis. In Kanpur about two percent of Muslims are Iraqis and in Kolkata about 0.5% of Muslims are Iraqis. The below list provides the fake and mixed Iraqi concentrated areas:- FAKE IRAQUIS are mainly Rankia/Kalal/Arakh/Araqi commonly residing in Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattigarh and Mirzapur Distt of UP. They are converts from Hindu Kalals and totally different from Tamimi Iraqis. MIXED IRAQUIS OF HYBRID ORIGIN are mainly found in Nepal, Northern Bihar, Shahganj, Ramnagar, Lar, Jaunpur Distt, some parts of Basti Distt and Maharajganj Distt. They can also be found in regions where no large amount of Iraqis live.


Eminent people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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